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THE CANADIAN 



ENTOMOLOGIST. 



VOLUME IV. 



mUzb h^ the ^eb. C J. S. 56ctktine, M. 1., 

Head Master of Trinity College School, Port Hope, Ont. 



ASSISTE» BY 

W. SAUNDERS, London, Ont; | E. B. REED, Barrister-at-Law, London, Ont 

and J. M, DENTON, Lnndon, Ont 



■3 "I els / '.■Ir c 
LONDON : 

PRINTED BY THE FREE PRESS STEAM PRINTING COMPANY, RICHMOND ST. 

1872 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME. 



ANDREWS, W. V. . . New York. 

BELL, PROF. J.J Belleville, Ont. 

BETHUNE, REV. C. J. S., The Editor Port Hope, Ont. 

BOWLES, J. G Montreal, P. Q. 

CAULFIELD, F. B Montreal, P. Q. 

CHAMBERS, V. T Covington, Ky. 

CLEMENTI, REV. V., B. A North Douro, Ont. 

COUPER, WM Montreal, P. Q. 

CRESSON, E. T Philadelphia, Pa. 

CROFT, PROF. H. H Toronto, Ont. 

DODGE, CHA§. R Washington, D. C. 

DODGE, G. M Ohio, III. 

EDWARDS, W. H Coalburgh, W. Va. 

GROTE, AUG. R Demopolis, Ala. 

HOWARD, WM. R Forsyth, Mo. 

MEAD, THEODORE L New York. 

MINOT, C. S Boston, Mass. 

MURTFELDT, MARY E Kirkwood,St. Louis, Mo. 

PETTIT, J Grimsby, Ont. 

REED, E. B ; London, Ont. 

RILEY, PROF. C. V St. Louis, Mo. 

ROGERS, R. V Kingston, Ont. 

SAUNDERS, W London, Ont. 

SCUDDER, S. H Boston, Mass. 

THOMAS, PROF. C Washington, D. C. 

WALKER, FRANCIS London, Eng. 



6 V 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., JANUARY, 1872. No. i 



TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN— GREETING 



A Happy New Year to you, kindly reader ; may the days of this year 
roll joyously along for you wherever you may be, whether your lot is 
cast in our peaceful Canadian land, or in the sea-girt isles of the old home, 
whether in the midst of the matured Republic of our cousins across the 
lakes, or in the latest democracy of /a belle France, whether on the shores 
of the stormy Atlantic, or on the borders of the broad Pacific, whatever 
your nationality, whatever your position in life, we look upon you as one 
of our brotherhood of Entomologists, and we include you amongst our 
friends. 

For the fourth time we are commencing a new volume, and we do so 
with feelings of more than ordinary satisfaction, inasmuch as we have 
at length fulfilled all our promises by the punctual completion of the pre 
ceding volume within the appointed year. The third volume we com- 
menced with the issue of its first number in April last, and the second in 
June ; when we began the preparation of the third in the following month, 
our task seemed hopeless as regarded the performance of it before the close 
of the year. However, by the regular issue of double numbers, we were 
enabled to complete the volume of two hundred and forty pages, with its 
forty illustrations, by the end of 187 1, and now we start fair with the new 
year, and hope to be regular and punctual throughout it. While we thus 
congratulate ourselves upon our satisfactory position, we must by no 
means omit to mention — it would be ungrateful in us indeed to do so — 
how much we are indebted to others, and how highly we esteem the kind 
assistance that has been so freely afforded us. Especially we would offer 
our thanks to those friends outside of our own country whose contribu- 
tions have added so much to the value of our pages. May we beg that 
they will lay us under still further obligations by the continuance of their 
favours during the coming year, and that others also will not hesitate to 
follow their example ? 

While we thank our many friends for their kind assistance and encour- 
agement, we regret that we have to mete out a word of censure for others 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



whose forgetfulness — we do not for a moment think it is anything more — 
threatens to cause us some Httle embarassment. We allude to those who 
have been for some time receiving this publication, but who have ne- 
glected to return the quid pro quo, and to send us the trifling amount oi 
their subscription. It is true that we are aided by a grant from the Legis- 
lature of the Province, but that aid alone is not sufficient to m.eet all our 
requirements and necessary expenses, nor indeed is that aid intended by 
any means to relieve our subscribers from the obligation they have 
incurred by receiving our publication. We feel that during the past year 
we have furnished a volume of our journal that is fully worth the dollar 
charged to all who take even the slightest interest in Entomology, and 
that , we may with justice call upon all, in arrears to send in at once the 
amount of their indebtedness, as well as their subscription for the forth- 
coming volume. By a resolution of the Council, a copy of this number is 
sent to all whose names are on our subscription list, but no further num- 
bers will be sent to any one whose dues are not paid before the issue of 
the second number on the 15th of February next. We regret exceedingly 
to be obliged to make this statement, but we trust that the allusion to 
these matters now, will so effectually remind our readers of their duty 
towards us that we shall never require to refer to the subject again. The 
Canadian Entomologist will (D.V.) be issued regularly on the 15th of 
each month, and will consist of twenty pages as heretofore. 



ii 00 



TERMS OP MEMBERSHIP. 

Ordinary Members, being subscribers residing within the Domin- 
ion of Canada 

Associate Members residing in the United States (U. S. c'y-). ... i 25 
" '■ " Great Britain 5s. stg. 

All fees are payable in advance in January of each year. 

Extra copies loc. each; $1 per doz. 

The Entomologist is mailed to all members of the Entomological 
Society of Ontario, free. 

For scale of Advertisements, see page 20. 

All business communications and remittances should be addressed to E. 
Baynes Reed, (Sec.-Treas. Ent. Society of Ontario), London, Ont. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE WHEAT WIRE-WORM. 

Agrioies mancus Say. 

BY J. PETTIT, GRIMSBY, ONTARIO. 

For many years an insect, familiarly known among farmers as " the 
wire -worm," has committed ravages from time to time among the wheat 
crops in different parts of the Province. As the history of this insect has 
not hitherto been traced out, I am happy to be able to make public, 
through the pages of the Canadian Entomologist, the following descrip- 
tion of its larval and pupal states. 

In the fall of the year 1870, so unusual an amount of damage was 
inflicted upon the wheat crops in this vicinity by this wire-worm that I was 
led to try and breed it to the perfect state, with a view to ascertaining 
what species it was the larva of By digging about the roots of the wheat 
plants, I obtained about a dozen specimens, which were placed with a few 
wheat plants in a large flov/er-pot, where they were kept supplied with 
food by planting occasionally a small quantity of wheat. With the first 
cold weather they ceased to eat, and v/ere then placed in a sheltered situ- 
ation until the return of warm weather in spring, when they were restored 
to the breeding cage. They soon gave evidence of being alive, and 
possessing unimpaired appetites ; their rapid consumption of the wheat 
plants rendered it necessary to renew the supply quite as often as before. 
They were fed in this way until the month of July, when my absence from 
home caused them to be neglected ; on my return there was not a vestige 
of food left. Thinking that the worms had probably died of starvation, I 
paid no further attention to them until the 26th of 'August, when on 
removing a part of the earth from the pot, a pupa was disclosed, and on 
the 3rd of September the first imago appeared, which proved to be a 
specimen of Agriotes mancus Say. As only two more specimens came out 
during the remainder of September, I turned the earth out of the pot and 
carefully examined it ; the inspection revealed seven specimens of the 
imago in the little cells in which they had transformed, and one larva. 

Among the larvœ collected, I had noticed one less than half the size of 
the others, and evidently much younger, which would account for the one 
still in the larval state. It had attained, however, a size fully equal to that 
of the others when first brought in during the previous autumn ; and 
hence I have formed the opinion that the larval state does not last longer 
than three years. This opinion has since been strengthened by the obser- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



vation of a large- number of larvae, which appeared readily separable into 
two sizes, corresponding to those originally collected for breeding. AVest- 
wood, in his " Modern Classification of Insects," (vol. i, 238), states 
respecting the larva of an allied species (A. obscurus) which, in Europe» 
feeds upon the roots of wheat, rye, oats, barley and grass, that according to 
Bjerkander, a Swedish Naturalist, " it is Jive years in arriving at the perfect 
state." Curtis, in his " Farm Insects," (page 161) makes a similar state- 
ment upon the same authority, and adds that those which he had himself 
feeding for ten or twelve months scarcely increased in size during the 
time. As already stated, however, I am of opinion that our species is by 
no means so long lived, but that it attains maturity in three years — a 
period quite long enough, the agriculturist must think, in which to inflict 
damage upon the crops. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Horn, of Philadelphia, I am enabled to 
offer to the readers of the Canadian Entomologist the following careful 
description of the larva and pupa which, together with the accompanying 
illustrations, he has prepared from examples that I furnished him. I need 
only add that I have now another batch of larvœ in breeding, and that I 
hope next season to be able to afford some further information on points 
of interest connected with the life history of this destructive insect. The 
imago is described in Say's Entomological books, vol. ii., p. m. 








"^^^ 




^-^ 




1. Larva much magnified, (natural size 



I ) la. Transverse section. 2. Under-side of 



head and first three or thoracic segments, showing the parts of mouth and tlie position of first 
spiracle. 3. Margin of front; a Position of antennw. 4. Mandible. 5. Leg. 6. Terminal 
segment beneath. 7. Pupa, upper and under view. The line between represents the natural size. 

LARVA (Fig. I.) Form. — Elongate subcylindrical, dorsal surface more 
convex. 

Tegument. — Partially corneous, colour testaceous. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Surface.- — Smooth shining, with very few wrinkles and a few short erect 
hairs arranged as follows : two on each side of the middle of dorsum, two 
near the anterior and two near the posterior margin of each segment, 
lg.terally ; beneath, one near the anterior and posterior margins on each 
side ; last segment with more numerous setce. 

Cephalic segment one fourth broader than long, sides straight slightly 
convergent anteriorly, feebly convex and slightly impressed on each side 
near the anterior margin. Mouth directed anteriorly. Ocelli none (fig. 2). 

Antennes short, three jointed, conical, last joint more slender than the 
preceding ; placed at side of head behind the mandibles (fig. 2><^). 

Superior cephalic plate prominent at middle, middle lobe itself trilobed, 
its lateral lobes acute, middle lobe tridentate. 

Alaiidibles robust corneous, moderately arcuate bifid at tip and with a 
short acute tooth at middle of inner edge (fig. 4). 

Mentuni elongate, slightly broader in front, less corneous in front ; 
palpigerous pieces connate, together subquadrate ; palpi short two jointed, 
basal joint as wide as long, last joint longer conical. 

Maxillœ composed of an elongate basilar piece on each side of men- 
tum : palpi four jointed ; outer lobe two jointed, terminal joint obtusely 
pointed at tip ; inner lobe feebly developed, concealed behind the outer 
lobe and ciliate on its inner margin. 

Prothoracic segment subquadrate. 

Meso and Metathoracic segments shorter than the preceding, and 
together scarcely longer. 

Abdomen, of nine segments, gradually increasing in length, ist slightly 
longer than metatnorax, last segment nearly as long as the two preceding, 
elongate oval and obtusely pointed at tip. Segments beneath as above 
last segment subtriangular, base straight, sides rounded. 

Prosternum truncate in front, oval gradually narrowing behind, leaving 
a triangular membranous space between it and the inflexed portion of the 
sides in front of the coxae. 

Coxœ. Anterior narrowly separated, middle more and hinder still 
more separated. 

Legs short. Coxœ conical with a double row of short corneous spines 
in front. Femur and tibia short, armed beneath with two rows of spinules 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



and each with one or two long setas. Tarsal piece cylindrical, longer than 
tibia, with double row of spinules beneath, and a long moderately arcuate 
claw (fig. 5). 

Spiracles. Nine pairs. First pair on the inflexed portion of the meso- 
thoracic segment slightly in front of the coxse. The remaining spiracles 
are placed on the sides of the abdominal segments nearer the anterior 
margin. 

The last abdominal segment (ng. 6, underside) has near its basal 
margin on each side a deep pit of oval form. These are certainly not 
spiracles, being very much larger and of different construction. Their 
appearance leads me to suspect them of being glandular fossae, but of 
what use or why so large comparatively, I am unable to decide. 

PUPA (fig. 7). The pupa resembles the imago in many of its charac- 
ters, being however about one fourth longer and in the abdominal region 
more slender. The only dift'erences oi mom.ent being the following : — 

Thorax at each angle v/ith a stout bristle-like appendage more slender 
towards the tip, about a sixteenth of an inch long. That at the anterior 
angle is supported on a small papilla, the posterior being prolonged from 
the tip of the angle. Terminal abdominal segment above subquadrate, 
emarginate at tip, angles acute and divergent, beneath with a deep sinuous 
groove on each side and a median shallower groove. 

Abdomen above and beneath of nine segments, the first very narrow 
distinctly visible above, beneath visible only at the sides ; second slightly 
broader, beneath nearly entirely concealed. The remaining segments are 
distinctly visible both above and beneath, the distal angles being slightly 
prominent, giving the sides of the abdomen a dentate appearance. 

In assuming the perfect state, the abdomen loses apparently two seg- 
ments above and four beneath. These are accounted for in the following 
way : The first two ventral segments are obliterated, the terminal contains 
the genital apparatus which, with the preceding segment, is retracted and 
becomes concealed. The penultimate segment is thus the sixth of the 
imago which is frequently visible by dissection. The first two dorsal 
segments of the pupa remain in the imago, while the last two are lost as 
indicated above. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KY. 



Continued from Vol. III., page 224. 
GRACILLARIA. 

The species of this genus bear some resemblance — especially the smaller 
species — to Lithocolletis ; but they may be distinguished by the attitude 
in repose in most species, and by the developed maxillary palpi in all. 
They usually sit (especially the larger species, for I have not observed it 
in some of the smaller ones), with the anterior part of the body elevated 
upon .the anterior and middle legs, whilst the posterior legs are applied to 
the sides of the abdomen, the apex of which touches the surface upon 
which they rest. In some of the smaller species, the maxillary palpi are 
small, and sometimes almost concealed by the labial palpi. This is the 
case in Gradllaria robmiella (Pareciopa robinicUa Clemens j, and G. Icspe-^ 
dezcefoliella (P. lespedezafoliella Clem.), upon which Dr. Clemens erected 
the genus Pareciopa, as not having any visible maxillary palpi. I have 
found the maxillary palpi distinct, though small, in G. robmiella. G. 
lespedezœfoliclla I have not seen ; but from Dr. Clemens' description, it is 
very closely allied to G. robiniella, and no doubt has the same structure. 

But the genus is by no means a homogeneous nor a distinctly limited 
one. The species differ in many respects as to stmcture, as well as style 
ot pattern of ornamentation, and habits of larvae and pupee. 

The genus Coriscium was erected to include certain species having the 
second joint of the labial palpi tufted. But, as Mr. Stain ton has well 
remarked, there is considerable variation among the species in this re- 
spect, and the genus seems to pass almost insensibly into Gradllaria. 
The only material point of difference between Gradllaria and Pareciopa 
was the supposed absence of maxillary palpi in the latter genus, and that 
was a mistake. 

Herrich-Schaffer divides the genus, constructing a new genus, Euspil- 
aptéryx, for the smaller species, (and in which no doubt he would have 
included the Pareciopa of Dr. Clemens), but which does not seem to me 
to be at all a natural division. And lastly, Zeller divides the genus into 
two sections, in one of which the discal cell gives , off nine veins to the 
margin, whilst in the other it gives off only eight veins. This appears to 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



me to be the best division which has been attempted ; but the number of 
species is not yet large enough to make its division necessary as a matter 
of convenience, and therefore it appears to me best to let it stand until the 
study of a large number of species in all stages of growth shall make a 
natural division possible. 

The species differ in the size of the labial palpi as well as in their 
clothing. In some, the vertex is very slightly roughened, shewing an 
approach to Or?iix \ and in some, the scales at the sides of the vertex 
project over the base of the antennee, almost forming small tufts. 

There is also considerable difference in the larval habits of the difier- 
ent species. Some, perhaps^ do not mine leaves at any period of their 
lives, or for a very short period, if at all. Others mine them only for a 
short period. When leaving the mine, they become external feeders, rolling" 
the leaves of their food plants into various forms. Others again are 
miners during their whole larval existence, and of these, some never leave 
their first mine until they do so to become pupae, whilst others frequently 
leave their old mine to construct a new one. Some pupate under a dense 
but semi-transparent silken coverlet or web, whilst others make a small 
silken cocoon or nidus, and one species known to me pupates in the mine. 

In such a genus, it is worse than useless to encumber science with a 
multitude of generic names until a sufficient study of many species has 
made a natural division practicable, or at least until the accumulation of 
species makes an artificial division necessary. 

I. Gracillaria robi7iieUa. 

Paredopa rohiniella Clemens. Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., i86j, p. 4. 

Dr. Clemens erects this genus for his P. IcspedezœfolieUa, in the Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., i860, p. 2og, and afterwards describes this species 
as above stated. Graciilaj'ia (Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., i86j, page ç), as 
limited by him, is Zeller's section A, in which nine veins are given off from 
the discal cell. This insect belongs to the division in which there are only 
eight, and its neuration only differs from that of G. salicifoliella, n. sp., in 
having one of the veins, from the apex of the cell, furcate near its origin, 
whilst G. salicifoliella has it furcate at its origin, and slightly bent. Nor is 
the head any more tufted than in Salicifoliella, and some other Gracillaria 
which have long loose scales on the vertex. As before stated. Dr. Clemens 
was mistaken in the statement that the maxillary palpi are not visible, and 
it is therefore as clearly a Gracillaria as any of the other small species 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



belonging to Zeller's section with eight veinlets. It mines the leaves of 
the Locust (Robinia pseudacacia and R. hispida), and of %'arious species of 
Desmodiu7n. (Dr. Clemens was acquainted with the larva mining Desmo- 
diiim, but supposed it to be the larva of his P. lespedezœfoliella. I have, 
however, bred robmiella from it). Like many other larvae of Graciliaria, 
it frequently leaves an old mine to construct a new one. The mine is 
pale yellowish, is usually on the midrib, with lateral branches running 
out from it. I am not acquainted with any Gracillaria which makes a 
similar mine, but scarcely any two species make mines alike. When the 
larva is disturbed, it conceals itself on the midrib. Gracillaria pavoniella, 
according to Stainton, (Nat. His. Tin., vol. 8, p. i86), has the same habit 
It pupates in a small 7iidus on some object on the ground. 

The imago is dark golden-brown, almost black, with three oblique 
silvery costal streaks, and the sa??ie immber of dorsal ones opposite the spaces 
between the costal ones ; and a transverse narrow silvery line beginning 
on the costa, within the cilige, near the tip. Head white. 

P. lespedezœfoliella, which must also be a Gracillaria, seems, from Dr. 
Clemens' description, to differ from this species mainly in having only two 
costal streaks, and in having all of the streaks situated a little differently. 
Alar ex. less than ^ inch. G. rohiniella occurs at Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
Pennsylvania. Kentucky. New Orleans. 

Dr. Clemens says that he always found the mines untenanted when 
the leaves were mined by Lithocolletis robiniella. Such has not been the 
result of my observations. On the contrary, I have found the larvse in 
the mines of both species, and also those of Z. ornatella in their mines, 
at all times from the middle of July until November, many of all these 
species being still in the larval state when the leaves fall. And nothing 
is more common than to find two, and, very, frequently, three of these 
different species mining the same leaflet at the same time ; and, late in 
the season, Depressaria pseudacaciella, and an unknown larva, may be 
found as intruders in the same mines. And as heretofore stated, I 
find, during the latter part of summer and in the fall, this species and 
the two species of Lithocolletis in all their stages — larva, pupa, and imago 
— at the same time. 

Gracillaria etipatoriella. N. sp. 

This species mines the leaves of Eupatorium age?-atoides on the under 
side, the lower cuticle becoming wrinkled. The larvae were found in the 
mines in July. They frequently leave old mines and make new ones. 



10 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The larva is greenish, with dark green contents, but just before becoming 
a pupa, it changes color, becoming bright crimson. It pupates in a small 
nidus on the ground. 

I am able to describe the imago only from a specimen which emerged 
from the nidus, but was unable to rupture the pupal envelope, which I 
■removed after its death. In this specimen, the head and thorax appeared 
to be white with a blackish spot on the labial palpi, and a wide longitu- 
dinal blackish streak on the thorax. The wings are shining dark brown 
or black, with purplish reflections, with a dorsal basal white streak ending 
in a white spot nearly opposite, but a little behind which, is a small costal 
white streak, behind which again is a long oblique costal white streak 
reaching almost to the dorsal margin. There is another costal white 
streak just before the cilise. Alar ex. a little more than y^ inch. The 
colours and their arrangement do not differ very greatly, therefore, from 
Dr. Clemens' two species of Paredopa above mentioned. Kentucky. 

Gracillaria planiaginisella. N. sp. 

In this species the labial palpi, which are very long, have the second 
joint not tufted, but clothed below with long loose scales. They are white, 
with a golden brown stripe beginning on the apex of the second joint 
beneath, and extending along the under side of the third to the apex. 
Maxillary palpi white, tipped with brownish. Antennae pale brownish, 
iridiscent ; face opalescent ; vertex brownish golden with a silvery white 
stripe on each side extending back over the sides of the thorax, which is 
brownish golden. Anterior wings brownish golden or deep red orange, 
according to the light, with a longitudinal median white streak near the 
base, but not touching it, in some specimens ; in others reaching the base, 
and seeming to be a continuation of the white lateral thoracic streaks. 
Four costal and three dorsal silvery white (in some lights bright metallic) 
streaks, each of which is dark margined on both sides and around the 
apex, and the dark margins slightly powdered posteriorly on the 
disc, those of the third and fourth costal, and second and third 
dorsal, being confluent with each other and with the brownish portion 
of the apical part of the wing. The first costal is at about the basal 
fourth, is the largest, is a little oblique, and produced along the costa 
towards, but not to, the base. The first dorsal opposite the space 
between the first and second costal ; the second and third dorsal 
nearly opposite the third and fourth costal respectively; the second 
and third costal a little oblique backwards ; the fourth costal and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. II 

the third dorsal a little oblique forwards ; the third dorsal and the fourth 
costal are in the ciliae. There is a silvery white apical spot. The dorso- 
apical portion suffused with brown : costal and dorsal cilise brown : apical 
cilise silvery white, with a dark brown oblique streak (hook). Hinder 
marginal line at the base of the ciliae brown. Under surface and legs 
silvery or opalescent, stteaked and banded with golden brown. Alar ex. 
scarcely yi inch. 

It belongs to Zeller's section A, having nine veinlets given off from the 
discal cell ; has the " hook " in the apical ciliée ; the scales of the vertex 
are not appressed, and, like those on the under surface of the second 
joint of the labial palpi, they are long and loose. 

It is a very handsome insect, and the ornamentation seems to be 
intermediate between G. onoûidis and G. pavoniella., as figured in Stainton's 
Nat. Hist. Tin., v. 8, plate ^. The wings are rather more golden than in 
ononidis, and not so much suffused with brown along the centre, and it 
lacks the broivn basal and first dorsal white streak represented in that 
species. The wings are not so much golden as in pavoniella, but it has 
the basal streak exactly as in that species, and the apical hook ; but it 
lacks the last small dorsal streak or spot of that species, and has the apical 
spot as in ononidis, -whxlsl pavo7iiella has none. 

The larva is yellowish, and does not change colour previous to pupa- 
tion. It mines the leaves of the Virginia Plantain ( Plantago Virginica) 
in September, October and November. The mine is at first narrow, 
winding and linear, filled with frass, ending in a large bladder-like mine, 
the upper and lower cuticles being puffed out. The linear portion is only 
visible under the lens. It remains in the mine until it is ready to become 
a pupa, which it does in a small nidus on the ground, and the imago 
emerges in less than a week. Kentucky. Common. 

Gracillaria 12 liiieella. N. sp. 

Palpi and legs white, flecked and spotted with blackish on their outer 
surfaces. Antennae pale greyish, annulate with pale fuscous. Head and 
thorax greyish-white mixed with fuscous. Anterior wings, to the naked 
eye, pale greyish (which the lens shows to be the intermixture of whitish 
and fuscous scales), with fuscous spots and blotches on the disc. The 
posterior margin with twelve alternate white and fuscous streaks small and 
not distinct, except the tenth, which is situated beyond the apical third, 
and extends obliquely backwards to the costal margin,where it is confluent 
with the eleventh dorsal streak, which curves forwards from its base on the 



12 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

dorsal margin to its union with the tenth streak on the costal margin, there 
enclosing a triangular dark brown dorsal patch. The twelfth streak is 
narrow, and extends along the dorso-apical margin, and opposite to it is a 
distinct costo-apical triangular white spot. There is a series of indistinct 
small white streaks along the costa, three of which, just beyond the 
middle, are larger and more strongly dark margined. The first of the 
three is long, narrow, oblique, and suddenly curved backwards on the 
disc. The second is nearly concealed by its dark margin, which is pro- 
nounced forming an oblique curved black streak, which reaches the middle 
of the apical part of the wing just over the third streak, which is shorter, 
white, distinct, and decidedly dark margined on both sides and around 
the apex. Apex golden brown, cilise golden brown, tipped with silvery. 
Alar ex. | inch. Larva and food plant unknown. Kentucky ; not 
common. 



LIST OF COLEOPTERA 

TAKEN AT GRIMSBY, ONT., BY MR. J. PETTIT. 
Continued from page 107, Vol. III., Can. Ext. 

CHRYSOMELID^. 

Orsodacna, Latr. Lema trilineata, Oliv. 

vittata. Say. Uroplata, Chevr. 
*atra, Lac. quadrata, Fahr. 

Donacia, Fabr. ^pallida, Say. 

proxima, Kirby. Cassida, Herbst. 
lucida, Lac. signifer, Hbst. 

palmata, Oliv. clavata, Fabr. 

subtilis, Kunze. aurichalcea, Fabr. 

tequalis, Say. pallida, Herbst. 

cuprea, Kirby. Cerotoma, Chevr. 
pusilla. Say. caminea, Fabr. 

Kirbyi, Lac. Phyllobrotica, Redt. 

decorata. Say. 
discoidea, Fabr. 



Syneta, Esch. 
tripla. Say 



LuPERUS, Geoffr. 
Lema, Fabr. meraca, Say. 

Species marked wi'-.h an asterisk *-have not before been included iu the list of Cana- 
dian Coleoptera. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



13 



DiABRÔTiCA, Chevr. 

1 2 -punctata, Fabr. 

vittata, Fabr. 
Galeruca, Geoffr. 

externa, Say. 

sagittariae, Kirby. 
*notulata, Fabr. 
Trirhabda, Lee. 

canadensis, Kirby. 
Oedionychis, Latr. 

vians, ///. 

quercata, Fabr. 
Graptodera, Chevr. 

chalybea, ///. 
DisONYCHA, Chev. 

pensylvanica, Brongn. 

alternata, ///. 

triangularis. Say. 

collaris, Yabr. 
Systena, Chevr. 

frontalis, Fabr. 
*marginalis, ///. 
Crepidodera, Chevr. 

nana. Say. 
'''copalina, Fabr. 

pubescens, ///. 
Phyllotreta, Chevr. ' 

striolata, ///. 
PsYLLiODES, Lair. 

punctulata, Meh. 
DiBOLiA, Latr. 

aerea, Mels. 
Labidomera, Chevr. 

trimaculata, Fabr. 
PoLYGRAMMA, Chevr. 

lo-lineata. Say. 
Calligrapha, Chev. 

scalaris, Lee. 

spiraege, Say. 



Calligrapha, Chev. (Con. 

philadelphica, Linn, 

Bigsbyana, Kirby. 
Melasoma Dillwyn. 

scripta, Fabr. 

interrupta, Fabr. 
Chrysomela, Linn. 

vulgatissima, Linn. 
Prasocuris. 

phellandrii, Linn. 

varipes, Lee. 
Gastrophysa, Chev. 

polygoni, Linn. 
Phaedon, Meg. 

viride, Mels. 
Metachroma, Cheiir. 

4-notata, Say. 

dubiosa. Say. 

aterrima, Oliv. 
Bromius, Chevr. 

vitis, Fabr. 
Chrysochus, Chevr. 

auratus, Fabr. 
Heteraspis, DeJ. 

curtipes, Mels. 
Glyptoscelis, Chevr. 

hirtus, Oliv. 
Pachnephorus, Chevr. 

lo-notatus, Say. 
*pubescens, Lee. 
Pachybrachis, Suffrian. 
*subfasciatus, Lee. 
^mollis, LLald. 

tridens, Mels. 
MONACHUS, Suffr. 

saponatus, Fabr. 
Cryptocephalus, Geoffr. 
*guttulatus, Oliv. 
*sel]atus, Siffr, 



14 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Cryptocephalus, Geoffr. 

mammifer, Newm. 
•^quadruplex, Newm. 

auratus, Fabr. 
'■'catarius, Siiffr. 

COCCINELLID^. 

HiPPODAMIA, Mills. 

1 3-punctata, Linn. 

convergens, Giter. 

parenthesis, Say. 

maculata, Geer. 
CocciNELLA, Linn. 

ophthalmica, Muls. 

l:)ipunctata, Linn. 

picta, Rand. var. 

trifasciata, Linn. 

transversoguttata, Fald. 

lacustris, Lee. 

novemnotata, LLerbst. 

sanguinea, Linn. 
■''cardisce, Randall, r. 
•''similis, Randall. 2. 



(Con.) COCCIDULA. 

*lepida, Lee. 
Mysia, Mills. 
*pullata, Say. 
1 5-punctata, Oliv. 

PSYLLOBORA, Muls. 

20-maculata, Say. 
Chilocorus, Leach. 

bivulnerus, Muls. 
Brachyacantha, Mills. 

ursina, Fabr. 
Hyperaspis, Redt. 

elegans, Muls. 

SCYMNUS, Kllg. 

^ornatus, Lee. 
'•'flavifrons, Mels. 
•''punctatus, Mels. 
*terminatus, Say. 

coUaris, Mels. 

lacustris, Lee. 
Sacium, Lee. 

fasciatus, Say. 
•''obscurus, Lee. 



1. Taken by Dr. Milward. 2. Taken by Dr. Milward. 



NOTES OF A COWCATCHER RIDE THROUGH NEBRASKA. 



BY CHARLES R. DODGE, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

During my recent trip through Colorado and adjacent territory, as a 
member of the New York agricultural editorial excursion party, I made it 
a point to collect whenever an opportunity was offered. Through Kansas, 
the three-minute stops at the stations, many of which are out on the open 
plains, afforded me opportunity for turning over old railroad ties, &c.; for 
beating the herbage and rank vegetation at the sides of the track, or for 
searching in the dry grass and weeds for Orthoptei-a. In the mountains it 
was an easy matter to jump from the ambulance or to follow behind it, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



15 



stopping when occasion demanded ; but the most novel collecting was 
during the trip through Nebraska. 

It was our good fortune to have a special train from the Platte river to 
Omaha, and as the novelty of riding in the cabin of the locomotive had 
long since worn off, the cow-catcher was next resorted to, and with results 
that had not been anticipated. Sitting carelessly on the beam that supports 
the iron framework, " nursing one leg," I was suddenly struck in the face 
by some small object that decidedly made an impression ; others came in 
quick succession, and before I could solve the problem, a large grass- 
hopper (Aldipoda Haldcmaiini, Scuddj, struck my boot, glanced and 
rolled into my lap. Having no botde at hand, I immediately secured it 
in a leaf from a railroad land document that had been handed me, and 
placed it in my pocket. By this time we were running at 40 miles an 
hour, and grasshoppers pelted us like driving sleet. They seemed to fly 
or jump up from the track at our approach, but not in sufficient time to 
get out of the way, and so we literally ran into them. Those that struck 
the engine were generally injured — in some cases completely smashed — 
and blown off at either side, and it was only those that happened to strike 
on our clothing that were worth preserving. Occasionally a stray dragon 
fly, or an unlucky wasp would get in the way, and even tiger beetles flew 
into the trap ; now and then a large wingless Brachypephts, with its coarse 
spines, would make its presence felt ; but all were fish that came to the 
net, and soon the leaves of my pamphlet were exhausted, all my pockets 
filled, and by the time the station was reached, I was only too glad to 
return to the car and bottle my treasures. In less than half an hour I 
took more insects than I had room for, and what was still better, found 
two new species.'" The following is a list of the Orthopiera taken : — 



Brachypeplus magnus. 
Opomola hivittata Serv. 
Pezoiettix megacephala Thos. N. sp. 
Caloptenus spretiis Uhler. 

" femur rubrum Burm. 

" bivittatus Say. 

Acridiuin enarginatiim Uhler. 



Œdipoda Carolina Linn. 

" trifasciata Say. 

" teneh'osa Scudd. 

" Haldemanni Scudd. 

" andulata Thos. N. sp. 

" collaris Scudd. 
And two or three other species not 
vet determined. 



* Two other species taken during the trip are found to be new, and have been 
described by Mr. Thomas. Acridium frontalis tram Kansas, and Caloptenus Dodgei, 
Colorado. 



1^ THE CANADIAN ENïOMOLOGtSl'. 

We were much interested in watching the birds as they flew up before 
us. The majority of the flock would pass to one side or the other, but 
one or two would attempt to keep ahead of the engine, straining every 
muscle, till finally they would fall apparently exhausted, or be struck and 
drop lifeless. One was captured alive by simply reaching out the hand 
and taking it. 

On all future trips through new country, I shall endeavour to get into 
the good graces of the conductor and engineer, and thus secure a place 
under the headlight, for, aside from its being a good " collecting ground," 
one gets a splendid view of the country, without dust, without the usual 
jolting, and with a delightful breeze into the bargain, though it doesn't do 
to reflect too much on the possibility of shipping a cow or two. 



NOTES ON A NEW ORTHOPTEROUS INSECT. 



BY PROF. C. THOMAS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Sub-Fam. Conocephalin/e.* 

Copiophora mucronata. Nov. sp. 

Cone of the vertex smooth on the margins, apex mucronate. Mesos- 
ternum bidentate. Green ; labrum, clypeus and underside of the cone 
yellow. 

Male and Female. Cone of the vertex standing obliquely forward, 
apex mucronate, the minute spine slightly deflexed, especially in the 
female ; the sides parallel from the base a little above the first joint of the 
antennae, where they are slightly angulate ; not serrated or granulated on 
the margins ; front side has, near the base, a prominent tubercle ; there is 
also a tubercle below this between the antennae. Face oblique, smooth ; 
occiput smooth. Pronotum rounded, not canned, densely punctured ; 
on the dorsum there is generally a glabrous, semi-circular spot; there 
are also some irregular glabrous impressions on the sides ; front margin 
rounded ; posterior margin nearly straight, slightly rounded at the humerus 
where there is an entering angle. Elytra passing the abdomen about one 
third their length ; upper margin straight from the dorsal angle ; lower 

* I have here, and expect in the Synopsis of the Acrididœ of the United States, 
which I am at work on, to adopt the termination INAE for the sub-families. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 17 

margin rounded from the base to the apex ; apex angled. Wings about 
as long as the elytra. Ovipositor about as long as the body, nearly 
straight, lanceolate at the apex ; cerci of moderate length, swollen, slightly 
curved, v/ith a slender, pointed apex. The abdomen of the male has, at 
the apex of the last ventral segment, the usual cylindrical appendages ; the 
super-anal plate bilobed ; no cerci apparent in the male I have seen. 

Posterior lateral angles of the mesosternum furnished with a prominent 
spine. External carinae of the femora furnished with strong spines ; also 
a sharp spine each side of the apex of each, projecting forward. An- 
terior tibicB without spines in front ; middle with two rows above, two in 
each row ; the posterior with two rows beneath. Anterior coxae furnished 
externally with a strong curved spine. Antennae very long and slender. 

The legs of the male are quite hairy. 

Colour. Body and elytra a uniform bright pea-green : underside and 
edges of the frontal cone a bright yellow ; labrum and clypeus yellow ; 
mandibles deep piceous black, except the upper external angles, which 
are green. Ovipositor dull yellow, slightly striped with fuscous near the 
apex. Tarsi pale fuscous. Eyes brown. 

Dimensions. Ç Length from base of cone to top of abdomen, 1.5 in.; 
cone .31 in. ; elytra 1.26 in. ; posterior femora .83 in.; posterior tibiae 
.82 in. ; ovipositor 1.5 in. ^ Length 1.25 in. ; cone .25 in. ; elytra i.i ; 
posterior femora .68 in. ; posterior tibiae .65 in. 

As before remarked, this species has evidently been introduced with 
plants brought from some tropical section. The only plants received 
at the Department last fall or winter from the tropics were from Central 
America and Cayenne. 

If the mesosternal spines, which are very prominent, do not distin- 
guish it from other species, then the very interesting inquiry arises, has it 
been produced from the eggs of some known species, the variations 
between the perfect insects having been produced by the different circum- 
stances- under which they have grown to maturity ? 

So far as I am aware, the following list embraces all the species hith- 
erto described : — 



C. comuta, Serv. — Para. 

C. mexicana, Sauss. — Mexico. 

C. lucifera, Burm. — Bahia. 

C. JIavo-scripta, Walk. — Venezuela. 

C. longicauda, Serv. — Cayenne. 



C. megacephala, Burm. — Jole St. 

Johanna. 
C. gracilis., Scudd. — Napo, or Mara- 

non. 
C. cuspidata., Haan. — Brazil. 



IS THE (JANADÎAN ENTOMOLOUISÏ. 

This species has some strong resemblances to C. gracilis, Scudd, but is 
evidently a different species. 

Prof. Glover's figures will be found as follows : — Female pi. VIII., fig. 
14 (Orthoptera) ; Male pi. VII., fig. 8. 



1" H 1-: A C R N M O T H . 



Holcocera glandulella. N. sp. 



BY C. V. RILEY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

On page 118, of Volume III., I briefly referred to a little inquilinous 
acorn moth by the proposed name of Gelcchia glandtdeUa. Careful ex- 
amination shows tliat it differs from the genus Gelcchia, principally by the 
peculiar construction of the basal joint of the ^ antennse, and that it 
belongs to the genus Holcocera as characterized by Clemens (Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Phil., IL, p. 121). As the insect has been the cause of some dispute 
between myself and Mr. Couper, I send you the following description : — 

Holcocera glandulella. N. sp. — Imago. Alar expanse 0.50 — 
0.80 inch. Front wings silvery-gray, more or less distinctly sufilised and 
marked with fuscous ; two distinct dark discal dots : a pale transverse 
stripe across the basal third of wing, slightly elbowed outwardly at its 
middle : this stripe is well relieved behind by a dark shade, and this shade 
generally extends from the elbow to the costa above discal spots, forming, 
a more or less distinct triangular shade in the anterior middle portion of 
the wing : three tolerably distinct dusky marks surround the discal dots 
on the outside, and a series of minute vein-specks mark the posterior 
margin ; fringes concolorous. Hind wings of a more glossy, warmer, 
brownish-gray, the reflection inclining to golden in certain lights ;, fringes 
concolorous, but not glossy. Under surface uniformly of same tint as hind 
wings. Head, thorax and legs concolorous with front wings ; abdomen, 
with hind wings, the joints often ringed with a paler shade. Apical joint 
tipped with yellowish, or pale fulvous hairs, the ovipositor of Ç , which 
may be exserted one-half the length of abdomen, of same colour. The 
basal antennal joint of ^. , the nodule on ^ antennas, base of palpi, and 
sometimes tarsi, also tinged with fulvous. 

Described from 8^,20 Ç , all bred from acorns. The intensity of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 19 

the dark shadings is quite variable, and in some specimens the basal space 
shows decidedly paler than the rest of the wing. 

■Larva. Length 0.35 — 0.50 inch. Largest in middle of body. Translu- 
cent grayish-white, with blue-black, vesicular, dorsal marks. A conspi- 
cuous light brown head, darker cervical shield, and small anal plate. Head 
with the mouth parts darker ; epistoma well defined by fine brown lines. 
Piliferous spots quite noticeable from their darker polished surface, the 
hairs springing from them pale and soft ; placed in a transverse row on 
joints 2 and 3, and on joints 4 — 12, three laterally and four, nearly in. 
a square, dorsall}^ The normal complement of legs which are of the 
same colour as body. 

I have found the species in Vermont, New Jersey, New York, Illinois 
and Missouri. 

This insect may be found in the larva state all through the fall, winter 
and early spring months, especially in acorns that have been infested with 
"the acorn weevil (Balaninus rectus, Say j, and I gave some further ac- 
count of it on the page already referred to. The larva is readily distin- 
guished from that of Balanimis rectus, as the latter of course lacks the 
legs, cervical shield, anal plate and piliferous spots, so characteristic of 
the former, and is besides more wrinkled, more yellowish, less translucent 
and does not show the blue-black markings on back. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

The American Entomologist. — Editors Rural World: I regret to in- 
form you that, contrary to the announcement a year ago, this magazine 
will not be continued during the coming year. The cost of publishing a 
paper so profusely illustrated with original figures is great, and the pub- 
lishers, Messrs. R. P. Studley & Co., have lately concluded to discontinue 
it, as they have not met with sufticient financial encouragement. I have, 
however, since they so decided, purchased from them all the illustrations 
and all interest in the magazine, and hope at no distant day to recom- 
mence its publication myself Meanwhile, I take this means of thanking 
the many subscribers who, during the year, have sent in expressions of 
encouragement and appreciation, or who have signified their intention of 
renewing subscription. I shall ever be glad to hear from them on ento- 
mological subjects, and to render them what little service Hes in my power. 
By making this announcement through your columns, you will oblige. 
St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 10, 1S71. C. V. Riley. 



20 THE CANADIAN ENÏOMOLOGHST. 



Orthoptera. — A case of Orihoptera, forward-ed from America more dian 
a year ago, has just reached me, on account of the recent war, and the 
obstruction of freight on the railways centering in Paris. As it was 
undoubtedly stored in damp places, a large proportion of the specimens 
were covered with mould, some of them so as to be quite invisible. They 
had, however, suffered very unequally. On examination, I found that 
specimens which had been pinned in some Paris-made pasteboard boxes, 
with cork bottoms, had suffered most ; those contained in wooden boxes 
lined with cork much less so, although still presenting a very unsightly 
appearance ; while those placed in two wooden boxes, lined with aloe-pith, 
instead of cork, were entirely uninjured. The position of the boxes in the 
case seemed to have nothing to do with their immunity, as they were not 
beside each other. 

I would, therefore, recommend the use of aloe-pith for the lining of 
insect boxes when they are to be used for distant transportation — espe- 
cially by water. - Samuel H. Scudder. 

Menton, France, Dec. 15, 187 1. 

Kirby's British-American Insects. — The types of the species de- 
scribed by Kirby (which we are now reprinting) in the Fauna Boreal 
Americana, are still in existence, we are glad to learn, at the British 

Museum. 

Crab Apples. — Do not start, Entomological reader; this is not the 
name of a new species of insect, but we do not know where else to 
acknowledge the receipt of a little box of " Marengo Winter Siberian 
Crab-apples," sent us by Messrs. Andrews, Herendeen & Jones, of Geneva, 
N.Y. They are pretty in appearance, pleasant in taste, and are said to 
especially excel in the quality of keeping. 



AGENTS FOR THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Canada. — E. B. Reed, London, Ont.; W. Couper, Naturalist, Montreal, 
P.Q.; G. J. Bowles, Quebec, P. Q.; J. Johnston, Canadian Institute, 
Toronto, Ont. 

United States. — The American Naturalist's Book Agency, Salem, Mass.; 
J. Y. Green, Newport, Vt; W. V. Andrews, Room 17, No. 137 
BroadAvay, New York. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., FEBRUARY, 1872. No. 2 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA. 

NO. I. 
BY E. T. CRESSON, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Family Ichneumonid^. 
Genus Mesochorus, Grav. 

This genus belongs to the sub-family " Ophionides," of Holmgren, and is 
distinguished from all the other genera by the large, rhomboidal areolet, 
or second submarginal cell, of the anterior wing. The abdomen is oblong- 
fusiform, slender at base, and more or less compressed at tip, that of the 
^ generally furnished with two slender setae. 

The species are quite small in size, not exceeding three tenths of an 
inch in length, and are few in number. Those known to me may be 
tabulated as follows : — 

Abdomen entirely black atriventris. 

Abdomen black, with apical margin of second segment and the 
third entirely luteous : 

Large ; face and posterior coxee blackish agilis. 

Small ; face dusky, with pale orbits ; posterior coxsg luteous. .LUTEIPES. 

Abdomen black, with most of second and third segments lu- 
teous SCITULUS. 

Abdomen black, with apical half of second, and the remaining 

segments, except apical margins, luteous americanus. 

Abdomen luteous or honey-yellow, with first and part of second 

segments black : 
Thorax above and occiput black ; second abdominal segment 

black, except narrow apical margin basali.S. 

Thorax and head entirely honey-yellow ; apical half of second 

abdominal segment honey-yellow totonacus. 

Abdomen luteous, with sides of first, and two oblique marks 

on base of second segment, black obliql'U». 

Abdomen, thorax and head entirely honey-yellow melleus. 

/. Mesochorus airivcntrls. N. sp. — ^ . Head yellowish-white ; anterior 
orbits, lower half of cheeks, mandibles and palpi, paler ; the front behind 
antenna, vertex, occiput, upper half of cheeks and tips of mandibles 
piceous black ; antennas nearly as long as the body, slender, blackish. 



22 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



base rufo-piceous ; thorax laterally and beneath honey-yellow ; mesothorax 
and scutellum fusco-ferruginous, the former darker laterally ; metathorax 
piceous-black, the flanks honey-yellow ; tegulse yellowish-white ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, nervures luteo-fuscous, stigma luteous ; legs luteous, 
posterior tibite paler, the extreme base and apex fuscous, their tarsi dusky 
towards the apex ; abdomen long, slender, polished black, apical margin 
of third segment obscurely testaceous ; venter luteous. Length 2 j^ lines. 

Hab. — Illinois. Easily distinguished from the other species by the 
black abdomen. 

2. Mesochorus agiiis, Cresson. Froc. Eut. Society Phila., April, 186^, 
p. 266. 

Ç . Black, polished ; most of clypeus, extreme lower portion of cheeks, 
mandibles except tips, and the palpi, yellowish ; antennae longer than the 
body, slender, brown-black ; tegulae and a spot before pale yellowish ; 
wings ample, hyaline, iridescent, nervures pale fuscous, yellowish at base 
of wing, as well as costa and stigma ; legs obscure luteous, posterior coxse 
fuscous, tips of their tibias and their tarsi dusky ; abdomen piceous black, 
polished, apical margin of second segment, and the whole of the third, 
obscure luteous ; venter stained with yellowish. Length 3^ lines. 

Hab. — Colorado. This is the largest species known to me. 

J. Mesochorus hiteipes. N. sp.^ Ç Black, shining ; face, mouth, and 
lower part of cheeks luteous ; middle of face and tips of mandibles dusky ; 
antennse nearly as long as the body, slender, fuscous, scape pale honey 
yellow ; prothorax beneath and tegulae luteous ; wings hyaline, iridescent, 
nervures and stigma pale fuscous ; legs luteous, posterior coxœ and 
femora slightly tinged with fuscous, the extreme base and apex of their 
tibiae dusky, also more or less of their tarsi ; abdomen above piceous- 
black, polished, most of the third segment dull luteous, apical segments 
have a brownish tinge ; venter rufo-testaceous. Length 2 lines. 

Hab. — New Jersey. Much smaller than Agiiis, which it resembles in 
having the thorax almost entirely black ; it is, however, abundantly 
distinct. 

4. Mesochorus basalis. JV. sp. — Ç . Honey-yellow ; spot covering 
ocelli and confluent with a large transverse mark on occiput, tips of 
mandibles, mesothorax, scutellar region, metathorax entirely and spot 
beneath wings, black ; antennae ferruginous ; face luteous, with small 
dusky stains ; two faint longitudinal lines on mesothorax and most of 
scutellum, honey-yellow and concolorous with pleura; tegulœ pale luteous; 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 23 

wings hyaline, iridescent, stigma fuscous, nervures paler ; legs pale honey- 
yellow, coxœ and posterior tibiae luteous, tips of the latter dusky, as well 
as -most of the tarsi; abdomen honey-yellow, the first, and the second 
segments except apical margin, black. Length 2 3^ lines. 

Hab. — Massachusetts. 

J. Mesochorus amerkaniis. N. sp. — Ç . Pale honey-yellow ; spot en- 
closing ocelli, sometimes more or less of occiput, tips of mandibles, 
mesothorax and more or less of metathorax above, black ; antennas as 
long as body, slender, varies from rufo-testaceous to fuscous, with the 
scape luteous ; scutellum and region, honey-yellow ; tegulse luteous ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma pale fuscous ; legs pale luteous, 
almost white, the femora tinged with yellowish, extreme apex of posterior 
tibiae blackish ; abdomen fusiform, very slender at base, first segment 
above entirely black, second luteous, with the basal half black, the margin 
indented anteriorly, so that in some specimens the black is divided into 
two subquadrate spots, remaining segments luteous, with fuscous apical 
margins ; venter luteous. Length 2 y> lines. 

Hab. — Pennsylvania, Delaware, Illinois. 

6. Mesochorus totonacus. N. sp. — Ç . Pale honey-yellow, metathorax 
and abdomen darker, smooth and polished ; tips of mandibles, antennae 
except base, first segment of abdomen and basal half of second, black ; 
wings hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma blackish ; tips of posterior 
femora, of their tibiae and of all the tarsi, dusky. Length 2 ],i^ lines. 

Hab. — Orizaba, Mexico. 

"J. Mesochorus vitreus, Walsh. Ijis. Inj. to Veg. in Ills. , p. j6. 

''■$. General colour light rufous; eyes and ocelli black; antennas 
fuscous, except towards base ; upper surface of thorax sometimes fuscous ; 
intermediate and posterior tibiae with spurs equal to one-fourth of their 
length, posterior knees slightly dusky, tips of posterior tibiae distinctly 
dusky ; wings hyaline, nervures and stigma dusky ; abdomen, a trans- 
lucent yellowish-white in its central one-third, the remaining two-thirds 
piceous-black, with a distinct narrow yellowish annulus at the base of the 
third joint. The Ç differs from the $ in the head from the mouth 
upwards being piceous ; the thorax and pectus are also piceous-black ; 
abdomen as in the ^. Length .08 — .13 inch." 

Hab. — Illinois. Bred from the Army-worm (Leucania unipuncta, 
Llawj. This species is unknown to me. The ^ seems to be closely 
allied to that oï scitulus, n. sp., but the Ç is entirely different. 



24 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

8. Mesochoj'iis scitulus. N. sp. — ^ % . Pale honey-yellow or luteous ; 
head broad ; spot covering ocelli, and tips of mandibles black ; occiput of 
Ç more or less fuscous; antennae long and slender, pale testaceous, some- 
times slightly dusky, scape paler ; mesothorax fuscous in Ç , honey-yellow 
with dusky sides in ^ ; scutellum and region honey-yellow; disk of 
]netathorax more or less blackish or fuscous ; tegulae pale luteous ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma luteous ; legs pale luteous, apex 
of posterior tibiae and tips of tarsal joints dusky; abdomen fusiform, very 
slender at base, black above, with a large discal pale luteous spot covering 
apical half or two-thirds of second, and basal half or two-thirds of third 
segments ; venter pale luteous ; apex of $ with two long slender setae ; 
ovipositor of Ç longer than basal segment. Length j4 line. 

Had. — Pennsylvania. Twenty-three specimens, along with four speci- 
mens of a Pczomachns, bred from a bunch of bright lemon-yellow cocoons, 
(probably those of a Aïicrogaster) , found attached to a blade of grass. 

g. MesocJiorus obliqiins. N'. sp. — Ç . Pale honey-yellow, orbits and 
mouth luteous; sides of mesothorax faintly dusky; tegulae white; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, stigma fuscous, nervures pale ; legs pale luteous, 
posterior femora yellowish, their tibiae fuscous at base and almost black at 
apex ; lateral margins of first abdominal segment and two oblique marks 
at base of second segment black ; extreme sides of third segment dusky. 
I^ength 2 lines. 

Hab. — Pennsylvania. Distinguished by the two oblique marks at 
base of the second abdominal segment. 

lo. Mesochorus melleiis. N. sp. — $ . Uniformly honey-yellow ; spot 
enclosed by ocelli, and tips of mandibles blackish ; antennae as long as 
body, slender, flagellum dusky ; wings hyahne, iridescent, stigma fuscous, 
nervures much paler ; legs luteous, extreme base and apex of posterior 
tibiae and tips of tarsal joints dusky; abdomen robust, honey-yellow, apex 
somewhat discolored. Length 2 lines. 

Hab. — Pennsylvania. Easily distinguished by the immaculate, uniform 
honey-yellow colour of the body, which is more robust than usual. 



The Annual Report on Insects Noxious or Beneficial to Agriculture, 
which, by the Statute of Incorporation, is required to be furnished by the 
Entomological Society of Ontario to the Commissioner of Agriculture, is 
now in the printer's hands, and will be forwarded to the Mem.bers of the 
Society as speedily as possible. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 25 



MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KY. 



Continued from page 12. 
GRACILLARIA. 

5. Gracillaria ( Coriscium 1) albinntella. N. sp. 

Second joint of the labial palpi with a distinct tuft at the apex beneath. 
Head and palpi silvery white. Second joint of the labial palpi brownish- 
gray, except at the tip. Antennae, thorax and anterior wings pale brown- 
ish-gray, in some lights silvery or golden. Thorax with a longitudinal 
median white streak produced gradually, widening along the dorsal margin 
of the anterior wings to the basal third, when it is intersected by a some- 
what oblique costal white streak. Another oblique costal white streak 
about the basal fourth ; à third one longer and narrower, situated beyond 
the middle of the costa, and a fourth and large one near the apex, and 
extending into the ciliae. Opposite the space between the second and 
third costal streaks is a large white triangular dorsal spot with its internal 
margin convex. Each of the costal and dorsal streaks is dark margined 
on both sides and around the apex. In the apex behind the costo-apical 
white spot is a curved golden-brown streak bordered behind by a brilliant 
white streak on the dorso-apical margin. Ciliae white, stained at the 
extreme tip with fuscous, with a rather wide, short, reddish-golden, hinder 
marginal line at the base of the apical ciliae, and three or four minute 
fuscous spots in the ciliae beyond it. Posterior wings bluish smoky. 
Legs golden-brown, spotted and streaked with white. Tarsi white, annu- 
late with brown ; posterior tibiae white. j4lar ex. scarcely yi inch. Ken- 
tucky. 

6. Gracillaria salicifoliella. N. sp. 

Face and palpi white, with the apex of the labial palpi and a spot on 
the outer surface of the second joint, and one on the third, brown. Vertex 
Vi^hite, suffused with brownish in front, and with a blackish patch at the 
base of the antennae, which are dark brown. Thorax and dorsal portion 
of the wings to the ciliae, white ; costal portion blackish-brown ; its line 
of junction with the white portion twice indented or scalloped towards the 
fold. Five costal white streaks, the first about the middle of the costa, 
curving backwards, long, and narrowed towards its apex, sometimes; 



26 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

almost overspread with blackish-brown scales on tlie white ground, pro- 
duced along the costa towards, but not to, the base ; the second is shorter, 
wider, suffused with oc/ireous and blackish; 7Wt disiind^ and sometimes only 
distinguishable as a paler spot in the blackish portion of the wing, produced, 
along tne costa to the first streak ; the third is larger, distinct, curving 
backwards to the centre of the apical part of the wing, and gradually 
narrowing ; // forms the posterior margin of the blackish portion of the wing, 
7vhich curves around it, narroiving to a point in the centre of the apical part 
of the wing. Apical part of the wing, as far as the third costal streak, 
brownish-ochreous, with an indistinct brown apical spot. Fourth and 
fifth costal streaks in the brownish-ochreous part of the wing. Ciliae 
silvery-gray, with two brownish hinder marginal lines, one at the base ; the 
other near the apex, and continued into the " hook.'' Alar ex. rr. inch. 

This species resembles the European G. Kollariellet, as figured in 
Stainton's Nat. His. Tin., v. 8, p, 128, and plate 3, fig. 3, but probably is 
nearer still to G. Gradatella, and may prove to be that species, the food- 
plant of which is unknown. The principal differences between it and 
Kollariclla, are indicated by the italics. 

The larva was not observed until August, and some of the mines were 
then empt)-. I found it abundant from that time until the fall of the leaves 
in November. It mines the upper surface of the leaves of different 
Willows (Salix longifolia, native, and S. alba and 6'. Babylonica, foreign 
species j. It does not leave one mine to form another, but continues in 
one mine until ready to become a pupa ; and sometimes the mine covers 
nearly the entire leaf It pupates under a dense semi-transparent white 
web over the midrib ; usually of a different leaf, though I have occasion- 
ally found it on the under side of the same leaf mined by it. It remains 
in the pupa state about two weeks, and the imago probably hybernates. 
Common in Kentucky. 

7. Gracillaria desmodifoliella, Clem. Proc. Ent. Sac. 186^, p. 14^; pre- 
A'iously described by Dr. Clemens in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., i860, 
p. 7, as G. violacella. The last description was made to correct the 
first, but from a single bred specimen in my possession, the first descrip- 
tion seems to be as nearly correct as the last. Probably it is a somewhat 
variable species. It feeds on the leaves of species of Desmodium, and 
if it is ever a miner (as it most probably is), it is so for a very short time 
only, as the larvae are found, whilst still very small, rolling the leaves from 
the apex downwards, eating the underside. It frequently leaves one roll 



ÏHE CANADIAN ENÏOMOLOGÎSÏ. 27 

and makes another. It pupates over the midrib under a dense but semi- 
transparent white web on the upper side of the leaf. Rather an incon- 
spicuous insect ; the costal half of the Avings yelloAvish, with a few black 
spots on the middle of the margin. Dorsal half yellowish-purple, faintly 
iridescent, with a few small blackish dots along the centre of the disc. 
A/ar ex. about tV inch. Kentucky. Common. 

S. Gracillaria PackardeUa. N. sp. 

Face and palpi snowy-white ; the joints of the palpi tipped with 
golden. Vertex, antennae, thorax, and base of the wings pale lemon- 
yellow, each antennal joint tipped above with fuscous. Anterior wings 
pale reddish-orange, with purple and golden reflections, and becoming 
deeper towards the apex, with a large triangular pale lemon-yellow spot 
about the middle, very wide on the costa, and its apex almost touching 
the dorsal margin. Ciliae pale yellowish, faintly flecked with reddish- 
orange or golden. Anterior surface of the legs reddish-orange, tinged 
with fuscous. Scales of the head loose, not appressed. 

Larva and food-plant unknown, but from circumstances, I suspect it 
to be an Oak-feeding species ; and I think that it passes the winter in the 
pupal state, from finding fresh specimens of it abundant in April and 
May. Alar ex. about ^ inch. Kentucky. 

I took it resting upon fences under Beech and Oak trees ; on which 
also, there were a great many of the bracts, or outer reddish envelopes, of 
the Beech leaf-buds (which were then expanding, and throwing off these 
envelopes). At a distance of more than a yard it was scarcely possible to 
distinguish the Gracillaria from these envelopes. I have never found a 
mine or larva of this genus on the Beech ; and have found the imago on 
Oaks at a great distance from any Beech trees. 

I have named it in honor of Dr. A. S. Packard, jun., author of the 
" Guide." 

g. Gracillaria purpuriella.. N. sp. 

Violaceous, reddish or brownish-purple, according to the light. Face 
pale violaceous, flecked with brownish-purple. Antennae brown, tinged 
with purplish, faintly annulate with white at the base of each joint ; palpi 
pale purplish. The triangular M'hite spot about the middle of the costa is 
nearly equilateral ; its anterior margin is a little concave, the apex reach- 
ing the fold, and it has four small spots of the general hue situated in it 
upon the costa. Ciliae bluish fuscous. Posterior femora white at the 
tip, and with a wide white band about the middle, and its under surface 



28 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

entirely white. Posterior tibiae and inner surface of intermediate tibiae 
white. Tarsi pale grayish-fuscous, faintly annulate, with white at the 
joints. Abdomen purplish-fuscous on a white ground. Alar ex. y^, inch. 

The larva mines the leaves of the Willow (Salix longifolia) for a very 
short time, then leaving the mine, it rolls the leaves from the tip upwards, 
into various forms (usually a cone or helix of three spirals). I first found 
it in September and October, and do not know whether it can be found 
earlier or not. It frequently leaves one roll and makes another, and when 
ready to pupate, makes a dense semi-transparent web over it, upon the 
ground, not on the leaf, as in many species. The imago emerges in the 
fall, and most probably, hybernates. 

I have bred a great many species of Ichneumonides and Chalcidiidse 
parasites from the different " Micros." Among others, the following, 
which I take to be a Eulophiis, though I can distinguish but eight antennal 
joints. Possibly, however, one of the three terminal joints may be com- 
posed of two or more compact joints, but they are so thickly clothed with 
blackish hairs that I can not discover it without dissection, which, as I 
have but the single specimen, I do not wish to resort to. Some allied 
genera have the terminal joint composed of three compact joints ; but that 
would make the antennae in this species lo-Jointed, Avhereas, in Eulophi/s, 
they are Ç-jointed. 

The antennae are black, and the third, fourth and fifth joints each 
give off, internally from the base, a plumose branch about as long as the 
portion of the stalk beyond it. Eyes bronzy brown. Head and thorax 
bluish-green, densely punctured. Legs and tarsi white, except the pos- 
terior tibiœ and femora, which are pale fuscous ; abdomen blackish, with a 
pale whitish band across the tergum near the base Ion. -h inch. The 
living insect seemed to be continually expanding and shutting its antennae, 
and plumes like fans. 

Bred from larvae of Gracillaria ptifpuriella, and I call it Eidophiis 
GraciUariœ. 

lo. Gracillaria juglandiella. N. sp. 

Palpi white, flecked with dark brown, and second and third palpal 
joints tipped with brown. Face white ; antennae, vertex, thorax and 
basal third of the anterior wings iridescent, deep blood-brown, purple or 
violaceous, according to the light. Antennae faintly annulate with 
whitish, and basal third of the wing faintly flecked with whitish. Trigonal 
mark faintly outlined, its anterior margin being the posterior margin of the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 29 



deep coloured basal third of the wing, and the mark itself being overspread 
Avith the same colour as the basal third, but a little paler, and scarcely at 
all distinguishable from the portion of the wing beyond it. Trigonal mark 
and apical portion of the wing beyond it, distinctly, but sparsely, flecked 
with white. The trigonal spot reaches nearly to the dorsal margin, and has 
two minute white streaks at each of its costal angles, and there is a very 
small white costal streak at the beginning of the ciliae. Ciliae of the 
general hue. Posterior wings and ciliae dark bluish-fuscous. Anterior 
coxae, trochanters, femora and basal half of the tibiae, of the general hue, 
except a white annulus on the middle of the femora, and two large white 
spots on its under surface, and a white annulus about the basal fourth of 
the tibiae. Tarsi and apical half of the tibiae white ; tarsal joints tipped 
with brown ; intermediate tarsi white, tipped with brown ; posterior legs 
whitish. Alar ex. about -/« inch. 

The larva mines the underside of the leaves of the Black Walnut 
(yuglans Nigi-a) in August and September. After a time, it leaves the 
mine and goes to the upper surface, where it curls over the edge of the 
leaf, and passes the remainder of its larval and its pupal states ; the imago 
emerging in the fall, and most probably hybernating. 

In general colour it bears some resemblance to G. piirpuriella, ante., 
but is a slenderer insect, and the trigonal mark, which is scarcely discern- 
ible in this insect, is very distinct in that. Kentucky. Rather common. 



HEMIPTERA, HETEROPTERA AND DERMAPTERA (ORTH- 
OPTERA) OF AMERICA TO THE NORTH OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 



BY FRANCIS WALKER, F. L. S., LONDON, ENGLAND. 



HEMIPTERA, HETEROPTERA. 



Part i. Family PACHYCORID.E. 

HoMiEMUS exilis, H. Sch., Nova Scotia. 

Family ODONTOSCELID^. 
CoRiMEL^.NA unicolor, Pal. Beaiiv. Nova Scotia. 

do nigra, Dallas. Lake Huron. St. Martin's Falls. 



30 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Family ASOPID^. 
Arma modesta, Dallas. Nova Scotia. 
ZiCRONA cuprea, Dallas. St. Martin's Falls, 
do marginella, Dallas. do 

Family CYDNID^. 

^THUS bilineatus, Say. Canada. 

Sehirus ligatus, ^rt^v. Nova Scotia. Arctic America. 

Family PENTATOMID^.. 

EuscHiSTUS punctipes, Say. Nova Scotia. 

do luridus, Dallas. do 

^LiA trilineata, Kirby. Nova Scotia. St. Martin's Falls. 
Eysarcoris carnifex. Fabr. Nova Scotia. 
Pentatoma juniperina, Linn. Canada. {Inhabits Europe). 

do picea, Dallas. St. Martin's Falls. 

Rhaphigaster catinus, Dallas. Canada. 

Acanthosoma cruciata, Say. Nova Scotia. St. Martin's Falls. Arc- 
tic America. 

Family ALYDID^. 
Alydus calcaratus, Linn. Nova Scotia. Arctic America. Inhabits 
Europe. 

DELiMAPTERA (ORTHOPTERA). 
IscHNOPTERA Pcnsylvanica, Deg. Canada. 
Gryllus luctuosus, Serv. Canada. 

Nemobius vittatus, Har7-is. Nova Scotia. ' 

Onthophilus maculatus, Say. do 

Decticus sphagnorum, Barnst. St. Martin's Falls. Hudson's Bay. 
XiPHiDiUM fasciatum, Z^ig-. Nova Scotia. 
Phaneroptera curvicauda, X*^^. do 
Phylloptera myrtifolia, ^S^T?'. Canada. Nova Scotia. 
Caloptenus femur-rubrum, Deg. Nova Scotia. Arctic America. 

do bivittatus, Say. Canada. Nova Scotia. St. Martin's 

Falls. 

do borealis, Fieber. Labrador. 

do fasciatus, Barnst. St. Martin's Falls. 

do extremus, Walk. Arctic America. 

do arcticus, Walk. do do 

Podisma septentrionalis, Saiiss. Labrador. 



THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. ■ 31 

Œdipoda Carolina, Linn. Canada. Nova Scotia. 

do sulphurea, Fabr. Nova Scotia. Arctic America, 
do phoenicoptera, Gei-m. St. Martin's Falls. Arctic America, 
do rugosa, Scudder. Nova Scotia. 
do corallipes, Hald. Arctic America. 
Stenobothrus curtipennis, Harris. St. Martin's Falls. Nova 
Scotia. Newfoundland. Arctic America, 
do maculipennis, Scudder. Arctic America. 
Tettix granulata, Kirby. St. Martin's Falls. Arctic America, 
do ornata, Harris. Nova Scotia. St. Martin's Falls. 
Jan., 1872. 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRmSH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirby s Fauna Boreali- Americana : fnsecta. 



(Continued from page 233, Vol. iii.) 

207. BuPRESTis (Stenuris) divaricata Say. — Length of body 10 
lines. Taken in Canada by Dr. Eigsby ; I received both sexes also from 
Massachusetts by the kindness of Dr. Harris. 

[155.] Body below copper-bronzed, above dusky -bronzed ; glossy ; 
confluently punctured and wrinkled. Head with numerous branching, 
levigated, narrow spaces ; eyes yellow surrounded with a black orbit ; 
mandibles black at the tip ; front longitudinally impressed in the centre : 
prothorax with numerous levigated spaces, obsoletely channelled ; sides 
anteriorly rounded with a slight sinus near the base ; basilar angles diverg- 
ing : elytra very obsoletely furrowed, reticulated with numerous elevated 
lines, many scattered levigated spaces ; bicarinated at the apex, the inner 
■ ridge being very short ; suture terminating in a point ; at their truncated 
extremity the elytra are divaricated and suddenly attenuated : the first 
segment of the abdomen, and the breast bones are hollowed out into a 
longitudinal channel : prosternum linear. [Exceedingly common in Can- 
ada ; the larva bores into cherry and beech, and probably other trees. 
Belongs to the genus Dicerca Esch.] 

208. Buprestis (Stenuris) tenebrosa Kirby. — - Length of body 
7^ lines. Several taken in Lat. 65°, and in the Rocky Mountains. 



32 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Very like the species just described but much smaller. Body con- 
fluently punctured, upper surface black, with only the elevated parts 
glossy, lower bronzed-copper and glossy. Mouth and antennae bronzed ; 
eyes black ; front sculptured as in SA divaricata : prothorax uneven with 
shallow impressions and a broad dorsal channel ; distinctly bisinuate at 
the base ; surface with levigated elevations : scutellum very minute, im- 
pressed : elytra divaricated and suddenly attenuated at the apex, which is 
rounded and has a single ridge ; surface rough with many concatenated 
and levigated irregular elevations, side of the tip bronzed : breast channel- 
led underneath, but the first segment of the abdomen less conspicuously, 
prosternum nearly an isosceles triangle : hypopygium with three short 
teeth. [Taken in Canada, but not very common ; " abundant at Lake 
Superior" (Le Conte). Belongs to Dicerca.\ 

209. [156.] BuPRESTis (Stenuris) tenebrica Kirby. — Length of 
body 7^ — 9 lines. Several taken in Lat. 54° and at Cumberland-house. 

This species differs principally from St. tencbrosa, which in other 
respects it greatly resembles, in having the prothorax without any levigated 
elevations, and with the impressions, except the channel which is better 
defined, more obsolete. The elytra are distinctly furrowed, especially 
next the suture, with punctured furrows, and there is only a series of levi- 
gated elevations near the lateral margin ; the attenuated apex of the elytra 
is longer, rather truncated, and underneath of a dark blue : the prosternum 
is linear, and the base of the abdomen scarcely channelled : the teeth of 
the hypopygium are longer and of a brilliant ruddy-copper. 

Variety B. Smaller, upper surface black-bronzed. [Probably synony- 
mous with Dicerca lacustris Lee, a species taken at Point Kewenan, on 
Lake Superior.] 

[157]. 210. BuPRESTis (Odontomus) trinervia Kirby. — Plate ii., 
fig. 9. — Length of the body 5/^—5^ lines. Several specimens taken in 
Lat. 54° and 65" and in the Rocky Mountains. 

Body punctured, above black-bronzed, below copper-coloured and 
glossy. Head obscurely copper, confluently punctured and wrinkled, 
with a pair of levigated irregular elevations between the eyes; nosebilobed 
with divaricated lobes forming an obtusangular sinus ; antennae copper 
with a testaceous pedicel: prothorax transverse, confluently punctured 
with several levigated spaces ; lightly and widely impressed, impressions 
faintly gilded ; disk channelled ; sides very slightly emarginate ; base with 
3. double sinus , scutellum triangular, acuminated : elytra Ayijh the 4^- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 33 

pressed parts confluently punctured and very faintly gilded ; with three 
subinterrupted longitudinal ridges connected by transverse levigated ele- 
vations ; the two external ridges become confluent and proceed as a single 
ridge to the apex ; lateral margin towards the apex minutely serrulate : 
back of the abdomen of a fine silky green : underside of the body thinly 
planted with hoary hairs ; prosternum constricted in the middle and ter- 
minating towards the anus in a dilated trilobed point : shoulders much 
incrassated, armed below with a stout tooth ; cubits clubbed at the apex ; 
four anterior tibiae bent or bowed : hypopygium bidentate. [Belongs 
to the genus Chrysobothris Esch. Taken in Canada, and, according to 
Dr. Le Conte, in the following localities : " Lake Superior, Lake Winni- 
peg, Oregon and Washington Territories.'' He states that " the colour 
beneath is somewhat variable, and that he has a ^ with the body entirely 
green, and a Ç in which it is coppery, with purple spots at the sides of 
the abdomen. The sides of the thorax are sometimes straight, sometimes 
rounded, but it is never obviously wider in front."] 

211. BupRESTis (Odontomus) PROXiMA X/ri5_y. — Length of body 5 )^ 
lines. A single specimen taken in the Expedition. 

[158. J Body minutely and thickly punctured : above black-bronzed 
obscure ; underneath cupreous with the gloss obscured ; except near the 
anus, cloathed with numerous rather long decumbent hoary hairs. Head 
somewhat cupreous, hoary from decumbent hairs ; nose green, bilobed 
with divaricated lobes, including a somewhat obtusangular sinus ; antennae 
green ; vertex channelled : prothorax embossed in the disk, impressed 
and wrinkled at the sides; depressed parts punctured and reflecting a 
faint lustre of copper : scutellum an isosceles triangle, depressed and green 
at the base, elevated part black : elytra embossed, with a ridge extending 
from the apex where it is broader, by the side of the suture towards the 
base where it is abbreviated : the depressed spaces have a faint lustre of 
copper and bronze, and are thickly punctured ; apex rounded and obso" 
letely serrulated : shoulders incrassated with a short robust tooth : all the 
tibiae are bent or bowed ; cubit not dilated at the extremity : hypopygium 
with a deep sinus. 

This nearly resembles B. O. trincrvia, but is sufliciently distinguished 
by having only a single ridge on the elytra, and the posterior tibiae as 
well as the other pairs, bowed : the prothorax also is not channelled and 
its sides are rounded. [Belongs to Chrysobothris. Is not included in Le 
Conte's List.] 

[159. J 212. BuPRESTis (Trachypteris) Drummondi Kirby. — Plate 



34 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ii., fig. 8, var. B. — Length' of body 4^ lines. Several specimens taken in 
Lat. 54° and 65'', and in the Rocky Mountains. 

Body as it were reticulated with numerous punctures, bronzed, more 
obscurely on the upper surface, more glossy on the lower. Head very 
thickly punctured, obsoletely and slenderly channelled; apex of the nose 
levigated : prothorax transverse, with a double sinus in the basilar margin ; 
obsoletely channelled, impressed on each side nearer the base, covered 
with innumerable scratches variously drawn, those of the disk being 
somewhat concentric ; sides punctured : scutellum very minute, trans- 
verse : elytra very thickly punctured, and also exhibiting an appearance 
of granulations, slanting at the apex ; the disk of the elytra, nearer the 
apex than the base, is marked with three yellow roundish dots arranged 
in an obtuse-angled triangle with the vertex towards the side : underside 
of the abdomen towards the anus less thickly punctured. 

Variety B. Elytra with four yellow dots, a minute one, but varying in 
size, being placed outside the anterior one. [Belongs to Melanophila 
Esch. " Oregon and Washington Territories, abundant, straying into 
California and Alaska." (Le Conte).] 

213. BuPRESTis (Trachypteris) umbellatarum Fabr. — Length of 
body 2^ lines. Several specimens taken near Cumberland-house, Lat. 54°. 

[160.] The description that Fabricius and Olivier have given of B, 
umbellatarum is so extremely brief, that I am by no means certain that 
the insect I here give under that name is really synonymous with it. As 
far as their description goes it corresponds, and also with Olivier's figure, 
but that is very indistinct. It has been found in Barbary, Portugal, and 
Provence. Fabricius says it afibrds no characters except its colour and 
smooth elytra; but it will be found upon a close inspection, I speak 
with regard to the American specimens, to exhibit several. 

Body black-bronzed, covered all over as it were with a fine net-work, 
produced by minute lines as if scratched by a pin or needle ; above dull, 
below glossy. Antennae much shorter than the prothorax : prothorax 
transverse with rounded sides, and longitudinal basilar impressions near 
each posterior angle : scutellum triangular : elytra with three very slight 
impressions arranged longitudinally ; an obsolete series of punctures runs 
parallel with the lateral margin ; apex obtuse and very minutely serrated : 
prosternum acuminate. 

314. Buprestis (Oxypteris) appendiculata Fabr. — Length of body 



THE CAKADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 35 

4}( — S/i lines. Several specimens in the Rocky Mountains, and near 
Cumberland-house. 

■ [i6i.] Body black, not glossy. Head minutely and thickly punctured, 
channelled, on each side of the channel between the eyes is an impression ; 
antennae nearly as long as the prothorax : prothorax scarcely wider than 
long, channelled, with a large but shallow impression on each side ; sides 
thickly punctured so as to resemble net-work ; rounded with the basilar 
angles depressed and a little diverging : scutellum nearly heart-shaped, 
acute : elytra rough with very minute and numerous granules, and several 
very slight shallow impressions, between which runs an obsolete obtuse 
ridge from the shoulder towards the apex, serrulated at the apex, and ter- 
minating in a very sharp point : breast minutely and thickly punctured ; 
prosternum a little constricted in the middle, point triangular. [Though, 
as Le Conte remarks, this species here described is very closely related to 
the European insect to which it is referred by Kirby, it is Says' Melano- 
phila longipes — a species not at all uncommon in Ontario, and taken also 
in such widely separated localities as Pennsylvania, Kansas and Lake Su- 
perior.] 

215. Agrilus bivittatus Kirby. — Length of body 4 lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

[Previously described as Buprcstis (Agrilus) biliiicatus Weber ; for 
description vide Say's Ent. Works, i. 386 and ii. 596. This very pretty 
species is not uncommon in Canada, and is taken throughout the United 
States.] 

[162.] 216. Trachys aurulenta Kirby. — ^Length of body 3 lines. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body obovate, black-blue, glossy. Sinus of the head deeper than in 
the other species ; face nearly covered with glittering copper-coloured 
decumbent hairs ; antennae shorter than the prothorax : prothorax trans- 
verse, répand on each side at the base with a central lobe, concave at the 
apex ; anteriorly in the middle very convex ; sides and base depressed ; 
surface impunctured and tesselated with ruddy-copper hairs like those of 
the head : scutellum at the base transverse, with the vertex terminating in 
a long and sharp acumen : elytra with three ridges, the two inner ones less 
distinct, parallel, obtuse and abbreviated at each extremity, the external 
one distinct, acute running from the shoulder in an undulated line nearly 
to the apex of the elytrum; several rows of larger punctures are discernible, 
and several spaces thickly punctured with minute ones; the elytra are 



36 ' THE CAÎs^ADlAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



also spotted with several hairy ruddy-copper spots, and ornamented with 
four or five undulated hairy indistinct silver bands : underneath the tint 
of blue is very faint and the disk of the breast is bronzed ; the mesoster- 
num is hollowed out into a deep channel. [Previously described as 
Biiprestis (Brachys) ovatea Weber. Rather rare in Canada; taken in the 
Eastern, Middle and Southern States.] 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Smerinthus modestus. — Several specimens of this very rare and 
beautiful sphinx have been captured in the neighbourhood of London 
during the past season. — W. S. 

Captures at North, Douro, Co. of Peterboro, Ont. — Having, in 
accordance with my invariable custom, taken notes during the past year 
of such entomological specimens as I have captured in this neighbour- 
hood, I herewith furnish you with a list which, as the season for collecting 
has expired — save only with respect to those who search for insects in 
their hibernacula — ^may perhaps find some small vacant space upon the 
pages of our Magazine. 

March 24. — A fine specimen of Attacus Polyphemus was hatched in 
a box in my library. In emerging from the cocoon, it made a noise 
similar to, and as loud as, that made by a mouse behind a wainscot. It 
was, in fact, by this scratching sound that my notice was first attracted to 
the box. 

March 29. — I captured a "small tortoise-shell butterfly" — Vanessa 
Milberti. It was fluttering on the snow-covered ground, tempted abroad 
by a bright gleam of sunshine, the thermometer indicating, at the time, 
30° Fahrenheit, 

April 8. — I discovered, in a piece of decayed wood, a larva of a Fire- 
fly — Photinus corruscus. It emitted a very pretty pale-green light. 

May 9. — Mosquitoes made their first appearance ; all through this 
year they were less troublesome than I have ever known them previously. 

May 21. — Swarms of Flea-beetles — Haltica — appeared on some 
cabbage plants growing in boxes. I watered the plants with tobacco- 
water, soon after which the beetles left them and gathered on the edges 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 37 

and sides of the boxes, suffering, evidently, from narcosis. I killed hun- 
dreds of them, while in this condition, without difficulty. 

■I also, on the same day, poured tobacco-water into some ants' nests 
on my lawn, and the ants disappeared. 

May 25. — Black-flies — Simulia molcsta — put in their most unwelcome 
appearance, covering, positively darkening, trees and fences and sides of 
houses. 

May 27. — Papilio listerias, P. tiirmis f and Ç , Vanessa antiopa^ 
and Thy reus nessiis. 

May 29. — Chalcophora virginiensis. 

June 6. — Another specimen of C. virginiensis and Chrysobothris fe- 
morata. 

Finding my currant and gooseberry-bushes infested with caterpillars, 

1 watered them with hellebore and alum — i oz. powdered hellebore and 

2 oz. powdered alum, to a gallon of water — which I find an unfailing 
remedy. 

June 9. — Folyoniniatus Americana. 

June 10. — A friend brought nie a "Cucumber-beetle" — Diabrotica 
vittata,W\t\). some of its eggs, which, with a look almost of triumph at the 
discovery, he assured me was a " Colorado Potato Bug." Nor could I 
convince him of his error until I showed him in my collection a specimen 
of the Diabrotica captured some years ago, long before the Colorado 
Beetle was heard of in Canada. I may here mention that on two subse- 
quent days, two neighbours brought me specimens of the Ancylochira fas- 
ciata and the Clytus speciosus respectively, with the assertion, very emphatic 
in the case of the second, that they were the veritable much-dreaded 
"bugs." 

However, on the 4th of the following month, July, I was shown, by 
another neighbour, some larvae, discovered on a potato-patch in his 
garden, of the true Doryphora lo-lineata. 

June 29. — "Locust-tree Carpenter-moth" — Xy lentes Robiniœ. Linienitis 
arthemis ^ . 

July I. — A " Buprestis"^ — Ancylochira fasciata. 
July 3. — Clytus speciosus. 

July 8.- — "Common 3-striped Potato-beetle" — Lenia trilineata. Three 
specimens. 

July 2t^.— Clytus speciosus. Hyper compa Lecontei. 



38 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

July 2 6.-^The " Hellgrammite Fly" — Corydalis cornutus. 

August 3. — Dicerca lurida; 8)4 tenths of an inch long. 

September i. — CJirysomcla scalaris. 

September 11. — "Black-flies" made their second appearance: an un- 
usual occurence. Several children were rather severely bitten by them. 

It may not prove uninteresting to your readers if I superadd the fol- 
lowing brief atmospheric notes : — 

November 10. — First fall of snow. 16. — Sleighing. 28. — The river 
Otonabee, a rapid stream, frozen across from side to side. 30. — Ther- 
mometer 13° below zero — a somewhat extraordinary record for the month 
of November. — V. Clementi, B.A. 

" PoLYHiSTOR ?" — I cannot pass Mr. Couper's remarks on pp. 178 — 9, 
Vol. iii., unnoticed, though I have no quarrel with that gentleman. First, 
he takes too much unction to his soul in supposing that by qualifying too 
sweeping an assertion (see p. 158), I have in any way weakened the asser- 
tion that he mistook the above Lepidopterous larva for that of a Cole- 
opter. I know positively that the Balaninns larva spins no web, while 
the Holcoccra larva does. The first leaves the acorn to burrow in the 
ground, with rare exceptions, in the fall of the year; and any one who col- 
lects infested acorns on the last of March, as did Mr. Couper, will be 
morally certain to find 999 0/ them containing the Holcoc£7'a where one 
contains the Balaninns. Mr. Cooper's description on p. 65 also shows 
plainly that his larvae Avere moth-larvae, for in those of Balaninns the 
thorax is not " chestnut colour," and there are not numerous dots on the 
body. Feehng pretty sure that Mr. Couper had made a mistake, I drew 
attention to it for truth's sake, and if Mr. Couper writes for truth rather 
than victory, he will plainly tell the readers of the Entomologist, as he 
promised to do,, whether or not he bred moths from those larvae which he 
obtained in March. Too much error creeps into entomological literature 
by careless, description, and the settlement of the point in dispute between 
us is quite important. I have already stated that I know of no curculio- 
nidous larva in the United States that spins a cocoon. If Mr. Couper's 
■ larvae were really curculionidous, we shall have at least one exception; but 
I submit in all earnestness that no proof has yet been given. 

With regard to the other strictures in his article on p. 178, I have little 

' to say. I still claim that Mr. Couper should not use the term " Family " 

in the sense of " Order," as he did on p. 35 ; and whether Mr. Pettit, of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 39 

Grimsby, " comes to his aid," or not, in reference to the species of Bala- 
ninus infesting acorns, may be judged of by the following letter which Mr. 
Pettit wrote after reading my communication on the subject, as published 
in the October number : — 

My Dear Sir, — ^Your letter in reference to the Acorn weevil was 
duly received, and I feel greatly indebted to you for it. I did not intend 
to refer the Acorn weevil to Say's nasiais, but supposed it to be known 
under that name, as it is the only one of the genus in our Canadian list. 
I was under the impression that Say's species were irrecognisable from the 
briefness of his descriptions, but after examining the few specimens in my 
collection under the light of your letter, I am convinced that you have 
given the true reading. Of eight captured specimens, all, with one ex- 
ception, belong to nasiciis as defined by you, and the six remaining speci- 
mens bred from acorns agree with your description of rectus. Two of 
these you will find enclosed herewith. Yours very truly, J. Pettit. 
Grimsby, Oct. 17, 187 1. 

C. V. Riley, St. Louis, Mo. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



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upon by the Editors :— 

Whole page on cover or fly-sheet $5-oo per annum. 

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and 3 cts. for every subsequent one. 
These rates are payable in advance. 



Collecting Tour in Labrador. — When I penned the notice of my 
proposed tour to Labrador, I had no idea that there would be so much 
demand for Entomological material from this Northern quarter. But since 
the notice has appeared, letters have been received from Mr. P. S. Sprague, 
Boston Natural History Society ; Mr, Samuel Henshaw, Boston ; Mr. Geo. 
D. Smith, Boston, for Coleoptera ; and Dr. Theodore L. Mead, New 
York ; Mr, Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa. ; Mr. G. M. Levette, Assist. 
Geolog. Survey, Indianapolis, for Lepidoptera; and having neglected to 



40 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



give my full address, possibly other letters may have gone astray. I want 
only 12 subscribers for Z^z^i?//(?r«, and the terms are settled by corres- ' 
pondence. I am anxious to put the Coleoptera into the hands of one 
person, or an institution, who could work and determine the material, in 
order to put the matter in some form for future reference. I will supply 
notes with every species collected. — Wm. Couper, 38 Bonaventure St., 
Montreal. 

Platysamia Columbia. — I will give in exchange for a good example 
of this moth one hundred specimens of Lepidoptera of various genera from 
California, Southern and Atlantic United States, S. America, Europe, 
East Indian Archipelago, &c., or double the number for two examples; 
or, if it is preferable, I will pay in money. Herman Strecker, Box" iii, 
Reading P. O., Berks Cy., Pa. U. S. 

Cork. — We have a good supply of sheet cork of the ordinary thick- 
ness, price 16 cents (gold) per square foot. 

Pins. — We have still a supply of Nos. 3, 5 and 6 left. A large quan- 
tity have been ordered, and are shortly expected. The prices in future 
will be slightly raised. The present stock will be sold at 75c. (gold) 
per packet of 500. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vols. i. 2 and 3. — We have a few copies 
left of Vols. I and 2, No. i, of Vol. i, being, however, out of print. Price 
$1.25 for Vols. I and 2 ; $1 Vol. 3. 

List of Canadian Coleoptera. — Price 15 cents each, embracing 55 
families, 432 genera, and 1231 species. (For labelling cabinets). 

Printed Numbers, in sheets, i to 2000, for labelling cabinets. Price 
I o cents each set. 

These prices are exclusive of cost of transportation, and orders will 
please state whether the package is to be sent by mail or express. 



AGENTS FOR THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Canada. — E. B. Reed, London, Ont; W. Couper, Naturalist, Montreal, 

P.Q.; G. J. Bowles, Quebec, P. Q.; J. Johnston, Canadian Institute, 

Toronto, Ont. 
United States. — The American Naturalist's Book Agency, Salem, Mass.; 

J. Y. Green, Newport, Vt.; W. V. Andrews, Room 17, No. 137 

Broadway, New York. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., MARCH, 1872. No. 



MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KY. 



Continued from page 29. 

It may be necessary to state that the names which I have used for the 
different nervures of the wings in these papers are those used by Dr. 
Clemens, and differ somewhat from those in use b}^ European entomolo- 
gists. 

Various means may be used for the purpose of denuding the wings of 
their scales, so as to render the neuration distinct. The wing may be 
pressed slightly between two pieces of moistened bibulous paper, and the 
process repeated until the wing is sufficiently denuded ; or, if this does 
not denude it sufficiently, the few remaining scales may be removed with 
a camel's or sable hair brush. M. Guenee moistens the paper with gum 
water. Soft wax may be used instead of the paper. Dr. Clemens' plan 
was to moisten a slip of glass, and then, placing the wing upon it, remove 
the scales with a moistened sable hair brush from one side, and then, 
turning it over, remove them in the same way from the other side. 

But, with the greatest care and skill, there is danger of injuring the 
wings of the small moths, particularly of breaking off their tips, and 
especially if the wing is dry. And all of these plans require a great deal 
of time. 

I have found the following plan preferable, as requiring less time and 
skill and being equally effective. Lay the wing upon a glass slip (e. g. a 
microscopic slide) covering it with a piece of thin covering glass (e. g. a 
thin glass cover for microscopic objects). Drop on the glass slip, so that 
it will flow under the slide, one or two drops of solution of potash or soda, 
and hold it over a lamp-fiame until it begins to boil, removing it at the 
first ebullition. If boiled too long, the more delicate nervules may be 
obliterated, and if there is too much liquid, the wing may, by the boiling, 
become folded, so that it will be spoiled. The finer nervules may also be 
obliterated by allowing the wing to remain too long in the liquid. But if 
proper care has been taken in these respects, the glass slip may be 
removed from the lamp to the stage of the microscope, and the neuration 



42 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

will be found very distinct, and may at once be accurately sketched under 
the camera. If it is desired to preserve the wing, it should immediately, 
by the cautious addition of clean water, be floated off the glass slip on to 
another clean slip, enough water being used to remove the potash, and 
the wing dried upon the slip. 

This plan answers better still for the removal of the scales of the head 
and its appendages ; and the wing or head may be denuded and sketched 
under the camera within five minutes. 

HVPONOMEUTA. 

/. H. niulfipunctclla Clem. Proc. Acad. N'ai. Sci., Phi/a., i860, p. 8. 

Dr. Clemens' description of this species is too brief for a species 
belonging to a genus the species of which so closely resemble each other 
as they do in this genus. In a general way, his description characterizes 
almost any species of the genus. 

He says : " Labial palpi, head, antenna and thorax white. Thorax 
with a black spot on the front of the tegulae, and a few spots of the same' 
hue on the disk. Fore-wings white, with the costa at the base blackish, 
and longitudinal rows of distinct black dots, iiao of which, one along the 
inner margin, and one along the fold, are very plain. Hind wings blackish 
grey." (The italics are my own). 

What does " two of which " mean ? two spots, or two rows of spots ? 
If the latter, then it does not differ greatly from IP. etionyyuella. But "hind 
wings blackish-grey" does not accord with either of the following species : 

2. H. euonymella. N. sp. 

Snowy white. Abdomen yellow ; posterior wings silvery white, fringed 
with snoAv-white. A black spot on the base of the tegulse, six others on 
the thorax ; extreme costa black at the base ; forty to forty-five black 
spots on each wing, forming three rows, one on the costal margin, and one 
on each side of the fold, and a few scattered spots ^^pon the disc. The 
spots in the costal row are smaller and wider apart than those in the tAvo 
others, and are not so regular, as in some specimens they are a little out 
of line, and become intermixed Avith the discal spots ; the two other roAvs 
pass beyond the fold, and extend as a double roAV of small close spots 
around the apex till they meet the costal row. Phe spots on each 7iearJy 
circular. Alar ex. \ inch. Kentucky. Very common. 

The larva feeds upon the leaves of Euonynuis atropïcrpjireus in May, 
Aveaving together the edges of the leaves so as to enclose a space as large 
as a man's fist, Avhich is filled Avith its loose AA'eb, and in Avhich one, or 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 43 

rarely two, larvje may be found, though there are many such nests on the 
bush. The larvse seem to take pleasure in letting themselves down by 
their threads about half way to the ground and swinging in the air. They 
are a little over one inch long, slender, greenish-white, with a darker 
green longitudinal line on the back, and about eight small black spots on 
each segment, except the second (the head being the first), which, has 
only four or five. The spots are arranged in longitudinal lines. The 
pupa is green. Pupa May 28th. Imago June 6th. 

J. H. longimaculella. N'. sp. 

White ; posterior wings yellowish-white, fringed with white. There 
are two black annulations on the terminal joint of the palpi : one at its 
base, the other near the apex. Antennas yellowish, faintly annulate with 
fuscous. A small black spot on the posterior margin of the vertex and 
anterior margin of the thorax, and about four distinct black spots on the 
posterior margin of the thorax, and a black spot on the base of the tegulœ. 
Extreme costa black at the base, a long black spot parallel with the fold, 
beginning at the base of the costa, and about sixteen other oblong black 
spots upon the wing, forming three or four irregular lines of spots, which 
sometimes seem to coalesce. Besides these spots, there are a few black 
scales scattered over the wing, and about twelve smaller spots extending 
around the apex at the base of the cilise. Alar ex. s inch. Kentucky. 
Common. 

Larva unknown. I took numerous specimens in the forest, June 
4th. The spots, besides being oblong, are larger than in H. eiionymelia, 
which is the prettier insect of the two, though both are very pretty. 

HERIBEIA? STEPHENS. 

Stephen's generic descriptions are so general and vague, that one who 
has to rely upon them, without having seen authentic specimens, is driven 
to the necessity, in a good degree, of guessing at the genus to which a new 
species may belong. Of the two genera, to one of which the insect de- 
scribed below may belong, viz., Lophonotus and Heribeici., it seems to me 
that the latter is most probably the one in which it should be placed. 
"Palpi short, slightly elongate," is indefinite enough, and so is "hind wings 
someivhat linear triangular," and '' more or less distinct, oblique, silvery- 
white, streaks or spots at the tip of the fore-wings," is not at all applicable 
to this species. Nevertheless, rather than encumber the science with a 
new name, which might be worse than useless, I have concluded to place 
it in Heribeia, with the following notes of its structural peculiarities : — 



44 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Tongue as long as the anterior coxae. Maxillary palpi short and 
slender ; labial palpi reaching, but not overarching, the vertex, simple, of 
the sa7ne size from base to near the apex, the. terminal joint nearly as long as 
the first and second together ; antennae simple, more than half as long as 
the wings ; scales of the head appressed or smooth. Anterior wings 
elongate ovate, subfalcate beneath the tip ; discoidal cell rather wide, closed, 
the costal vein attains the margin just behind the middle, not far from the 
first sub-costo-marginal vein. The subcostal is straight from its base to 
the costa, just above the tip ; the first marginal is given off just before the 
middle, the second not far behind it, and the third from about the end of 
the cell : a short vein connects the second at about its middle, with the base 
of the third, thus forming a narroiu elongate triangular cell, with its base 
resting on the subcostal near the end of the discal cell. The discal (or 
transverse) vein gives off three branches to the hind margin, and below 
them the median is three-branched, the two terminal branches being much 
curved at base. Submedian distinct. Posterior wings a little wider than 
the anterior; costa rather straight, but decidedly retuse before the pointed 
tip ; hind (or apical) margin not emarginate beneath the tip, but passing 
with a sweeping curve, like a cimeter, to the dorsal margin. Costal vein 
long and straight ; subcostal long, straight, simple attaining the apex. 
Discal cell wide, closed by a transverse vein, which, near its middle, gives 
off a vein which bifurcates, sending one branch to the apex, and the other 
to the hinder margin ; the median gives off three branches, one before the 
transverse vein, and the two terminal ones arising from a common stalk 
behind it. Submedian and internal veins distinct. The neuration of the 
forewings is thus scarcely different from that of Hyponomeuta, though the 
wing in this species is falcate, and the neuration of the hind wing is 
different. 

H. ? incertella. A\ sp. 

Palpi bronzy brown, second joint whitish on its inner surface. Head 
silvery. Antennœ brown. Thorax reddish or golden brown. Anterior 
wings greyish-brown, with indistinct spots and patches of darker brown, 
the largest of which is about the middle of the costal margin. A broad 
white streak about the basal fourth of the dorsal margin. Apical margin 
densely scaled ; two hinder marginal dark brown lines in the ciliae, one 
at their base, the other and wider one at their apex. Alar ex. nearly ]/> 
inch. Kentucky. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 45 



ON THE EMBRYONIC LARV^ OF BUTTERFLIES. 



BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, BOSTON. 



Reprinted from "The Entoinologisfs Monthly Magazine," Volume viii. 

In their papers on various species of British M-acro-Lepidoptera, Messrs. 
HelHns and Buckler furnish us with much better accounts of the external 
appearance of caterpillars than can be gained from the meagre and super- 
ficial descriptions which used to be thought sufficient ; and, as they have 
not confined their descriptions to the full grown animals, but have fol- 
lowed the creatures through all their moults, they have, in several cases, 
incidentally shown how great a difference there is between the larva just 
hatched and the full grown caterpillar ; especially in the case of some of 
the Rhopalocera thus treated by them. Mr. Riley, of America, has, in one 
or two instances, recorded similar facts. 

It is the purpose of the present communication to point out the pro- 
bable universality of this law — that caterpillars of butterflies present greater 
structural differences between tne embryonic and adult stages of the same 
individual, than are to be found in the adult larvae of allied genera. By 
the term " embryonic," I designate those caterpillars which have not 
changed their condition since leaving the egg, a stage in which they 
generally continue but one or two days. Some of the changes alluded to 
are more or less gradual in their appearance, but they generally occur at 
the first moulting of the caterpillar. 

All the instances given are drawn from New England butterflies, and 
the generic terms employed are those used in my list, published in the 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. If any one is 
sceptical in regard to the facts adduced, I can enter more into detail upon 
doubtful points. It should also be premised, that in studying caterpillars, 
the shape and sculpturing of the head, the form of certain segments, and 
especially the precise number, location and disposition of the spines, 
thorns, and hair-emitting warts of the body, will be found to furnish abun- 
dant means of distinguishing the most closely allied and minutely sub- 
divided genera. But to our examples. 

In the genus Safyrus, the body of the young larva is furnished with 
exceedingly long, scarcely tapering, compressed hairs, geniculate a little 
beyond the base, serrulate above, and generally directed backwards; those, 
however, which occur on the upper portion of the thoracic segments are 
directed forward, and thus present a very peculiar contrast. Nothing of 



46 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

this sort appears on the mature larva, which is represented by Boisduval 
and Le Conte as quite smooth, but which is probably uniformly clothed 
with very short hairs. 

In the genus Hipparchia, the young larva is born with a head of equal 
height and breadth, furnished with prominent lateral and frontal warts. 
The body has four pairs of longitudinal rows of tubercles definitely dis- 
posed, each tubercle bearing a short, straight, delicately clubbed bristle. 
The head of the mature larva, on the other hand, bears no lateral or 
frontal warts, but either half is prolonged upwards into a conical horn as 
long as the head itself; while the body is furnished only with microscopic 
hairs, irregularly distributed. In both this and Satyrus the bifurcation of 
the last segment of the mature larva, long known as a characteristic of the 
sub-family of Satyrinœ, is scarcely perceptible in the embryonic caterpillar, 
being indicated in Satyrus only by slight tubercles. , 

In Limenitis, the head of the young larva is smooth and equal, and 
the body uniform in size throughout, studded with numerous equal, 
stellate, regularly disposed warts. In the mature larva the head is covered 
with numerous conical warts, and surmounted by a pair of very large 
compound spinous tubercles. The body is by no means uniform, the se- 
cond and third thoracic and eighth abdominal segments being "hunched" 
and tumid, while the first thoracic segment is much smaller than any of 
the others ; the warts have changed to very variable tubercles — on the 
second thoracic segment into a long, club-like, spinous appendage — and 
are mounted on mammulae of different sizes ; the whole, aided by the 
strange coloration of the animal, presenting a most grotesque appearance. 

In the young larva of Grapta, the head is smooth, and the body fur- 
nished with three pairs of rows of minute warts, each emitting a long 
tapering hair. In the mature larva, the head is crowned by a pair of long, 
stout, aculiferous spines ; and the body bears seven longitudinal rows of 
mammiform elevations, each surmounted by a compound spine. That 
these spines are not simply the out-growth of the hairs of the immature 
caterpillar is evident from the fact that there is a median dorsal row which 
is entirely wanting at birth, and that the position of the other spines, 
relatively to the sides of the segments upon which they occur, is quite 
different from that of the hairs in the young animal. 

The same statement, with generic modifications, may be made ot 
Vanessa and Pyrameis. 

In the genus Argyttnis — or, rather, in that section which has been 
rightly separated from it under the name of Brenthis — the head of the 



THE CAKADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 47 

young larva is much broader than high, and the body profusely furnished 
with conical warts, arranged, to a certain extent, in clusters, which are in 
eight longitudinal rows, continuous on the thoracic and abdominal seg- 
ments, each wart emitting a very long, tapering, spiculiferous hair, expand- 
ing into a delicate cup-shaped club at the tip. In the mature larva, the 
head is equally broad and high, and the body furnished with six longi- 
tudinal rows of simple, not clustered, mammulee, differently disposed on 
the thoracic and abdominal segments, each mamula bearing a stout, fleshy, 
conical, bluntly tipped, aculiferous process. 

In Melitœa, the head of the immature and adult larva scarcely differ. 
In the younger stages, the body is equal, excepting that the posterior half 
tapers slightly ; in the older period it is also nearly equal, but tapers 
forward a little on the thoracic segments. Besides this, we find differences 
similar to, but even greater than, those referred to in Grapta. In the 
embryonic larva, the body is furnished with small warts, giving rise to 
rather short, tapering hairs, all arranged in five pairs of rows, three of 
them above, one on a line with, and one below, the spiracles. In the 
mature form, the hairs have given place to stout tapering spines, each 
supplied with many aculiferous, conical wartlets, and arranged in a median 
dorsal series and four pairs of lateral rows, two above and two below the 
spiracles. 

If we next turn our attention to the Lycœnidœ, we shall find similar 
differences. While the form of the head and body remain nearly the 
same from youth to maturity, the contrasts between the dorsal and lateral 
surfaces of the body are more pronounced in the early stage, both from 
the greater flattening of the upper field, and from the presence, at the line 
of demarcation between the two, of a series of warts, emitting hairs, some 
of which are exceedingly long, and curve backwards ; similar hair-bearing 
warts are present along the fold dividing the lateral and the ventral 
regions, while there are one or more longitudinal rows of simple warts 
along the sides. The different groups, the Theclœ, Lycœjiœ, and Chrysc- 
phani, can be distinguished by the number of warts to a segment in each 
of the first-mentioned rows, and by the character of the hairs borne by 
them. In the full-grown larva, the linear series of warts are wanting, but 
the whole body is covered with microscopic hairs, seated, in Lycœjia, on 
stellate dots, and which are only slightly, if at all, longer upon the angles 
of the body. 

In the Papilionidœ, again, we find no differences of importance in the 
shape of the head, but some peculiar features in the armature and form of 



48 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



the body. In Colias, the embryonic animal is famished with four rows of 
pecuhar appendages on either side of the body, three rows above the ' 
spiracles, each bearing one appendage to a segment, and one beneath 
them bearing two appendages to a segment ; these appendages are short, 
fleshy papillœ, expanding from a slender base to a club-shaped apex, as 
broad at its tip as the entire length. In the mature larva, all this is 
wanting, but the body is profusely clothed with minute short hairs, seated 
on regularly-disposed delicate warts. 

Pieris is similar; the young larva is furnished with long, hair-like 
appendages, tapering slightly, but at the tip expanding into a delicate 
club, and disposed much as in Colias. In the mature larva, the body is 
furnished with two sets of minute M^arts, one arranged in regular transverse 
series and hairless, the other irregularly distributed and emitting each a 
short delicate hair. 

In Papilio, the body of the infantine caterpillar is invariably more or 
less angulated, like that of the young Lycsenid ; while, at maturity, it is 
always quite regularly rounded above the spiracles. It is furnished, when 
young, with several longitudinal rows of bristle-bearing tubercles, one 
tubercle to a segment in each row, one row in the middle of the side 
more conspicuous than the others. When full grown, the body is almost 
entirely naked in the species I have examined, being supplied only with 
smooth hairless, scarcely elevated, lenticular warts, or with irregularly 
distributed very minute wartlets, bearing inconspicuous hairs. In other 
species there are long, fleshy filaments upon the sides of the mature cater- 
pillar, but I have not seen the embryonic stage. In addition, the first 
segment is supplied with an osmaterium, which is wanting in early life. 

The Hesperidœ strongly remind us of the genus Colias ; for we find 
the body of the embryonic larva supplied with rather short fungiform or 
infundibuliform appendages, disposed in rows upon the sides of the body, 
and arranged as in the Picrinœ ; while in the full grown caterpillar, the 
body is furnished only with short downy hairs, irregularly and profusely 
scattered. This furnishes an additional proof, of which many others are 
not wanting, of the close affinity of the Papiliotiidœ. and Hesperidœ. 

We have thus passed in review most of the great groups oi Rhopalo- 
cera^-''' and have substantiated, in a general way, the assertion made at the 
outset : — that there are greater structural differences between the embry- 
onic and adult stages of the same individual than can be found in the 



*Mr. Riley finds similar changes in JDanais. — S. H. S. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 49 

adult larvse of allied genera. Indeed, this statement is perhaps too feebly 
formulated, so important are many of the distinctions which have been 
traced. These differences, it should be noted, are not always in the same 
direction ; for we have seen that caterpillars which in infancy are clothed 
with appendages of a unique and conspicuous character, definitely dis- 
posed, display, in mature life, irregularly distributed, scarcely perceptible 
warts, emitting simple and nearly microscopic hairs ; while others, which 
in their earliest stage bore regular series of simple hairs, seated on little 
warts, become possessed, at maturity, of compound spines, surmounting 
mammulse, also definitely arranged, but occupying a very different position 
to the hairs of early life. So, too, we find some caterpillars which bear a 
tuberculated, irregular head in infancy, and a smooth and equal one at 
maturity ; or the reverse, where the head is simple at birth, and heavily 
spined or cornute when full grown ; others, again, remain almost un- 
changed through life. This latter condition of uniformity never applies to 
the appendages of the body, whether we consider their character alone or 
their disposition. Nor — the only other possible condition— do we ever 
find larvse bearing only irregularly distributed^ simple, minute hairs in 
infancy, and regularly arranged special appendages at maturity. Indeed, 
it is doubtful whether such a phenomenon exists in Nature ; since in the 
numerous and varied groups that have been examined, special dermal 
appendages have been found to be an invariable characteristic of embry 
onic larvse. 

August, 1 8 "J I. 



NOTES ON THE LARVA OF 

ACRONYCTA OCCIDENTALIS, Grotc. 



BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONT. 

This insect in the imago state closely resembles A psi^ of Europe, and 
has been, and we believe still is, doubtfully regarded as identical by 
several eminent European entomologists. , We think, however, that a 
comparison of the larval forms of the two insects will help to dispel any 
doubts which may be entertained regarding the dissimilarity of the spe- 
cies. The following description of the larva of occidentalis has already 
appeared in part, in the Annual Report of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario to the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1870, where it is given. 



50 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and, as we supposed at the time, correctly so, under the name oi psi ; but 
since probably but few of our readers will have seen that Report, and as 
the edition is sometime since exhausted, we shall reproduce the descrip- 
tion here in a fuller form : — 

Larva sparingly hairy, found feeding on plum, cherry and apple. 

Head rather long, bilobed, somewhat flat in front ; black, with yel- 
lowish dots at the sides, and with a few scattered whitish hairs. 

Body above bluish-gray, with a wide slate-coloured dorsal band, having 
a central pale orange line from second to fifth segments. From fifth to 
eleventh inclusive, each segment is ornamented with a beautiful group of 
spots, placed in the dorsal band, two of them bright orange — one in front 
and one behind — and one on each side of a greenish metallic hue ; each 
group being set in a nearly circular patch of velvety black. There are 
two lateral cream-coloured stripes, the upper one adjoining the dorsal 
band, these stripes growing indistinct towards the anterior and posterior 
segments, and down which extends, from each of the black dorsal patches, 
a short black curved line, having immediately behind its junction with the 
dorsal band a yellowish dot. The sides are marked more or less with 
dull ochrey spots, some of which form a broken band, close to the under 
surface. On the dorsal portion of twelfth segment is a dull black spot, 
considerably raised, forming a small hump ; terminal segment flattened 
and blackish. Body sparingly covered with whitish hairs, which are 
distributed chiefly along the sides, close to the under surface. 

Under surface dull greenish, feet black. 

Described from several specimens ; found in the early part of Sep- 
tember, entered the chrysalis state from the 15th to 20th September, and 
produced the imago from the 6th to the 8th of June following. 

Mr. E. Newman, in his valuable work called " British Moths," gives a 
very full description of the larva of psi as follows :-^" The head of the 
caterpillar is rather wider than the second segment ; the body is hairy with 
parallel sides, but humped on the back ; the first hump is slender, long, 
erect, horn-like, and seated on the fifth segment; the second hump is 
shorter, broader, and on the twelfth segment. The head is black, hairy, 
and shining ; its divisions very convex ; the second segment is black, with 
a very narrow median yellow line ; the third, fourth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh segments have a broad median yellow 
stripe, and there is a median square spot of the same colour on the hinder 
part of the twelfth segment ; the horn-like hump on the fifth segment is 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 51 

intensely black, and clothed with crowded short black hairs, intermixed 
udth scattered long ones ; on each side of the median stripe is an equally- 
broad jet black stripe, and in this on every segment, from the fifth to the 
twelfth both inclusive, are two transverse bright red spots, with two minute 
whitish warts between each pair, the warts emitting black bristles ; below 
the black stripe on each side is a broad gray stripe, emitting gray hairs, 
and including the black spiracles ; this gray stripe is reddish on the 
anterior segments, the intensity of the red increasing towards the head. 
The belly, legs, and claspers are dingy flesh coloured. It feeds on white 
, thorn, pear, and a variety of other trees." 

The long, intensely black hump on the filth segment, which is a very 
striking characteristic in psi, is entirely wanting in çccidenialis, the color- 
ation also is very different, the broad median yellow stripe, in the former 
from sixth to twelfth segments is also wanting in the latter. The circular 
black patches in the Am.erican species is represented in the European 
insect by a broad black stripe bordering the equally broad yellow one, the 
grouping and color of the clusters of small dorsal spots on each of these 
segments is also very different. In psi the black is bordered with a broad 
gray stripe becoming reddish on anterior segments, while in occidcntalis 
the same portion is covered with two narrower cream colored stripes, 
becoming less distinct on the anterior segments. Many other minor 
points of difference might be educed, but these, we think, are sufficient 
to show that in the larval state these species are widely diverse. 

The imago of occidentalis is said, by Mr. Grote (see Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Phila., vol. 6, p. i6,) to differ from/j/, "by the paler color of primaries, 
which are more sparsely covered with scales, and their somewhat squarer 
shape. The reniform spot on the disk shows a bright testaceous tinge, 
and the ordinary spots are less approximate than in psi. The secondaries 
are dark grey, nearly unicolorous, a little paler in the male, and darker in 
either sex than its European analogue." 

After a careful comparison of a number of bred specimens with the 
European insect we fail to see the validity of most of the distinctive 
points urged by Mr. Grote. We have found the color of primaries to 
vary much, in some examples they have been darker, but in the majority 
they have been fully as light as those oipsi) nor can we see any difference 
in uninjured specimens with regard to the density of the scale covering. 
In some the wings are somewhat squarer, but it is a dift'erence scarcely 
perceptible, and in other examples we have failed to detect it. The testa- 



52 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ceous tinge in the reniform spot is perceptible in all the specimens we have 
seen, in some quite bright, but in others exceedingly faint. The relative 
approximation of the ordinary spots varies so much in different individuals 
as to be of little distinctive value. The darker color of secondaries is, we 
believe, more uniform, and is quite characteristic in most -instances, but in 
several male specimens we have been unable to trace any difference in 
this respect. There are two other small points of distinction, not men- 
tioned by Mr. Grote, which we have thus far found invariable : mj>si, the 
orbicular spot has a black border on the outer ,side ; in occidentalis, this 
is wanting, or scarcely perceptible, or otherwise replaced by a faint entire 
testaceous bordering. In psi, the inner black bordering of the reniform 
spot is double at its lower extremity, while in occidentalis we have never 
found it otherwise than single, and this much less distinct in most speci- 
mens. All these points of difference in the imago state, it must be 
admitted, are very slight and vague as compared with the striking dis- 
similarity of the insects in their respective larval forms. 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED EY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirby's Faicna Boreali-Ajnericana : Tnsecta. 



(Continued from page 36.) 

217. Trachys acuducta Kirby. — Length of body 4 lines. Taken 
by Capt. Hall in Nova Scotia. 

[163.] Body oblong,~ punctured, hairy with scattered minute decum- 
bent bristles resembling little scales, of a bronzed and glossy copper 
colour. Front with a slight sinus : prothorax transverse, trilobed at the 
base ; disk longitudinally convex and naked ; sides hairy ; surface in the 
disk covered with minute transverse undulated lines curving upwards, and 
sides reticulated with them : scutellum transverse acuminated : elytra 
uneven, constricted before the middle, clouded and obsoletely banded 
towards the apex with minute whitish bristles ; tips rounded, serrulate : 
prosternum broad, a little constricted in the middle, rounded at the apex. 

[164?] FAMILY PYTHIDjE. 

218. Pytho NIGER jr/r-^jF. — Plate vii., fig. 2. — Length of body 534^ — 
^yi lines. Several taken in Lat. 54°, and in the journey from New York 
to Cumberland-house. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 53 

[165.] Body linear, depressed, black, shining, punctured. Head with 
a longitudinal impression on each side between the eyes ; nose smooth, 
flat, with the intermediate space less punctured ; antennae and palpi 
dusky-rufous : prothorax conspicuously channelle^d, with the usual deep 
longitudinal impression on each side, lateral contour very convex, con- 
stricted posteriorly : elytra furrowed with elevated smooth interstices ; 
furrows punctured and abbreviated at each end ; base of the elytra, where 
the furrovv^s cease, punctured : body underneath minutely punctured ; 
abdomen piceous ; tarsi rufous. 

Variety B. Tibise also rufous : thighs piceous. 

C. Body entirely ferruginous. It agrees with A in sculpture 
and every other respect except colour. 

Many individuals of the present species were taken in the Expedition, 
all of them agreeing in having no tint of blue in the elytra ; in having the 
levigated part of the base punctured, and the sides of the prothorax more 
prominent, than in P. deprcssus, from which it seems clearly distinct. [In- 
cluded in the List of Canadian Coleoptera. Taken on the North Shore 
of Lake Superior by Agassiz's Expedition.] 

219. Pytho Americanus Kh-by. — Length of body 5 — 7 lines. Se- 
veral taken in Lat. 54°, and in the journey from Nev/ York to Cumber- 
land-house. 

This species differs from the preceding chiefly in having the abdomen, 
medipectus, postpectus, legs and mouth rufous ; in a slight punctured 
elevation on each side of the nose ; the space between the eyes also is 
more distinctly punctured, and there are two deep impressions under the 
head between the eyes ; the prothorax is widest anteriorly, and not con- 
stricted behind ; and the elytra are deep blue, and scarcely punctured at 
the base. 

It differs from P. depressus, in being wider in proportion to its length, 
and in having the abdomen, and two posterior sections of the breast, 
invariably rufous. 

Variety B. Elytra rufous at the sides and tip. 

C. Elytra entirely rufous. 

D. Elytra entirely rufous ; head and prothorax piceous. 

E. Body entirely rufous. [Taken in various parts of Canada.] 

[166.] family trogositid^. 

220. Trogosita Americana Kb'by. — Length of body 5 lines. Two 
specimens taken in the journey between New York and Cumberland- 
house. 



54 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

This species is the American representative of T. caraboides from which 
it principally differs in being larger, with the frontal impressions more 
distinct ; the stalk of the antennae much slenderer, and the knob thicker : 
the prothorax not so narrow and constricted at the base, and the elytra 
slightly furrowed. ["The description of this species is so imperfect that it - 
cannot bè identified "(Le Conte)]. 

[167.] FAMILY CERAMBYCID^. 

22 1. MoNOCHAMUS RESUTOR Kirbv. — Length of body 10^ lines. 
Frequently taken in Lat. 65°. 

[Synonymous with Monohammus scutellahis Say — a very abundant spe- 
cies in many parts of Canada. For description of this well-known insect, 
?^zy<? Say's Ent. Works, i. 192.] 

[168.] 222. MoNOCHAMUs CONFUSOR Kirby. — Length of the body 
I inch and i3^ lines. Taken in' Nova Scotia by Dr. Mac Culloch, in 
Canada by Dr. Bigsby, in Massachusetts by Mr. Drake. 

Body linear, elongate, black, covered with white or cinereous decum- 
bent hairs, but so as to let the black appear in confused spots and reticu- 
lations. La brum rather long, fringed anteriorly with ferruginous hairs ; 
maxillary palpi long ; rhinarium broad, rufous ; antennae testaceous with 
the redness obscured by decumbent cinerous hairs, but the scape and 
pedicel are black ; the antennse of the female are something longer than 
the body ; those of the male are twice its length : the spines of the prc- 
thorax are stout, covered thickly with white hairs, and dotted posteriorly 
with black ; in the disk is a central oblong impression : scutellum thickly 
covered with white decumbent hairs, with a black longitudinal line : the 
ground colour of the elytra is testaceous which is more or less obscured 
and clouded by white decumbent hairs, besides there are several black 
dots and oblong spots produced by erect hairs ; at the base of the elytra, 
especially on the projecting shoulders, are numerous round elevated 
smooth little spaces, and their whole surface is covered with scattered 
minute punctures. , , 

N. B. — In the male the black spots and dots of the elytra are fainter, 
and sometimes nearly obliterated. [The synonyms of this species are 
so much confused that Kirby's specific name may certainly be considered 
a most appropriate one, if it is allowed to stand. The insect here de- 
scribed is apparently identical with Monohammus notaitcs Drury, and M. 
titillator Harris ; according to the rules of priority, it should, therefore, 
have the former name. It is a very common species in the pine forests 
of this country, especially in timber that has been left standing after a fire 



THE caNadiaN^ Entomologist. 55 

has run through the woods. Specimens of this beetle are often found in 
recently built houses and about lumber-yards.] 

[169.] 223. MoNOCHAMUS MARMORATOR A7r/^j'. — Length of body 1 1 
lines. A single specimen taken in Lat. 54°. \ 

Body black, covered underneath, but so that the black appears in 
various places, \nth subcinereous, or somewhat tawny decumbent hairs. 
Head and prothorax covered in the same way but with redder hairs : 
spines of the prothorax very robust, rather long, sharpish : scutellum 
covered with a coat of cinereous hairs, divided by a black longitudinal 
line : elytra black, marbled variously with cinereous and reddish tawny 
hairs ; the cinereous spots are dotted with black ; the surface of the 
elytra when laid bare appears punctured, and at the base are several con- 
fluent smooth elevated spaces ; suture and lateral margin testaceous ; apex 
acute. 

' N. B. — The antennse in the specimen are broken off. [Unknown to 
us.] 

224, AcANTHOciNUS (Graphisurus) pusillus Kirby. — Length of 
body 4^ lines. A single specimen taken in the journey from New York 
to Cumberland-house. 

[170.] This species is one of the most minute of the Capricorn tribes. 
Body linear, black but covered with a coat of whitish decumbent hairs, 
which appears more or less sprinkled with black dots. Head longitudi- 
nally channelled ; antennse mutilated in the specimen, but those joints 
that remain are white at the base : prothorax short, armed on each side, 
towards the base with a short sharp spine, punctured with scattered punc- 
tures ; elytra punctured especially towards the base, mottled and speckled 
with brown, with an oblique brown band a little beyond the middle, apex 
of the elytra rounded : podex and hypopygium, or last dorsal and ventral 
segments of the abdomen elongated, so as to defend the base of the ovi- 
positor which is exserted, causing the insect to appear as if it had a tail ; 
the hypopygium is emarginate : thighs much incrassated at the apex. [Not 
common ; taken at Grimsby by Mr. Pettit, and on oak-trees in the neigh- 
bourhood of Philadelphia by Mr. Bland.] 

225. Callidium agreste JT/r^j".- — Length of body 1 1 lines. Several 
specimens taken in the Expedition, and likewise in Nova Scotia by Dr. 
Mac Culloch and Capt. Hall. 

I at first took this for a variety of C. rustiann, but on a closer inspec- 
tion I found it differed in the sculpture as well as colour ; and having 



56 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

received a specimen of that insect from. Dr. Harris, in which its charac- 
ters were all preserved, I am induced to describe C. agreste as a distinct 
species. 

It differs from C. rusticum in being smaller, of a darker brown, with- 
out a tint of red ; and in having more gloss. The prothorax has three 
deep round impressions, while in the insect last named, the impressions 
are slight, and the Iwo anterior ones oblong : the elevated lines of the 
elytra are more prominent and become visibly confluent towards the apex, 
where they form several reticulations': the underside of the body is much 
more thickly covered with hairs, which are hoary instead of yellowish, 
those on the breast being longer than those on the abdomen. In other 
respcts these two insects resemble each other. [Included in the genus 
Criocephahis Muls. Taken throughout Ontario and at Lake Superior.] 

[171.] 226. Callidium striatum Z/;/;z. — Length of body 5 1/( lines. 
A single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body linear, black, thickly punctured, underneath with a few hairs, 
glossy ; above without any hairs or gloss. Antennas a little longer than 
the prothorax : prothorax suborbicular, covered thickly with minute 
granules, with an elevated tubercle in its disk : elytra most minutely and 
thickly granulated, with four longitudinal slight furrows occupying the half 
adjoining the suture, the alternate interstices being most elevated : tarsi 
rufo-piceous. [Synonymous with Asemum mœstum Hald. Taken through- 
out Ontario.] 

227. Callidium collare Kirby. — Length of body 5 lines. A single 
specimen taken in Lat. 54°. 

Body linear, black, hairy with whitish scattered hairs. Head thickly 
punctured ; antennae shorter than the body, rather hairy, piceous, scape 
black : prothorax rufous, -with a few scattered punctures, glossy, project- 
ing on each side into an angle or short spine : elytra very thickly and con- 
fluently punctured : body underneath glossy, slightly punctured : anterior 
part of antepectus rufous : tarsi piceous, first joint of nearly equal length 
in all the legs. [North Shore of Lake Superior, Agassiz's Expedition.] 

[172.] 228. Callidium Proteus Kirby. — Plate v., fig. 5. — Length 
of body 5 — 8J^ Hnes. Taken abundantly especially in Lat. 65°. 

Body black, minutely punctured, hairy with longish hoary hairs, especi- 
ally underneath. Nose with a deeply ploughed transverse furrow ; front 
behind the antennae violet, confluently punctured ; palpi black, maxillary 
rather long, last joint an obtusangular triangle; antennse longer than the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOI^OGIST. 57 

prothcrax; sides of the prothorax very rough with deep confluent punc- 
tures : elytra wrinkled, violet, with three longitudinal, subinterrupted, 
callous, pale -lines, of which the intermediate one is the longest, and the 
external oBe the shortest : legs piceous, with the incrassated part of the 
thighs testaceous. 

This species varies extremely both in size and colour. The following 
are the principal varieties : — 

Variety B. Head and prothorax violet ; elytra lurid with only two 
callous lines. Length 6^ lines. 

C. Head, except at the base of the antennae, black ; sides 

of the prothorax violet, disk bronzed : elytra as in the 
last. Length 5 lines. 

D. Head and prothorax black ; elytra lurid ; lines faintly 

marked. Length 5^ — 7 lines. 

E. Head and prothorax bronzed : elytra lurid bronzed, with 

two distinct lines. Length 6 — 7 lines. 

. F. Head violet ; prothorax bronzed : elytra as in the last. 
Length 6 lines. 

G. Like the last, but the callous lines of the elytra are obso- 
lete. Length 5^ — ô^^ lines. 

H. Head and prothorax black : elytra lurid with three lines. 
Length 7^ lines. 

L Head and prothorax black-bronzed : elytra bronzed-lurid 
with two lines. 



MEETINGS OF THE LONDON BRANCH OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 



The Annual Meeting of the London Branch was held on Friday evening, 
January 5th, at the residence of Mr. W. Saunders. In addition to a 
goodly attendance of London members, we were favoured with the 
presence of the esteemed President of the Parent Society, Rev. C. J. S.- 
Bethune, M.A. The following officers were elected for 1872 : — 

President Mr. E. B. Reed. 

Vice-President Mr. J. M. Denton. 

Sec-Treasurer Mr. W. Saunders. 

Curator Mr. Joseph Williams. 

The Annual Report of the Secretary-Treasurer was read, showing a 



58 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

healthy condition of the finances of the Branch, all the current expenses 
of the year having been met, and a small balance still on hand. 

Mr. Reed introduced the subject of local collections, and urged their 
importance. After some discussion, the following resolution was passed: 

" That-a local collection of insects shall be made for the Cabinet of 
the Branch, specimens to be collected within walking distance of the 
city, and that we, the members, will do all in our power to specially aid 
and assist in this collection." 

FEBRUARY, 1872. 

The regular monthly meeting was held on Friday evenmg, February 
2nd, at the residence of Mr. J. M. Denton. 

After the routine business was over, a letter was read from Mr. 
Billings, thanking the members of the London Branch for their kind 
resolution of sympathy in reference to his father's death, the late B. 
Billings, of Ottawa. 

The excellent microscopes belonging to Messrs. Puddicombe and 
Denton were then turned to good account by the members, who examined 
with the aid of high magnifying powers, many objects of great interest. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 



We regret to state that the Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. E. B. Reed, has 
been laid up for some little time with an attack of pneumonia, which will 
probably confine him to his house for a few days longer. He requests us 
to state that he has received letters from C. J. Beale, G. M. Levette, V. T. 
Chambers, J. W. Byrkitt, R. V. Rogers, J. A. Lintner ; and remittances 
from W. V. Andrews, G. Dimmock, H. Y. Hind, H. S. Sprague, J. Bain, 
O. S. Westcott, Rev. L. Provancher, H. K. Morrison. 

The Secretary craves the indulgence of these gentlemen until his 
health will permit him to reply to their letters. 

WILLIAM SAUNDERS, 

London, March 15, 1872. Associate Editor. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Appropriations for Entomological Purposes in the States. — 
At the late National Agricultural Convention held in Washington, Mr, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 59 

Chas. V. Riley introduced resolutions, which" were unanimously passed, 
asking, in the first place, for an appropriation of $25,000 to enable the 
Entomologist of the Department to finish the work on which he has been 
engaged for so many years; and, in the second place, for an annual 
appropriation of not less than $10,000 for experiments in destroyirig 
noxious insects. ■ 

The last appropriation is to enable such States as may be suffering 
from the injuries of any insect to an alarming extent, to make the proper 
investigations and experiments towards abating such injuries. The fund 
is to be at the disposal of the Commissioner of Agriculture, who upon 
application from any of the State' Boards of the different States, may 
authorize the expenditure of whatever amount he sees fit, for the purposes 
mentioned. 

Entomological Report. — The Report of the Entomological Society 
of Ontario is expected to be issued this month. Great delay has been 
experienced owing to the pressure of Parliamentary printing required for 
the Session of the Legislative Assembly, which has just closed. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Notice.— The following scale for advertisements has been decided 
upon by the Editors : — 

Whole page on cover or fly-sheet $5-oo per annum. 

Half " " " " 3.00 " 

Quarter " " " '* 1.50 " " 

For body of the Magazine, the rates to be 5 cts. per line for first insertion, 

and 3 cts. for every subsequent one. 
These rates are payable in advance. 



Collecting Tour in Labrador. — When I penned the notice of my 
proposed tour to Labrador, I had no idea that there would be so much 
demand for Entomological material from this Northern quarter. But since 
the notice has appeared, letters have been received from Mr. P. S. Sprague, 
Boston Natural History Society ; Mr. Samuel Henshaw, Boston ; Mr. Geo. 
D. Smith, Boston, for Coleoptera ; and Dr. Theodore L. Mead, New 
York ; Mr. Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa. ; Mr. G. M. Levette, Assist. 
Geolog. Survey, Indianapolis, for Lepidoptera ; and having neglected to 



60 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



give my full address, possibly other letters may have gone astray. I want 
only 12 subscribers for Z^z^(?//^r(7, and the terms are settled by corres- 
pondence. I am anxious to put the Coleoptera into the hands of one 
person, or an institution, who could work and determine the material, in 
order to put the matter in some form for future reference. I will supply 
notes with every species collected. — Wm. Couper, 38 Bonaventure St., 
Montreal. 

Platysamia Columbia. — I will give in exchange for a good example 
of this moth one hundred specimens of Lepidoptera of various genera from 
California, Southern and Atlantic United States, S. America, Europe, 
East Indian Archipelago, «&c., or double the number for two examples ; 
or, if it is preferable, I will pay in money. Herman Strecker, Box hi, 
Reading P. O., Berks Cy., Pa. U. S. 

Cork. — We have a good supply of sheet cork of the ordinary thick- , 
ness, price 1 6 cents (gold) per square foot. 

Pins. — We have still a supply of Nos. 3, 5 and 6 left. A large quan- 
tity have been ordered, and are shortly expected. The prices in future 
will be slightly raised. The present stock will be sold at 75c. (gold) 
per packet of 500. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vols. i. 2 and 3. — We have a fcAv copies 
left of Vols. I and 2, No. i, of Vol. i, being, however, out of print Price 
$1.25 for Vols. I and 2 ; $1 Vol. 3. 

List of Canadian Coleoptera. — Price 15 cents each, embracing 55 
families, 432 genera, and 1231 species. (For labelling cabinets). 

Printed Numbers, in sheets, i to 2000, for'labellirig cabinets. Price 
10 cents each set. 

These prices are exclusive of cost of transportation, and orders will 
please state whether the package is to be sent by mail or express. 



AGENTS FOR THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Canada.— E. B. Reed, London, Ont; W. Couper, Naturalist, Montreal, 

P.Q.; G. J. Bowles, Quebec, P. Q.; J. Johnston. Canadian Institute, 

Toronto, Ont. 
United States. — The American Naturalist's Book Agency, Salem, Mass.; 

J. Y. Green, Newport, Vt.; W. V. Andrews, Room 17, No. 137 

Broadway, New York. 



Cly Canadian Sntomolûgisf. 

VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT./ APRIL, 1872. No. 4 



DESCRIPTIONS OF 

NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA, No. 2. 

Continued from Page 24. 
BY E. T. CRESSON, PHILADELPHIA. 

Family Ichneumon id^. 
Genus Pezomachus, Grav. 

I. Pezomachus Pettitii. N. sp. — Ç. — Head piceous-black, face 
rufo-piceous, the middle longitudinally prominent; mandibles fuscous; 
antennae longer than head and thorax, pale ferruginous, dusky at tips ; 
thorax nearly as long as abdomen, piceous-brown, paler laterally and 
beneath, nodes subequal ; legs entirely piceous-brown ; abdomen ovate 
beyond first segment, shining piceous-black ; first segment narrow, slightly 
dilated behind the lateral tubercles which are not prominent, apical margin 
pale ; sometimes the head, thorax and abdomen are entirely piceous- 
black, except the pale band at apex of first segment which is always 
conspicuous in this species ; ovipositor short, about as long as first 
abdominal segment. Length .14 — .15 inch. 

Hal). — Ontario, Canada. Two specimens received from Johnson 
Pettit, Esq., of Grimsby, after whom this easily recognized species is 
named. 

i. Pezomachus gentilis. JV.sp. — Ç. — Head entirely black; antennae 
longer than head and thorax, pale ferruginous, fuscous at tips, and dark 
at incisures of joints ; thorax nearly as long as abdomen, anterior node 
ferruginous, larger than posterior one which is convex and black ; legs 
honey-yellow, tibiae and tarsi yellowish ; abdomen fuscous, ovate beyond 
first segment which is pale at base, and scarcely dilated behind the pro- 
minent lateral tubercles ; basal and apical margins of second segment 
faintly pale ; ovipositor rather longer than first abdominal segment. 
Length .12 inch. 

$ . — Black ; antennas blackish, ferruginous at base ; prothorax, legs 
and first abdominal segment ferruginous or hoftey-yellow ; second, third 
and most of fourth segments pale honey-yellow, apical segment black ; 
wings ample, hyaline, iridescent, with a faint cloud beneath stigma, which 



62 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

is large, fuscous and whitish at base ; abdomen much narrower than in Ç . 
Length .12 inch. 

Hab. — Pennsylvania. Bred, along with numerous specimens oi Meso- 
chorus scitulus. Cress., from a bunch of lemon-yellow cocoons (probabl)' 
those of a Microgaster), found attached to a blade of grass. 

3. Pezomachus tantillus. N. sp. — Ç . — Slender ; head large, 
piceous-black ; mandibles and palpi testaceous ; antennae about three- 
fourths the length of body, pale testaceous, thickened and dusky beyond 
middle ; thorax brown, prothorax testaceous, nodes subequal, posterior 
one rather more gibbous ; legs long, slender, luteous ; abdomen longer 
than head and thorax, oblong-ovate beyond first segment, subdepressed, 
fuscous ; first segment narrow, slightly dilated at apex and testaceous ; 
ovipositor rather longer than first abdominal segment. Length .09 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. About the size of ??ii}nmus, Walsh, 
but more slender in form and with a larger head. 

4. Pezomachus meabilis. N. sJ>.— Ç . — Head and thorax reddish- 
brown, face paler ; antennœ pale luteous, dusky at tips ; nodes of thorax 
subequal, posterior one more gibbous, disk and sides of anterior node 
marked with testaceous ; legs pale testaceous, the femora and tibise varied 
with dusky ; abdomen piceous-black, not longer than head and thorax, 
ovate and convex beyond first segment and shining ; first segment narrow, 
slightly dilated behind middle, with a pale testaceous band at apex ; apical 
margin of second segment slightly pale ; ovipositor as long as first abdo- 
minal segment. Length .12 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. Same form as Pcttitii, but smaller, 
more slender, and with much paler legs. 

5. Pezomachus obscurus. N. sp. — Ç . — Robust, closely and mi- 
nutely punctured; head large, blackish, face and cheeks yellowish-brown, 
palpi pale; antennae pale testaceous, dusky at tips; thorax yellowish, 
varied with fuscous on posterior face of the nodes and laterally, nodes 
subequal ; legs dull luteous, tips of the coxcC and trochanters pale, poster- 
ior femora and tibise, and base of all the coxae, more or less tinged with' 
fuscous ; abdomen robust, convex, short ovate beyond first segment, 
piceous ; first segment narrow, dull yellowish, second fuscous, with apical 
margin dull yellowish ; ovipositor rather longer than first abdominal 
segment. Length .13 inch. 

Hab. — New Jersey. 

6. Pezomachus canadensis. N. sp. — Ç . — Head black ; mandibles 
rufous; palpi pale; antennae black, base of flagellum yellowish; thorax 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 63 

honey-yellow, shining, not nodose ; metathorax rather larger than pro. 
and mesothorax, convex and somewhat prominent posteriorly ; legs honey- 
yellow, the femora more or less fuscous ; abdomen ovate, first two seg- 
ments pale honey-yellow, remainder black, with a slight iridescent reflec- 
tion ; first segment broadly dilated at apex ; ovipositor longer than first 
and second abdominal segments. Length .13 inch. 

Hab. — Ontario, Canada. (Saunders). Three specimens. A very 
pretty, and easily recognized species. 

7. Pezomachus compactus. N. sp. — Ç . — Short, compact, robust, 
bright honey-yellow ; antennae with short compact joints, apex slightly 
dusky : thorax short, nodose, posterior node shortest, and transversely 
subcompressed ; legs more robust than usual ; abdomen subglobose, the 
third and following segments black, the first segment considerably dilated 
at apex ; ovipositor very short. Length . 1 2 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. A very distinct species from its compact robust form, 
and is distinguished at once from canadensis by the head being concol- 
orous with the thorax. 

8. Pezomachus dimidiatus. N. sp.- — Ç. — Honey-yellow, more or 
less tinged with rufous ; antennae long, slender, yellowish beneath, dusky 
above ; nodes of thorax subequal, the anterior one with a medial longi- 
tudinal groove ; legs concolorous with thorax, tips of coxse, trochanters 
and knees yellowish, posterior tibiae dusky at tips; abdomen ovate beyond 
first segment, convex, shining ; first and second segments dull honey- 
yellow, apex of second yellowish, third and remaining segments dark 
brown or rufo-piceous, sometimes the third segment is pale brown ; first 
segment rather suddenly dilated behind middle ; ovipositor about one- 
third the length of abdomen. Length .17 inch. 

Hab. — Massachusetts ; Illinois. I'wo specimens. 

9. Pezomachus gracilis. N. sp. — Ç . — Honey-yellow, more or less 
tinged with rufous ; antennae long, slender, yellowish throughout ; thorax 
as in dimidiatus, except that the anterior node has no median sulcus ; 
legs long and slender, entirely yellowish ; abdomen shaped as in dimidi- 
atus, except that the first segment is more gradually and less dilated at 
.tpex, honey-yellow and yellowish at tip ; second segment fuscous, with 
apical margin yellowish ; third and fourth segments fuscous, sometimes the 
apical margin of the latter faintly yellowish ; apical segments dull yellow- 
ish ; ovipositor longer than first abdominal segment. Length .20 inch.. 

Hab. — Pennsylvania., Two specimens. 



64 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

10. Pezomachus m ACER, N. sp. — -^ . — Long, narrow, apterous ; head 
yellowish-brown, clypeus paler, vertex dusky ; antennœ as long as body, 
slender, dusky, scape pale yellowish ; thorax long, yellowish-brown, 
blackish on posterior portion of the nodes which are subequal ; tegula? 
whitish ; wings wanting ; legs long, slender, dull yellowish, posterior pair 
dusky ; abdomen long, linear, black, the first and apical margin of second 
segment yellowish. Length .20 inch. 

Hab. — Pennsylvania. This may be the ^ oï gracilis or dimidiatas. 

11. Pezomachus alternatus. N. sp. — Ç. — Dull honey-yellow or 
pale rufous; antenn£e yellowish, with the joints shorter than usual; thoracic 
nodes subequal, convex above, prothorax tinged with yellowish ; tips of 
posterior tibiae slightly dusky ; abdomen ovate, convex, polished ; first 
segment honey-yellow, rapidly dilated to apex which is pale, remaining 
segments brown or piceous on basal half, shading into yellow at apex ; 
ovipositor very short. Length .18 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. More robust than gracilis which it resembles ; the 
antennal joints are, however, shorter, and the anterior node of thorax 
more convex. 

12. Pezomachus texanus. N. sp. — Ç. — Long, slender, pale honey- 
yellow ; head large, vertex dusky ; antennae longer than head and thorax, 
the joints beyond middle with dusky incisures ; thoracic nodes subequal 
and convex ; abdomen ovate beyond first segment, convex, base of second 
and third segments more or less fuscous ; first segment unusually long and 
slender, and scarcely dilated at apex ; ovipositor nearly as long as first 
abdominal segment. Length .15 inch. 

Hab. — Texas. (Belfrage). Very distinct by the long and slender 
first abdominal segment. 

Pezomachus unicolor. N. sp. — % . — Entirely pale ferruginous, 
shining ; antennse dusky at tips ; thoracic nodes subequal, convex ; abdo- 
men ovate beyond first segment, which is gradually dilated to apex ; 
ovipositor as long as abdomen, sometimes longer, pale honey-yellow, 
sheaths black. Length .16 — .18 inch. 

Hab. — Massachusetts ; Delaware ; Illinois. Four specimens. 



Caterpillars in Belgium. — The Provincial Council of Brabant 
have published a decree to the effect that as the regular annual destruc- 
tion of caterpillars and other insects, which takes place in February, has 
not been found to clear the land of these pests, all owners and occupiers 
of land are enjoined to clear their trees, shrubs, hedges and bushes of 
caterpillars during the month of November,as better results are anticipated. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 65 

MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

BV V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KY. 
Continued from page 44. 

HOLCOCERA, Clemens. 

This genus approaches Gelechia, but not so nearly as Anarsia,Parasia, 
&c., the hind wings being sublanceolate, and not emarginate beneath the 
apex, and having a difierent neuration. Dr. Clemens describes four 
species, only one of which, H. chalcofrontcUa, is known to me. Gelcchia 
glandiileUa, Riley, belongs here. The genus is divisible into two branches. 

A. In which the median vein of the hind wings gives off one branch 
before the transverse veift and a furcate branch behind it, and the curved 
apical branch. 

1. II. chakofrojitella, Clem. Froc. E7it. Soc. Phila., i86j,p. 122. 
The other three species described by Clemens most likely belong to 

this section, as he mentions no other form of neuration. 

B. In which the median gives off two veins before the transverse ofie, and 
one, besides the apical, behind it (as if the furcate vein of section A had 
been divided, and one branch transferred before the transverse vein). 

2. Gehxhia ( Ilolcocera) glanduleila, Riley, ante Vol. j, p. 1 18. 

ANARSIA. 

A. Obiqui-strigella. N. sp. 

Palpi with the second joint dark brown beneath ; white above and at 
the tip. Third joint dark brown, with a white annulus at the base, and 
another about the middle. Face white. Antennae with the basal joint 
white, stalk annulate alternately, with dark, greyish-brown and white. 
Thorax and wings white, thickly dusted with pale grey-brown. A dorsal 
brown streak, near the base, points obliquely backwards towards a small 
costal brown spot, and reaches more than half across the wing. An 
oblong, costal, dark brown spot about the apical fourth of the wing, a 
discal, oblong streak opposite the space between the costal spots, and 
another small one near the beginning of the cilife, and another large one 
in the apical portion touching the costal margin near the apex. Some- 
times these discal and apical streaks are continuous, forming a streak from 
the middle of the wing to the apex. 

Alar ex. Y^ inch. Larva unknown. Kentucky. The terminal joint 
of the palpi in this species is not roughened, but the proportions of the 



66 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

joints, and the neuration of the wings, and opaque spot on. the costa, 
are those of Anarsia. 

EVAGORA. 

£. difficilisella. N. sp. 

Palpi and antennae dark brown ; tip of the second joint of the palpi, 
and two annulations on the terminal one, white. Head, thorax and 
anterior wings, hairy. A minute dark brown spot (wanting in many 
specimens) at the base, just within the dorsal margin. A large, bronzy, 
dark brown spot, with purplish reflections, on the base of the costa, a 
small one about the basal one-fourth, another larger about the middle of 
the costal margin, a small one at the beginning of the dorsal cilise, one, 
two or three on the disc, a larger, somewhat scattered, patch in the apical 
portion, and a row of about eight around the apical margin. Ciliae pale 
fuscous, dusted with hoary scales. The costal and one discal spot mar- 
gined with yellowish. Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky. Common. 

PARASIA. 

The preceding genus scarcely differs, generically, from this. Indeed, 
so little, that I doubt greatly the propriety of their separation, the only 
differences in the imago being slight ones in the neuration of the wings. 

P. apici-stri^ella. N. sp. 

Silvery, suffused with pale yellowish ; apex of the forewings deeply 
suffused with reddish-ochreous, and finely sprinkled with white (each scale 
tipped with white.) There is a very oblique short white streak about the 
middle of the costa, dark margined on both sides ; behind it, at the 
beginning of the cilise, is a long narrow unmargined white streak, passing 
obliquely to the middle of the apical part of the wing, where it almost 
meets an opposite dorsal obliquely curved long white streak ; behind 
the costal streak are three short straight white costal streaks, the last of 
which is nearly opposite to a small straight white dorsal streak, which 
forms the internal margin of a dark brown dorso-apical spot. Cilise 
composed of three rows of reddish ochreous scales, each tipped with 
white, forming three wide reddish ochreous bands, separated by three 
narrow white lines. Alar ex. nearly )^ inch. Kentucky. 

This is evidently very near P. apici-punctella, Clem. 

GELECHIA. 

This huge genus comprehends a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage 
of small moths having a certain general resemblance, but differing from 
each other considerably in size, in the neuration of the wings, and the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 67 

amount of the excision of the hind wings, and the size and shape of the 
labial palpi, and yet more in the habits of the larvse. 

In the living insect the wings are deflexed in repose, thus differing 
from Depressaria, and some other allied genera. In many species, the 
posterior margin of the hind wings is deeply excised beneath the costa ; 
in others, the emargination is small or none. The antennae are slender 
and simple, and usually about three-fourths as long as the wings. The 
maxillary palpi are microscopic, whilst the labial are long, overarching 
the vertex, with the third joint pointed, and about two-thirds as long as 
the second, which is enlarged, though not brush-like beneath. 

It is, perhaps, the largest genus among the Micros, and, widely as 
some of the species differ from each other, it has not yet been found prac- 
ticable to effect a natural division of it. The habits of the larvae are very 
diverse, some of them being leaf miners, some making galls in stems of 
plants, some feeding inside of nuts and fruits, while others are external 
feeders. There is no " pattern of coloration" peculiar to this genus, the 
species of which are of all shades and colours. It is a genus of very wide 
distribution, and some of the species are common, now at least (whatever 
they may have once been), to both continents, and to many regions in 
both. 

I. Gelechia Hermannella, Stainton. Nat. Hist. Tin., v. ç,p. 262. 

This unique and handsome species is described, and the synonymy 
given, by Stainton, with a good figure (fig. 3, plate 8). The longitudinal 
silvery streaks are, however, a little more elongated in the figure than in 
my specimens, so as to connect the transverse markings. It occurs 
almost all over Europe, but has not heretofore been recorded from this 
country. I have found it mining the leaves of species of Chejiopodiufn in 
Kentucky and Wisconsin. The larva, at first, is white ; but, towards 
maturity, eight crimson spots make their appearance on each segment ; 
four on top and two on each side. (Stainton says four, but in all of my 
specimens there are eight). Sometimes some of the spots are confluent. 
It enters the leaf from the upper surface, and frequently leaves an old 
mine to construct a new one. Frequently the leaves are scarred or 
blotched by numerous mines, and sometimes the whole leaf is mined, 
but in such cases there are several larvag in a mine. The typical form 
of the mine seems to begin as a point, from which it passes, gradually 
widening, first to one side, then to the other, in a series of loops, each 
extending a little farther than the preceding, like a band gradually widen- 
ing, wound around a cone. The frass is scattered through the mine. 



68 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I quote Mr. Stainton's description : — 

Alar ex. 4 to 4}^ lines. Head and face (and thorax) dark bronzy 
grey (with purpHsh reflections). Antennae blackish. Anterior wings 
bright reddish-orange, with the base black (the black being externally 
margined with silvery on the costa), a short oblique streak from the costa 
near the base, and a small spot near the inner margin, are silvery ; before 
the middle, is a slender, slightly oblique, silvery fascia (interrupted by the 
fold), margined with black, and followed by a black blotch on the costa ; 
beyond it are three short longitudinal silvery streaks, one on the costa, 
one on the disc, and one, much shorter, on the fold. On the costa, before 
the apex, is a short (? it can hardly be called short, either in Mr. Stainton's 
figure or in my specimens) silvery streak pointing inwards, and on the 
inner margin at, the anal angle, is a small silvery spot ; these appear to 
represent the usual subapical spots ; a few silvery scales lie towards the 
middle of the hind margin, which is otherwise black. (In my specimens 
there are, on the dorso-apical margin, instead of these markings two dis- 
tinct silvery spots separated by a small blackish spot) ; ciliae blackish. 
Posterior wings dark greyish fuscus, with the ciliae rather paler. 

The portions above included in brackets are interpolations by me. 

2. G. tephriasella. N. sp. 

Palpi with the second joint dark brown, tipped with white, third joint 
brown, dusted with white, and with a white annulus before the tip. Head 
pale whitish-grey, each scale tipped with white. Antennae with alternate 
annulations of grey and white, with five or six very distinct white ones, 
more widely separated towards the apex. Fore wings and thorax pale 
grey, about equally intermixed with white, becoming gradually darker grey 
and fuscous towards the tip, each of the darker scales tipped with white. 
There is a small, very oblique white streak or spot on the costa, just 
behind the middle, and at the beginning of the costal ciliae the wing is 
crossed by a narrow white fascia. An indistinct fuscous hinder marginal 
line or row of spots at the base of the ciliae, which are of the general hue. 

Alar ex. about Y^, inch. Kentucky. Larva unknown. Having but 
a single specimen, I have not examined the neuration of the wings, but I 
think it is a true Gelechia probably allied to G. rhoifructella, Clem. 

3. G. palpiannulella. N. sp. 

Shining bronzy dark brown ; there is a whitish ring around the end of 
the second palpal joint, and another around the middle of the third one, 
and a small, very pale, yellowish costal spot just before the ciliae, and an 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 69 

opposite dorsal one, and one within the dorsal margin about the middle. 
Posterior wings yellowish-brown. Alar ex. 3/8 inch. Kentucky. Common. 
Larva and food plant unknown. Captured in July to September. The 
neuration differs a little from that of G. roseosiiffusella. Possibly this may 
be G. mimella, Clem., which it seems to resemble closely. But Clemens 
says there is an "ochreous band near the tip," instead of the opposite 
costal and dorsal spot of this species ; and he speaks of a few dark brown 
spots upon the costa and in the apical portion of the wing, which I can 
not discover in this species, and he describes it as tawny brown. I think 
this is a true Gelechia. 

It must bear considerable resemblance to the European G. Anihylli- 
deila, figured by Stainton. 

4. G. roseosuffusella, Clem. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., i860, p. 162. 

This is our commonest species. There is great difference in the 
extent and intensity of the roseate hue of the wings. In some specimens. 
it is scarcely perceptible, in others it is very distinct, and spreads over the 
greater portion of the wing. Alar ex. -ix inch. 

Errata. — V. 3., p. 206, for L. vitifoliclla read P. vitifoliella, and for 
P. ampelopsifoliella read P. ampclopsidla. P. 222, for " ùphalojilhiella" 
read cepkalauthiella. 

V. 4., p. 10, for ^^ pozculered," in line 9 from the bottom, read produced. 
and p. 12, at the end of the ist line, for "there" read t/i7is. 



ON A NEW CHECKERED HP:SPERIA. 

BY AUG. R. GROTE, DEMOPOHS, ALABAMA. 

A common species of Ilesperia in central Alabama, and that I do not 
find described by authors, is one that I, call Syricthus coinmiinis. It is 
plentiful from early spring to autumn, and must be several brooded, but I 
have not found the larva. 

The male is a little smaller, and the white checkered spots are alt^j- 
gether larger and more numerous, than in the female. The ground colour 
of the wings is a brownish black, and longer bluish white hair spreads 
from the base of the forewings over the inferior portion of the primaries, 
and from the base of the hind wings downwardly without touching the 
abdominal margin. A more prominent median band of white spots, three 



70 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in number, below the median vein, divided by the sub-median nervure 
and fold, and surmounted by one on the disc larger within the three. 
Clustered minute linear dots between the sub-costal veinlets at the base, 
and below them three larger, divided by the discal fold and median vein 
opposite the cell. A series of subterminal white dots, the three lower the 
larger. Terminal minute interspaceal dots ; fringes white, interrupted. 
Costal edge white, dotted externally. Secondaries with a broader series 
of mesial spots, reduced in size inferiorly, a subterminal and a minute 
terminal series of white spots and dots ; fringes white, less interrupted 
than on primaries. Beneath, the secondaries are whitish, with four series 
of olivaceous, darkly margined, incomplete and irregular bands. A black 
subtriangular shaded spot at anal angle. Body whitish beneath, above 
blackish with longer bluish or greenish hair; abdomen obsoletely annulate. 
The fringes of the female primary are dusky. 
Expanse — ^ 28; Ç 30 m. m. 



OBITUARY. 

By the recent death of Mr. Braddish Billings, of Ottawa, Canada 
has lost one of her most devoted and enthusiastic sons of science. It has 
been remarked that the lives of men engaged in scientific enquiries are 
usually devoid of much interest. The pursuits they follow are not unfre- 
quently above the comprehension, and, consequently, the sympathy of the 
busy active world. The strife of political partizanship, which engrosses 
so deeply most minds, has to them little, if any, attraction. Their tastes 
and habits of thought lead them into other and more congenial fields. The 
honor or distinction that accrues to them from the successful prosecution 
of their scientific labors is all they desire. They shun the din and glare 
of the paths that are generally supposed to lead to fame, content if allowed 
to pursue their cherished schemes ; and hence, when they die, the record 
of their lives is not usually such as to awaken the interest and excite the 
attention of the uninitiated outside world. Mr. Billings was no exception 
in this respect. Leading a quiet and unobtrusive life, and busily absorbed 
in his favourite pursuits, his name was less known throughout the Province 
than his high scientific merits deserved. His contributions, however, to 
the various departments of natural history, we have good reason to believe, 
were highly appreciated by those most competent to judge of their value, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 71 

and more than one foreign scientific society gave his name a place on 
the roll of their membership. Had he possessed more ambition and been 
burdened with less modesty, there is scarcely any position in the paths of 
science to which he might not have successfully aspired. He had what 
one might almost characterize as a morbid shrinking from publicity. He 
was out of his element in a crowded room. He loved not the busy 
haunts of men ; but, charmed " by the breath of flowers, he fled from 
city throngs and cares, back to the woods, the birds, the mountain 
streams." Much to the regret of his friends, he could never be induced 
to take prominent part in any public enterprise, As a striking instance 
of this, and as confirmatory of what is now stated, it may be mentioned 
that when he was President of the Ottawa Natural History Society — an 
office to which he was elected as a recognition of his acknowledged 
ability — he could never be persuaded to preside at any of the meetings. 
He uniformly, on some pretext or other, always managed to shirk the 
distasteful duty. Nor did this arise from any want of interest in the pro- 
ceedings, for he was one of its warmest and most active supporters, and 
contributed many valuable Botanical and Entomological specimens. 

Mr. Billings was born at Billings Bridge, a small village in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of what is now the city of Ottawa, on the 19th of 
January, 18 19. He was descended from a Welsh family that came to 
America about the year 1740. His grandfather, Dr. Elkanah Billings, 
after graduating at Harvard University, served for some time as surgeon 
under Washington, during the Revolutionary War. His father removed 
to Canada sometime previous to the year 1804, and engaged in lumbering 
operations on the Rideau River. At this time there was only one house, 
on the south side of the Ottawa River, within 50 miles of his clearing. 
The whole of the Ottawa valley was then a comparative wilderness, with 
few indications of the material prosperity which has since become every 
where so apparent. It might be interesting to glean some of the incidents 
connected with the first settlement of this part of Canada, but as this 
would be foreign to the purpose of this paper, we forbear. 

Of the early years of Mr. Billings little need be said ; although, by 
this time, considerable progress had been made by the various settlements 
that had been gradually formed in this section. Still, as can be easily 
imagined, he experienced his full share of the trials and hardships inci- 
dent to a life in the backwoods. Access to books must have been a favor 
which few enjoyed, and the facilities for education were of the most 
meagre description. 



72 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Accordingly, we find that he was sent to Potsdam Academy, in the 
State of New York, to prosecute his studies. Here he remained fpr some 
considerable period, paying special attention to mathematics, with the 
view of fitting himself for a land surveyor. He does not appear, however, 
to have had any special liking for this profession, for he soon gave it up, 
and betook himself to other avocations. Between the years 1842 — 52, he 
held various appointments, such as Clerk of the Crown, Clerk of the 
Bankrupt Court, Registrar of the Surrogate Court, &c., &:c. 

In the fall of 1854, he removed with his family to Prescott, where he 
was appointed General Agent of the B3^town &. Prescott Railway. He 
subsequently, and up to within a short time of his death, held other 
offices in connection with the same Company. He remained in Prescott 
until the spring of 1863, when he returned to Ottawa, where he afterward 
permanently resided. It was while living in Prescott that he began, sys- 
tematically, the study of Botany and Entomology. These continued to be 
his favourite branches, although he also gave some attention to Geology 
and Mineralogy. 

Mr. Billings' Botanical collection, which pretty thoroughly exhausted 
the field around Prescott and Ottawa, consisted of 1S97 species, and 
embraced about one half of the entire number contained in Gray's 
Manual. It is now the property of the Ottawa Scientific and Literary 
Society. His collection of Entomological specimens was also extensive 
and valuable. Besides contributing to the Smithsonian Institute of 
Washington, and to various private collections, he presente,d a large 
assortment of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera to the Literary and Scientific 
Society of Ottawa. Considering the very limited opportunities at his 
disposal, it is surprising that he was able to accomplish so much as he 
did. His close and unremitting attention to his ofiice duties might have 
been supposed to discourage him in the prosecutiim of his favorite re- 
searches. But such was not the case. When the day's work was over, 
it was to him always a source of the highest enjoyment to get away into 
the country, and hold converse with Nature. He loved not merely the 
flowers, he also enjoyed the haunts where they are to be found. By the 
lonely river-bank 

" He lingered many summer hours, 
Deep in the olden forests he sought the sweet wild flowers." 

In later years his attention was mainly directed to Entomology, and 
to it he devoted every spare hour that chance threw in his way. He was 
often to be met with, net in hand, in out-of-the-way placés, following his 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 73 

congenial work, and woe betide the heedless buzzing beetle that crossed 
his path. 

Among his contributions to various scientific periodicals may be men- 
tioned the following : — In the Canadian N'aturalist of Feburary, 1858, 
and February, 1S60, he published a "List of Plants found growing in the 
Neighbourhood of Prescott." To the annals of the Botanical Society of 
Kingston, he furnished a " List of Plants growing principally within 4 
miles of Prescott, and on Laurentian Rocks west of Brockville, 72 species." 
En the transactions of the Ottawa Natural History Society, he published 
a " List of Plants collected in the vicinity of Ottawa during the season of 
1866, consisting of 405 species." Occasional papers also from his pen 
may be found in the Canadian Entomologist. In Vol. i, pages 28 and 
60, he discussed the subject " On a station for Melitœa Phaeton" and in 
the same volume, page 45, is a paper on ^^ Diurnal Lepidoptcra observed in 
the neighbourhood of Ottawa during the season of 1868." Whether this 
comprises all that he wrote for the Entomologist we are not in a position 
to say. Writing scientific articles was a kind of amusement he did not 
much relish, and but for the importunities of his friends, even the few 
above mentioned might not have been penned. 

That Mr. Billings had made for himself a substantial reputation as a 
Naturalist, is shown by the fact that he was elected to positions of honor 
by several scientific societies, as a recognition of the valuable services 
rendered by him to the cause of Natural Flistory. He was the first 
President of the Ottawa Natural Flistory Society in 1864. In 1866 he 
was elected one of the Vice-Presidents of the Entomological Society of 
-Canada. When the Royal Botanical Society of Canada was organized, he 
was one of the original Fellows. He. was also a corresponding member of 
the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, and of the Portland Society 
of Natural History. 

Mr. Billings died at the comparatively early age of 53, on the 29th of 
September last, deeply regretted by a large circle of warmly attached 
fricii.-s. — Communicated. 



ABBOTT'S NOTES ON GEORGIAN BUTl'ERFLIES. 

BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, BOSTON, MASS. 

A few months ago, I spent some time over the rich collection of 
drawings by Abbott, now in the British Museum. Thinking that some of 
his memoranda may not be unacceptable to the readers of your maga- 



<4 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

zine, I transcribe the substance of what is written on those butterflies 
which occur in the North as well as in the South, no copy of the others 
having been taken. The botanical names of the plants have, in most 
cases, been inserted in the MSS. by some subsequent student; those 
which bear the initials A.W.C., are due to the kindness of Dr. Chapman. 

The drawings of the butterflies are contained in the 6th and the i6th 
volumes of the series of Abbott's MSS., the former comprising the perfect 
insects only, the latter the earlier stages as well. In this article the 
sequence of the MSS. is followed. The Roman characters refer to the 
folios, the Arabic to the figures. Names repeated in the two volumes are 

prefixed by an asterisk. 

VOLUME VI. 

*I., I. — Glaiicus ; not common. 

*III., 7 — 8. — Troilus. Taken March lo; changed to chrysalis Oct. 13 ; 

bred March 10 ; bred again in summer ; common. 
*V., 10 — II. — Asterias. Chrysalis April 20, imago May 2. 
VI., 12 — 13. — Phiknor. Common on plum and peach blossoms in the 
Spring ; caterpillar pink-brown ; feeds on black snake root (Aristolo- 
chia serpentaria, A.W.C.) ; chrysalis April 26, gave imago May 4; 
chrysalis June 21, gave imago July 5. 
*X., 14 — 15. — Ajax. Flies very swift ; chrysalis May 24, gave imago 
June 16 ; chrysalis in Autumn, gave imago March 2. 
XL, 60 — 61. — Eubule. Caterpillar yellow, streaked and spotted with 
blue; chrysalis August 31, gave imago Sept. 10; chrysalis Sept. 24, 
gave imago Oct. 6 ; flies very swift. 
XIIL, 64 — ^5. — Philodice. Taken May 10 ; rare ; common in Virginia. 
XIV., 8. — Philodice (pale ^). Taken March 12 ; very rare. 
*XV., 66 — 8. — Nicippe. Taken Aug. 7; not common. 
XVI., 69 — 71. — Lisa. Taken Aug. 20; common; frequents and sucks 

damp ground in yards, etc. 
XIX., 77 — 8. — Protodice. Taken May 13 ; very rare. 
XX., 79 — 81. — Genutia. Taken May 21; very rare in oak woods. 
*XXI., 18 — 19. — Archippus. Chrysalis April 25, gave imago May 11; 

not very common ; flies very swift. 
*XXIII., 22 — 3. — yl/m^^z^i- ; not common. 
XXIV., 48 — 9. — Alùpe. Not common. 
XXV., 52 — 3. — Euryiris. Common; taken April 14. 
XXVII. , 54 — 5. — Areolatiis. Taken June 5; in oak and pine woods, on 
the sides of the branches of trees ; common ; caterpillar green, and 
feeds on grass. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



*XXIX., 28 — 9. — Huntera. Feeds on everlasting ( GnapJialium polycep- 

halum, A. W. C.) spinning the blossoms together for its retreat; 

chrysalis April 26, gave imago May 8; chrysalis May 7, gave imago 

May 16 ; not very common. 

*XXX., 30 — -I. — Cœnia. Chrysalis April 18, gave imago May 4; a 

second brood in the Autumn ; common. 
*XXXI., 2>^ — 7. — Claudia. Feeds on May-apples {Podophyllum pelta- 
tum, A.W.C.) ; taken April 24 ; breeds again in Autumn ; frequents 
fields near swamps ; not very common. 
XXXIL, 7. — Idalia. Met with by Mr. Elliot in his journey to the 

mountains. 
XXXIL, 43 — 4. — Clyton. Taken May i in neighbourhood of swamps -, 
second brood taken September 5, in Ogechee and Savannah River 
swamps ; rare. 
XXXIII., 45 — 7. — Celtis. Taken May i ; very rare ; also in swamps. 
XXXIV., 50 — 51. — Portlandia. April 25 ; not very common. 
*XXXV., 16. — Ursula. Feeds on willow, wild gooseberry, and wild 
cherry ; chrysalis June 9 ; others were bred as early as April 1 2 ; not 
very common ; frequents swamps. 
*XXXVIL, 24 — 5. — Antiopa. One year I met with a brood of these 
caterpillars oh a willow, in number near 300 ; chrysalis April 24, 
gave imago May 24. 
XXXIX., g. — Faunus. Met with by Mr. Elliot in his tour to the 

mountains. 
XL., 32- — 3. — Bachmanii. Frequents blossoms in fields adjoining 

swamps ; not common. 
XLIII, 38 — 40. — Pharos. Taken March 5 ; common. 
*L., 162 — 4. — Calanus. Taken May 2; common in oak woods; cater- 
pillar greenish-brown, with darker green marks; imago bred April 29, 
*LI., 165 — 7. — strigosa. Feeds on holly and oak; tyed itself up April 
27^ changed to chrysalis 20th [29?], bred May 6 ; frequents oak 
fields and swamps. 
*LV., 173 — 5. — niphofi. March 29 ; very rare ; near swamps and oak 
woods. 
LVL, 176 — Z.—mopsus. May 25 ; oak woods ; very rare. 
LVIIL, 13. — Americana. Taken by Mr. Elliot in his tour to the 
mountains. 
*LXVI., 86 — 7. — Tityrus. Spun up in leaves Sept. 5, chrysalis Sept. 7, 
bred April 10 ; not very common. 



76 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

*LXVII., 88 — 9. — ■Lycid'as. Feeds on beggar's lice {Desmodiwm, A.W.C.); 

chrysalis July 10, gave imago July 23 ; taken fresh-bred as early as 

April 1 2 ; frequents swamps, hommocks, and oak woods ; not very 

common. 
LXVIIL, 90 — 91. — Proteus. Feeds on wild pea-vine {Clitoria mariana, 

A.W.C.), and kidney beans ; spun up July 2, chrysalis July 4, bred 

August 1 8 ; in some years found frequently in oak woods and fields 

near swamps. 
*LXX., 94 — 5. — Bathyllus. Spun up June 11, bred June 24; common. 
*LXXII., 96 — S. — Jiivenalis. Bred March 8; common. 
*LXXIV., 43. — Alartialis. Taken March 8 and June 7. 
*LXXIV., 99 — loi. — Brlzo. Feeds on wild indigo {Baptina? A.W.C.); 

chrysalis July 27, gave out imago Aug. 5; also bred March 22; 

not so common as yuvenalis. 
LXXV., 102 — 4. — Accuis. Caterpillar green, streaked lengthways with 

pale white ; head streaked with black ; feeds on blades of indian 

corn; chrysalis June 21, gave out imago June 29; also bred April 

20 ; common. 
*LXXVII., 108 — 9. — CaiuUus. Caterpillar green with a black head; 

feeds on common and red careless, and lamb's quarter [Abbott and 

Smith figure it on horsemint, Moiiarda piwctata\; spun up June 18, 

from which imago June 26 ; chrysalis July 29, gave imago Aug. 5 ; 

frequents corn fields near oak woods ; not very common. 
LXXV-IIL, no — 2. — tessellata. Taken April iS and Aug. 21; not 

very common. 
LXXX., 115 — 6. — vernal Taken Aug. 20; rare. 
*LXXXI., 117 — 8. — Samosef. Taken Aug. 8; rare. 
LXXXIL, 119 — 20. — textor. Taken May 8 ; not common.' 
LXXXIIL, 121 — 3. — vialis. Taken April 27 in oak woods ; not very 

common. 
LXXXVL, 157 — 159- — Vitellius. Caterpillar of a pale brown-greenish 

colour ; feeds on buffalo-grass ; spun July 25, chrysalis July 27, from 

which imago Aug. 4 ; not common. 
*LXXXVII., 170 — 2. — Tarqumiiis. Tied up April 12, chrysalis April 

14. from which imago April 25 ; feeds on alder ; frequents swamps 

and oak woods ; rare. 
XC. 130 — 2. — Delaware. Taken Aug. 2; oak woods ; not common. 

XCL, 133 4- — ZahuIo7i. Taken April 26 in a field ; only one met with. 

XCII., 135 — 7- — Phyfaeus. Taken May 15 ; feeds on crab-grass {Pani- 

cum sangidnale, K^N.Q.) ; not very common. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 77 

XCV., 141 — 3. — Sassacus. Caterpillar green, head brown ; feeds on 
crab-grass ; chrysalis Aug. 20, gave imago Aug. 30 ; also bred April 
12 ; common. 

XCVL, 144—6. — niimitor. Taken April 27 and Aug. 2 ; fréquents 
fields in low grounds and in oak woods ; not very common. 

TO BE CONTINUED. 



LONDON BRANCH. 

MONTHLY MEETINGS. 

March. — The regular monthly meeting was held on Friday evening, 
March 4, at the residence of Mr. A. Puddicombe. 

After the routine business had been disposed of, a letter was read from 
R. H. Stretch, Esq., San Francisco, Cal., announcing the fact of his having 
commenced the publication of a new work on Entomology, entitled, 
" Illustrations of North American Zygejiidœ and Bovibycidce." It is to be 
uniform in size with the " Transactions of the American Entomological 
Society," and embellished with coloured figures equal in execution to 
those of Edward's butterflies. The work is to be issued in about thirty 
parts, each part to contain one plate. Part i, containing Alypia 8 species, 
Ctenucha 6, Scepsis i, and Psychomorpha i species, is now in press. 

Intimation having been given by the Fruit Growers' Association of 
Ontario of their intention to issue a circular to their members, containing 
questions relating to fruit culture, it was suggested that some queries in 
reference to insects would be a valuable addition to said circular, and a 
committee was appointed to prepare queries and confer with the Secretary 
of the Fruit Growers' Association on this subject. 

Mr. Puddicombe's excellent microscope was brought into use, and 
added much to the interest of the meeting. 



April.— T\\Q. meeting for this month was held on the evening of April 
12, at the residence of Mr. Saunders. 

The committee appointed to confer with Mr. D.W. Beadle in reference 
to insect queries, reported that they had completed their task. 

Some interesting specimens of micro-lepidoptera were exhibited, which 
had been recently determined for Mr. Saunders by V. T. Chambers, Esq., 
Covington, Ky., among which are several species as yet undescribed. 
Fine photographs of insects were shown, lately received from Mr. Lintner, 
of Albany. 



78 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

KINGSTON BRANCH. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting of the Kingston Branch was held at the office of 
the Secretary on the evening of April ii, Prof. Dupuis in the chair. The 
report of the proceedings of the Society for the last year (the first of its 
existence) was read, and, on motion, was adopted. Two new members 
were proposed for election. On motion. Prof. N. F. Dupuis was re- 
elected President, E.H. Collins, Esq., Vice-President, and R.V. Rogers, jr., 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

After the usual routine work, the members adjourned with the deter- 
mination that 1872 would see them more devoted and enthusiastic fol- 
lowers in the tracks of the insects hosts than ever. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



Determination of Sex. — In view of the occasionally great dissimi- 
larity in the sexes (as now received) of several species of Lepidopiera, it 
would be interesting to know how many of these have been determined 
from the fact of copulation, seeing that evidence of this nature, although 
presumptively good, cannot be considered as complete proof that the 
sexes so seen in coitu are sexes of the same species. 

Almost every one accustomed to the rearing of insects is doubtless 
aware of this fact, but it does not seem to be very generally known ; and 
[ am tolerably certain that the decision of a very eminent entomologist, 
(decision perhaps not yet made public), that H. pocohotitas is merely an 
aberrant female form of H. hobomok, is based entirely on the fact of 
copulation. But when two such clearly distinct species as Sa?7iia cynthia 
and Callosamia promethea (we will suppose the generic difference to amount 
to nothing), and species of such manifestly distinct genera as those of 
Epiyiephele and Vanessa will copulate, I think that we run no great risk in 
saying that copulation proves nothing, so far as the determination of 
species is concerned. 

Perhaps I should say that I have repeatedly witnessed the copulation 
of Cynthia and Promethea, and my information as to Epinephele and 
Vanessa comes from a good source. But one instance is as good as a 
thousand. 

It may be that a consideration of this incidental mingling of species 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



would throw some light on "The Origin of Species/' for although, so far 
as my knowledge goes, eggs laid by a female which had copulated with 
a male of different species-have never been fruitful, it by no means follows 
that this is universally the case ; and although with animals in a state of 
domestication, hybrids are not prolific, in a state of nature the case 
may be different. But this is beside my present purpose. — W.V.Andrews. 

A Variety of Pieris Rap^ Unknown in Europe. — Probably not 
a few of your readers who interest themselves in butterflies have noticed 
among the swarms of Ganoris rapœ occasional specimens differing remark- 
ably from the normal forms in the colour of both surfaces of the wings ; 
these, if we except the dusky markings, are of a sulphur yellow, approach- 
ing in depth of colour the wings of Etirema Lisa. I have had New 
England specimens for three years, and since my stay in this country- 
have been endeavouring, most unsuccessfully, to find out. the European 
name of the variety, and with good reason, for to-day having had the 
pleasure of a call from Mr. H. T. Stainton, of London, I set these speci- 
mens before him, and he assured me that they have nothing of the kind 
on this continent ! 

Here then we have developed a new variety of an artificially intro- 
duced species within a very short time after its appearance in America. 
It would be well if Mr. Bowles of Quebec, or some one in Montreal, 
could tell us the year in which this yellow form first appeared. Two of 
my specimens were taken in June and July, 1869 — one by Mr. Merrill, in 
Shelbourne, N.H., the other by Prof. HamHn, in Waterville, Me., and all 
are males. Are they confined to that sex, and the product of the later 
broods only? I propose to call the variety novangliœ. — SaiMUEL H. 
ScuDDER, Menton, France, March 6, 1872. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Exotic Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.— I have a large collection of 
specimens of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera from Australia, Manilla, Mexico 
and Central America, which I am now arranging for the purpose of sale, 
as I intend confining myself to Californian insects for the future. I have 
also a complete set of the Pacific Railroad Survey Reports (13 volumes), 
in excellent condition, which I shall be glad to dispose of. Apply to 
James Behrens, San Francisco, Cal. 



80 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Collecting Tour in Labrador. — When I penned the notice of my 
proposed tour to Labrador, I had no idea that there would be so much 
demand for Entomological niaterial from this Northern quarter. But since 
the notice has appeared, letters have been received from Mr. P. S. Sprague, 
Boston Natural History Society ; Mr. Samuel Henshaw, Boston"; Mr. Geo. 
D. Smith, Boston, for Coleoptera ; and Dr. Theodore L. Mead, New 
York ; Mr. Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa. ; Mr. G. M. Levette, Assist. 
Geolc^g. Survey, Indianapolis, for Lepidoptera ; and having neglected to 
give my full address, possibly other letters may have gone astray. I want 
only 12 subscribers for Zi^/^c;//^rfl', and the terms are settled by corres- 
pondence. I am anxious to put the Coleoptera into the hands of one 
person, or an institution, who could work and determine the material, in 
order to put the matter in some form for future reference. I will supply 
notes with every species collected. — Wm. Couper, 38 Bonaventure St., 
Montreal. 

Platysamia Columbia. — I will give in exchange for a good example 
of this moth one hundred specimens of Lepidoptera of various genera from 
California, Southern and Atlantic United States, S. America, Europe, 
East Indian Archipelago, &c., or double the number for two examples ; 
or, if it is preferable, I will pay in money. Herman Strecker, Box in, 
Reading P. O., Berks Cy., Pa. U. S. 

Cork. — We have a good supply of sheet cork of the ordinary thick- 
ness, price 16 cents (gold) per square foot. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vols. i. 2 and 3.— We have a few copies 
left of Vols. I and 2, No. i, of Vol. i, being, however, out of print. Price 
$1.25 for Vols. I and 2 ; $1 Vol. 3. 

List of Canadian Coleoptera. — Price 15 cents each, embracing 55 
families, 432 genera, and 1231 species. (For labelling cabinets). 

Printed Numbers, in sheets, i to 2000, for labelling cabinets. Price 
io cents each set. 

These prices are exclusive of cost of transportation, and orders will 
please state whether the package is to be sent by mail or express. 



AGENTS FOR THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 
Canada. — E. B. Reed, London, Ont; W. Couper, Naturalist, Montreal, 

P.Q.; G. J. Bowles, Quebec, P. Q.; J. Johnston, Canadian Institute, 

Toronto, Ont. 
United States. — The American Naturalist's Book Agency, Salem, Mass.; 

J. Y. Green, Newport, Vt.; W. V. Andrews, Room 17, No. 137 

Broadway, New York. 



VQL. IV. LONDON, ONT., MAY, 1872. No. 5 

DESCRIPTIONS OF 

NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA, No. 3. 

BY E. T. CRESSON, PHILADELPHIA. 
(Continued from Page 64.) 

Family Ichneumonid.(E. 
.Genus Perilitus, Nees. 

This Braconid genus belongs to Wesmaers group Polymorphes, and 
the species described below to Haliday's subgenus Mtteorus, which is dis- 
tinguished from the other genera or subgenera with petiolated abdomen, 
by the anterior wing having three contigiious cubital cells. 

1. Perilitus niveitarsis. N. sp. — ^ Ç. — Ferruginous, shining; 
cheeks, sides of thorax and apex of abdomen thinly clothed with a short, 
whitish, somewhat pruinose pubescence; face and mouth pale ferrugin- 
ous ; palpi whitish ; occiput and space enclosed by ocelli, blackish ; 
antennae entirely dark fuscous ; prothorax and sutures of mesothorax 
blackish ; metathorax rounded,, reticulated and with a transverse arcuate 
carina before the middle ; tegulse pale yellow ; wings hyaline, iridescent, 
costal nerve and stigma pale yellow or ferruginous, nervures fuscous; 
second cubital cell subquadrate, broader at base ; interno-discoidal ceH of 
same length as the externo-discoidal ; recurrent nervure on a line and 
confluent with the intercubital nervure ; four anterior tibiae except tips, 
their tarsi and base of posterior tibiœ yellowish, posterior tarsi white, apex 
of posterior tibise fuscous, terminal joint of all the tarsi black ; abdomen 
smooth and polished, first segment rugulose, sides margined, the disc with 
a faint longitudinal carina, lateral tubercles tolerably well developed ; ovi- 
positor nearly as long as abdomen, ferruginous, sheaths black. Length 
.30 inch. 

Hab. — Massachusetts. Two % , three ^ , specimens. This is our 
largest species, and is easily recognized by the white posterior tarsi, the 
color of the body being much darker than that of the next species. 

2. Perilitus pallitarsis. N. sp. — ^ . — Yellow ferruginous or 
honey-yellow, shining, thinly clothed with a short whitish pubescence ; 



82 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

palpi whitish ; antennae pale ferruginous, dusky at tips, incisures of joints 
blackish ; metathorax finely reticulated, with an angular carina before 
middle and several other irregular carinas ; tegulse pale yellow ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma fuscous, neuration as in preceding 
species ; legs, except posterior femora, paler than body, posterior tarsi 
whitish, apex of their tibiœ dusky, last joint of all the tarsi black; abdo- 
men smooth and polished, first segment long and slender, especially at 
base, finely rugose, sides margined, lateral tubercles prominent. Length 
.25 inch. 

Hab. — New Jersey. Smaller and paler than niveitarsis, to which it is 
closely allied. 

3. Perilitus communis. N. sp. — ^ Ç. — Pale yellowish-ferruginous 
or honey-yellow, shining, slightly pubescent ; palpi whitish ; antennae 
slightly dusky at tips, sometimes entirely dusky above ; metathorax rather 
coarsely reticulated, with several more or less distinct longitudinal carinae, 
sometimes more or less dusky ; tegulse occasionally pale yellow ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma vary from pale yellow to fuscous ; 
second cubital cell subquadrate, broader posteriorly, recurrent nervure on 
a line and confluent with intercubifal nervure ; interno-discoidal cell 
shorter than externo-discoidal ; legs generally paler than body, sometimes 
unicolorous,- terminal joint of tarsi blackish, sornetimes the apex of pos- 
terior tibiae and their tarsi are more or less dusky \ abdomen smooth and 
polished, first segment finely and longitudinally aciculated, that of the ^ 
generally more or less fuscous, rarely entirely black, apical segments some- 
times discolored ; ovipositor of % as long as first abdominal segment, 
sometimes longer. Length .18 — .22 inch. 

Hab. — Connecticut ; New Jersey. Twenty-five Ç , twenty-one ^ , 
specimens. Smaller and paler than pallitarsis, from Avhich it is readily 
distinguished by the posterior tarsi not being white. 

4. Perilitus intermedius. N. sp. — ^ . — Yellow-ferruginous, varied 
with blackish, shining, sub-pubescent ; palpi whitish ; antennae black, 
scape yellowish beneath ; spot enclosing ocelli, occiput, prothorax above, 
two spots before anterior coxae, pectus, lateral lobes of mesothorax, two 
lines on middle lobe and metathorax above except apex, black ; meta- 
thorax broad, rugulose ; tegulae pale yellow; wings hyaline, iridescent, 
nervures and stigma fuscous ; second cubital cell transversely subquad- 
rate, broader posteriorly, otherwise as in commwiis ; legs pale yellowish- 
ferruginous, coxae, trochanters and knees paler ; posterior tibiae darker 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 83 

and all the tarsi dusky ; abdomen smooth and polished ; first segment 
more robust than usual, black, finely aciculated longitudinally, lateral 
tubercles prominent ; second segment orange-ferruginous ; remaining seg- 
ments blackish. Length .20 inch. 

Hab. — Massachusetts. 

5. Perilitus proximus. N. sp. — ^ . — Yellowish-ferruginous, shining, 
very finely pubescent ; palpi whitish ; space enclosed by ocelli and occi- 
put blackish ; antennae black above, brown beneath, scape ferruginous ; 
space each side of scutellum, space before anterior coxee, pectus and 
metathorax above except apical margin, black ; metathorax broad, rugose ; 
tegulse pale yellow; wings hyaline, iridescent, nervures fuscous, stigma 
pale ; second cubital cell obliquely quadrate, transverse, otherwise as in 
communis ; legs yellowish-ferruginous, tips of tibiae and tarsi entirely 
blackish ; abdomen smooth "and polished, slender, especially first seg- 
ment, which is very faintly aciculated and margined laterally with black- 
ish. Length. 18 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. E.esembles intermedins, but while the thorax is more 
robust, and the metathorax differently and more coarsely sculptured, the 
abdomen is more slender and the first segment almost smooth. 

.6. Perilitus VULGARIS. N. sp.- — ^ Ç. — Pale yellowish-ferruginous, 
shining ; space enclosed by ocelli blackish ; antennae dusky above and at , 
tips, long in $ , shorter, more robust and paler in Ç ; lateral lobes of 
mesothorax and pleura sometimes more or less dusky ; metathorax rather 
coarsely reticulated, black ; tegulas pale yellow ; wings hyaline, iridescent, 
nervures pale fuscous, stigma pale luteous ; neuration similar to that of 
proximus ; legs uniformly pale yellowish, tips of tarsi dusky ; abdomen 
smooth and polished, more or less discolored at apex ; first segment black 
or blackish, more or less pale at base, broad at apex, minutely aciculated 
longitudinally ; ovipositor as long or longer than first abdominal segment. 
Length .15 — .17 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois ;. Texas. Thirteen ^ , five ^ , specimens. 

7. Perilitus dimidiatus. JV. sp. — Ç. — Black, shining; face, 
mouth and orbits ferruginous ; palpi pale ; antenna ferruginous, scape 
above and tip of flagellum dusky ; mesothorax piceous, rufo-piceous, or 
black varied with rufo-ferruginous ; scutellum more or less and prothorax 
laterally, ferruginous ; metathorax rugose ; tegulae pale ; wings hyaline, 
iridescent, nervures and stigma fuscous, the latter pale at base ; second 
cubital cell obliquely subquadrate, broader posteriorly, the recurrent ner- 



84 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

vure not on a line with the intercubital nervure, but received by the 
second cubital cell near its basal corner ; interno-discoidal cell slightly 
shorter than the externo-discoidal ; legs pale yellowish-ferruginous, tarsi 
paler, their terminal joint black, apex of posterior femora above, tips of 
their tarsi and near their base^ dusky ; abdomen smooth and poHshed, 
first segment slender, black, finely and longitudinally aciculated ; second 
segment pale luteous ; third and following segments more or less black- 
ish ; ovipositor generally as long or longer than first abdominal segment, 
sometimes nearly as long as abdomen. Length . 1 6 inch. 

$ . — Antenna' longer and more or less dusky or blackish above ; occi- 
put blackish ; thorax generally entirely black, except more or less of 
prothorax and sometimes the scutellum ; legs sometimes uniformly pale 
honey-yellow ; the tarsi generally more or less dusky ; third and following 
abdominal segments black. Length .14 — .16 inch. 

Hak — New Jersey; Pennsylvania; Illinois. Five Ç , four ^ , speci- 
mens. A Ç specimen from Arizona has the abdomen beyond first seg- 
ment pale luteous, slightly discolored at apex. It appears to be only a 
variety. 

8. Perilitus humilis. iV. sp. — Ç . — Black ; mouth, palpi and 
antennae ferruginous, the latter dusky above, short, with close set joints; 
face and cheeks piceous ; metathorax rugose ; tegulse pale yellowish ; 
wings hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma fuscous ; second cubital cell 
quadrate, recurrent nervure on a line and confluent with the intercubital 
nervure ; interno-discoidal cell shorter at base than the externo-discoidal ; 
legs pale honey-yellow, posterior pair more or less dusky, base of posterior 
tibiœ pale ; abdomen black, second segment pale honey-yellow; ovipositor 
as long as thorax and abdomen together. Length .14 inch. 

Haâ. — Illinois. Closely allied to dimidiatus, but distinct by the black 
head and shorter antennal joints. 



ABBOTTS NOTES ON GEORGIAN BUTTERFLIES. 

BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, BOSTON, MASS. 
Continued from Page 77. 

VOLUME XVI. 
''XVL, 274. — Turtius. Feeds on the ash figured [trifoliata), and on 
swamp ash {Fraxinus platycarpa ? A.W.C.) ; chrysalis June 20, gave 
imago July 4. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 85 

*XYII., I. — Glanais. Feeds on swamp-ash and hickory ; chrysalis Oct. 
13) gave imago April 2. 

*XIX., 76. — Asterias. Chrysalis June 22, gave imago July 4 ; chrysalis 

Aug. 18, gave imago Aug. 27. 
^XX., 77. — Troilus. Spins a leaf together, quits it and makes another as 
it grows larger ; caterpillar is called Mellow Bug, from the musky 
scent; chrysalis June 22, gave imago July 6; chrysalis Oct. 31, 
gave imago March 10. 

*XXI., 78. — Ajax. Chrysalis May 22, gave imago June 16; chrysalis 
May 12, gave imago March 22. 

*XXIII., 3. — Ursula. Chrysalis May 28, gave imago June 4; chrysalis 
June 9, gave imago June 18. 

*XXIV., 4. — Misippus. Chrysalis July 3, gave imago Aug. 7. 

*XXVI., 108. — Archippus. Feeds on butterfly weed and milky parsleys ; 
chrysalis April 25, gave imago May 11; chrysalis May 12, gave 
imago May 22. 

*XXVII., 5, — Antiopa. Chrysalis April 24, gave out imago May 4. "The 
large red wasps are great enemies to this species, seizing on a cater- 
pillar and cutting it to pieces, to make into a lump, the better to 
carry it to their nest, to feed their young with." 

*VIII., 28. — Cœnia. Feeds on Gerardia purpurea ; chrysalis Sept. 29, 
gave imago Oct. 14. 

*XXIX., 65. — Claudia. Feeds on passion flower {Passiflora incamata, 
A.W.C.) ; ground colour of chrysalis is silver, or more like pol- 
ished mother-of-pearl, spotted with gold and black ; chrysalis May 9, 
gave imago May 20. 

*XXXI, 109. — Huntera. Feeds on everlasting and sunflower; chrysalis 
April 7, gave imago April 17; chrysaHs June 15, gave imago June 22. 

*XXXIII., 66. — Nicippe. Feeds on yellow indigo {Cassia occidentalis ?) 
chrysalis Aug. 8, gave imago Aug. 1 6. 
XXXIV., 7. — Ismeria (Carlota Reek.) Feeds on cross wort {Helian- 
i/ius trachelifolius ?) and sunflower ; frequents oak woods of Bruke 
Co., but is not common ; tied up May 15 ; chrysaHs May 17, from 
which imago May 26. 

*XXXV., 80. — Tarquinius. Feeds on Indian arrow-wood and alder; it 
is partly covered with a white loose down ; frequents swamps, but is 
rare ; most frequent in Big Ogechee Swamp. 

*XXXVI., 112. — Niphon. Feeds on short-leaved pine {Pinus imps'} on 
the MSS. Probably P. mitis, as P. inops is not found in Georgia so 



86 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

far as I know, A.W.C.) ; chrysalis June 5, gave out imago March 24; 
frequents oak woods ; rare. 

XXXVII. , 1 7 d.—humuli. Feeds on parsley leaved haw ( Cratœgus coccinea, 
MSS. j C. apiifolia, A.W.C), pine, snap beans (common garden 
bean, A.W.C.) ; chrysalis April 30, gave out imago May 4. 

*XXXIX., III. — strigosa. Feeds on narrow leaved jagged black oak 
[Q. catesbyi), and other oaks; very rare; chrysalis April 18, gave 
imago May 5. 

*XL., 81. — calanus. Feeds on red oak and other oaks {(2. falcata), and 
hickory; butterfly frequents chinquesin blossoms {Casianea pnmilal 
A.W.C), and not uncommon in oak woods; chrysalis April 28, 
gave imago May 10. 
XLIL, 12. — Irus. Feeds on swamp huckleberry [Vacciniian corym- 
bosiim ? A.W.C) ; frequents- borders of Ogechee River Swamp only; 
the butterfly fr-equents the blossoms of the Red bud [Cercis canadensis, 
A.W.C.) in the old fields, and is far from common ; chrysalis April 
20, gave out imago May 6. 

*XLIA^., II. — Lycidas. Feeds ©n beggars lice {Desmodium, A.y\LC.) or 
indigo, and is first of the colour of fig. i ; when it sheds its skin for 
the last time it becomes of the colour of fig. 2 [i. e., the yellow 
markings become pink.] 

*XLVI., 9. — Tityrus. Feeds chiefly in the night; they all [i.e., the 
Hesperians^ " fold and spin a leaf together for their retreat ; when 
they are small, only a small part of the leaf, quitting them and making 
them larger as they grow bigger, and sometimes, when it is a vine, in 
a leaf of the bush the vine grows on, for their greater safety from 
Thirds." 

■^XLVIL, 173. — -Bathyllus. Feeds on wild bean ; chrysaHs June 21, gave 
out imago July 2 ; chrysalis July 25, gave out imago August 5. 

*XLVIIL, 174. — yuvenalis. Feeds on wild indigo {d. Baptisia, h^^ .Q.) 
and oaks, particularly the narrow leaved Avinter green oak {Q. phellos, 
A.W.C.) ; spun up and left off eating Oct. 3 ; chrysalis first week in 
February, and imago Feb. 24; another spun June 25, changed to 
chrysalis June 27, and gave out imago July 5 ; another spun August 
22, changed to chrysalis August 24, and gave out imago Sept. 2. 

*XLIX., 175. — Brizo. Feeds on wild indigo and oaks ; spun up in Oct., 
changed to chrysalis in March, from which imago April 21. 

*L., 136. — Martialis. Feeds on red shank or red root {Ceanothus ameri- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 87 

canus and Lachnanthcs tinctoria, go by the latter name at the north, 
■ A.W.C.) ; spun up in the leaves June 25, gave out imago July 8. 
*LII., %â,.-— Catullus. Feeds on Origanum (a Labiate, A.W.C), and 

horsemint {Monarda pimctata.) 
*LIII., 'è^^.—SajHOset. Feeds on a species of wild oats {Andropogon 

arcnaceiitn) ; spun itself up in the leaves May 31, and gave out imago 

June 14 ; the caterpillar is very rare ; the butterfly frequents the oak 

woods, but is not common. 
LI v., 137. — tessellata. Feeds on wild tea (Seda) ; spun itself up in the 

leaves June 25, and gave out imago July 7. 
LVIL, 2 12. — Argiolus of Smith-Abbott. Feeds on the wild kind of 

bean figured {Erythrina tuherosd), holly, &c. 
LVIIL, 242. — Co77iyntas. Feeds on the kind of wild pea figured 

{Galactia) ; also on red root, &c. ; chrysalis June 16, gave out imago 

June 24. 



I will add a list of the plants accompanying the butterflies figured by 
Smith-Abbott in their work on the Insects of Georgia. For these also I 
am indebted to the kindness of Dr. A. W. Chapman : — 

I. Asterias ; Garden Fennel. II. Troilus ; Sassafras officinale. III. 
Philenor ; Aristolochia serpentaria. IV. Ajax ; Asimina triloba. V. 
Eulnde ; Cassia marilandica. VI. Archippus ; Asclepias tuberosa (not 
curassavica). VII. Gilippus ; Asclepias obtusifolia. VIII. Coe?iia ; 
Linaria canadensis. IX. Hiuitcra ; Gnaphalium polycephalum. X. 
Ursula; Vaccinium stamineum. XI. interrogatio7iis ; Tilia pubescens. 
XII. Vajiillœ ; Passiflora incarnata. XIII. areolatus ; Grass. XIV. 
FavoJiius ; Quercus nigra. XV. ''Argiolus ;" Erythrina herbacea. XVI. 
Otho; Sisyrhinchium anceps. XVII. Vitellius ; Panicum crus-galli. 
XVIII. Proteus; Clitoria mariana. XIX. Tityrus ; Robinia pseud- 
acacia. XX. Lycidas ; a broad leaved form of Desmcdium paniculatum. 
XXL yuvenalis ; Galactia pilosa. XXII. Bathyllus ; Rhynchosia to- 
mentosa. XXIII. Accius ; Wistaria frutescens. XXIV. Catullus; 
Monarda punctata. 



American Association for the Advancement of Science. — We 
learn that the annual meeting will be held this year at San Francisco. In 
a little while, doubtless, further details will be given of the arrangements 
that the various railways may be willing to make for those desirous of 
attending this meeting. 



88 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KY. 

Continued from page 69. , 

. Gracillaria juglandiella, a?ite p. 28, and 
Hypono7neuta euonymella, ante p. 42. 

When the descriptions of these species were prepared, I had forgotten 
that species had previously been described in Europe as G. juglandiella 
and H. evojiymella. I have not seen these European~ species nor even 
any description of them, and possibly my species may prove to be the 
same. At any rate the names are so nearly the same as to necessitate a 
change of those, my species, and I therefore name them respectively- 
G. juglaiidis7iigreUa and H. orbiinaculella. - 

PARASIA. 

I. Parasia griseaella. 

Head and palpi white ; the head sparsely dotted with brown ; second 
joint of the palpi brownish, the third tipped with brown and with a brown 
annulus in the middle ; antennae brown ; thorax mixed white and 
brown ; wings white, overlaid with brown, so as to give a greyish cast ; 
in the costal and apical portions of the wing the brown scales are con- 
densed into numerous irregular and indefinite spots and streaks. Alar 
ex. 1% inch. 

Collection of Mr. Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. 

Possibly this may be a Gelechia, as I have not examined the neura- 
tion. 

STROBISIA. 

This genus was erected by Dr. Clemens (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
j86o, p. 164) for certain species related to Gelechia, differing from it 
mainly in the neuration of the wings, and in that respect approaching 
Depressaria. The apex of the anterior wings is, however, much more 
obtusely rounded than in either of those genera, and the neuration is not 
identical in the two species {S. iridipennella and 6". emblemella) described 
by Dr. Clemens. As objects for the low powers of the microscope, the 
species are among the handsomest known to me. 

I. S. Aphroditeella. N. sp. 

Tongue and palpi white ; face white, strongly tinged with purplish ; 
head, thorax and anterior wings very dark golden or bronzy brown, vary- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 89 

ing to brownish golden, tinged with purple and topaz red, with the changes 
of the light ; on the costa are three indigo or violet-blue streaks, the first 
and second oblique, the third straight ; the first is the longest, and placed 
about the basal third of the costa ; the third is before the cihae. Near the 
base, upon the disc, is a short, very oblique streak of the same hue, point- 
ing towards a small spot of the same hue placed within the dorsal margin 
at about the basal fourth; on the disc, almost between the points of the first 
and second costal streaks, is a minute spot of the same hue, and before it, 
near the dorsal margin, is a very short longitudinal spot of the same hue, 
and almost in a line with the first costal streak ; two other small spots of 
the same hue situated behind the two last named, form, with them, a 
trapezoid ; four small spots of the same hue around the apex, each situated 
between two of the apical veins. All of these streaks and spots vary 
with the light, through purple, crimson and topaz red. Ciliée metallic, 
with two wide, hinder, marginal lines of the general hue ; legs of the 
general hue, with the tibite tipped and the tarsi annulate with white. Aiar 
ex. y'z inch. Kentucky. Common. 

This is one of the most exquisite little gems that I have found among 
the " Micros.' It evidently bears a very close resemblance to S. iridi- 
pcimella Clem., (which, however, is unknown to me) and if Dr. Clemens' 
description could be supposed to be imperfect, it might be the same 
insect. But I cannot recognize it in his description. He says that the 
first costal streak in S. iridipejuiella is placed about the middle of the 
wing, instead of about the basal third, as in this species. In S. h-idipenfie/la 
the third costal is oblique ; in this species it is straight. He mentions 
only one spot near the base, instead of two, and he says that tridipen7ieUa 
has " three spots beneath the second costal streak, one in the fold and 
two in the middle of the wing," instead of the four forming the trapezoid. 

These differences will enable the reader to distinguish the species; the 
shape and neuration of the wings is the same in both. In S. embleinella, 
which is unknown to me. Dr. Clemens says that the posterior margin of 
the wings is oblique, and the neuration also differs slightly from that of S. 
iridipetDieUa and this species. 

The larvae of all the species are unknown. The imagines have a 
curious habit, when they alight upon a leaf, of strutting rapidly about over 
its surface with the wings a little spread, and, as Dr. Clemens says, of 
driving away other "little people" from their neighbourhood. When 
they finally settle down, however, they are not very easily alarmed. 



90 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



2. S. Venusiella. 

Tongue, palpi and face silvery white, except a streak along the upper 
surface of the palpi and the tip of the terminal joint, which are dark 
bronzy brown. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen, on their upper sur- 
faces, dark bronzy or golden brown; anterior wings dark golden or bronzy 
brown, with many scattered golden scales in the dorso-apical portion, a 
broad blue fascia at the base of the wing, and a costal streak of the same 
hue before the middle, pointing obliquely backwards and reaching nearly 
to the middle ; a dorsal streak of the same hue begins opposite the apex 
of the first costal and points obliquely backwards, almost reaching a dis- 
cal spot of the same hue which is situated just within the second costal. 
The second costal is placed just beyond the middle, is concave towards 
the base of the wing, is narrow, brilliant and reaches nearly to the middle 
of the wing ; the second dorsal is opposite the second costal, is short and 
points obliquely towards, but does not attain, the discal spot. The third 
costal streak is placed at the beginning of the cilife, it is small, and 
opposite to it, near the posterior margin, are are two small longitudinal 
spots and some scattered scales of the same hue. Apical cilise silvery ; 
dorso-apical ciliae tinged with yellowish ; two hinder marginal lines, one 
at the base of the cilise, the other at the apex. Alar ex., scarcely over ^ 
inch. Kentucky. Rare. 

There is the same play of colors as in the preceding species, which 
it rivals in beauty. The specimen was taken strutting about on the leaves 
of the Buckeye (Aesculus glabra), but the larva and food plant are un- 
known. This species appears to bear some resemblance to S. embkmella 
Clem. ; but, having but the single specimen, I have not examined the 
neuration of the wings. 

DEPRESSARIA. 

The species of Depressaria resemble those of Gchchia somewhat in 
structure, but may readily be distinguished from them by the depressed 
abdomen (whence the name), and the divided brush on the under side of 
the second joint of the labial palpi. 

Of the eleven species described herein, all are properly placed in this 
genus, except, probably, D. cryptolechiella and D. dubitella, and these do 
not seem to diifer from it more than some European species which are 
usually located here. The neuration of the wings is the same in all of 
them, except as stated below, and is that of the true species of this genus. 
(Dr. Clemens, in his generic diagnosis of this genus, says that the median 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 9 Ix 

vein of the hind wings is /zc/<? branched. This is an error. All of these 
species agree with the figure in Westwood's introduction, in having it 
three brajuhed.) D. cryptolechiella and D. dubitella differ from Depres- 
saria in the form of the palpi, which, in the former, are like those of 
Gelechia, except, perhaps, that they are a little slenderer and more elon- 
gate, while in D. dubitella the brush is very small, though divided. In D. 
cryptolechiella the hind wings are not excised beneath the tip. Both of 
these species also have the neuration, though not the shape of the hind 
wings, as in Strobisia, rather than Depressaria, the difference being that in 
Strobisia the subcostal vein is trifid from the discal vein which gives off a 
single vein, while in Depressaria the subcostal is simple and the discal vein 
gives off two branches — as though a branch of the subcostal of Strobisia 
had been separated and placed a little lower down on the discal vein. 
Otherwise these two species also agree with Depressaria. These species 
all have the wings comparatively narrower than most of the European 
species ; shaped rather like D. Aplana (or even narrower) than like D. 
umbellana, as those species are figured by Stainton. They are wider, 
however, in D. Cryptolechiella than any of the others. 

The prevalence of dark brown or dark ochreous colors seems to be 
characteristic of the genus ; and comparing my species and Dr. Clemens' 
descriptions of Z?. atr odor sella, cinereocostella and pulvipennella, and Dr. 
Packard's description of D. robiniella, and Mr. Bethune's description of 
D. Ontariella with the figures in Stainton's Vol. ç, Nat. Hist. Tin., and 
other figures by Stainton and Douglass in the Trans. Lond. Ent. Soc, 
those colors seem to prevail to a greater degree in the American than in 
the European species. The known American species are, however, too 
few as yet to predicate this statement generally. 

/. D. Cryptolechiella. N. sp. 

Third joint of the palpi black, with a narrow longitudinal white line 
on each side. Second joint pale yellow with a narrow longitudinal black 
line beneath. Antennae pale yellow, checkered above with black and 
with a narrow longitudinal black line on each side of the basal portion. 
Head, thorax and base of the anterior wings dull reddish-orange ; anterior 
wings to the naked eye, pale golden, with the lustre of ' watered ' silk, 
produced by a multitude of transverse, narrow, wavy, dark brown lines, as 
seen under the lens ; six small dark brown spots in a row around the apex, 
to the naked eye appearing like a narrow marginal line. Ciliae pale fus- 
cous, with a silvery lustre and a somewhat darker hinder marginal line at 



9î2 ; ; : ; \: : THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

their base. Hind wings yellowish white with a silky lustre. J/ar ex. ttj 
inch. 

Possibly this may belong to CryptolecJiia, but I have no knowledge of 
that genus other than Mr. Stainton's brief mention of it in the volume 
before mentioned. 

2. D ? dubitella. N. sp. 

Palpi very large, brush small, face and palpi yellowish white. Head, 
thorax, antennae and anterior wings dark broA\Ti, with three microscopic 
ochreous spots, one at the beginning of the costal ciliae, an opposite dor- 
sal one and one on the disc, forming nearly an equilateral triangle. Pos- 
terior wings pale fuscous. Alar ex. J^ inch. Kentucky. I.arva 
unknown. 

J. D. albisparsella. N. sp. 

Dark brown ; extreme tip of third joint of the palpi white. Fore 
wings faintly suffused with ochreous and sparsely and indistinctly sprinkled 
with white scales, which at the beginning of the costal ciliae become a 
little more distinct, forming a narroAv, clouded whitish fascia pointing a 
little obliquely backwards ; tips of the ciliae whitish. Alar ex. a little 
over S/z inch. Kentucky. Larva unknown. 

.^. D. bistrigella. N. sp. 

Palpi with the second joint ochreous, dusted with dark brown ; third 
joint dark brown tipped with whitish. Face very pale ochreous, dusted 
with brown ; antennae brown ; thorax and anterior wings dark brown, a 
little bronzed and with a little ochreous intermixed, especially in two 
small patches, one of which is just before the middle and the other about 
the middle of the wing ; a small whitish costal streak at the beginning of 
the costal ciliae and another at the beginning of the dorsal ciliae ; ciliae 
pale ochreous dusted with brown at their base ; posterior wings pale 
ochreous with a silvery lustre. Alar ex. ^ inch. 

Collection of Mr. Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. 



Entomological Report for 187 i. — We are glad to be able to 
state that this Report is now printed, and will be mailed to the members 
in a few days. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 93 

INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BV THE EDITOR. 

From Kirbys Fauna Boreali- Americana : Inseda. 



(Continued from Pag-e 57.) 

[173.] 229. Callidium simile Kirby. — Length of body 7 lines. 
A single specimen taken with the preceding species. 

This species in most respects is so like C. M. Proteus, that I had set it 
by as another variety ; but upon further consideration I am induced to 
give it as distinct, since it differs not only in colour but in the form and 
sculpture of the prothorax and other parts. 

The apex of the palpi is more dilated, so that it is strictly securiform ; 
the front behind the antennae is elevated and gibbous, with few scattered 
punctures : the sides of the prothorax are more puffed out, and much 
more minutely and thickly punctured, and there is a pair of impressions 
in the disk : the antennae also at the base are rufous : in other respects it 
does not differ from M. Proteus. 

[This species, together with the preceding and the subsequent one, 
belong to the genus Phymatodes Muls. It is probably another variety of 
the very variable Proteus, as it has not been identified by any author that 
we are aware of] 

230. Callidium dimidiatum Kirby. Length of body 4 lines. Two 
specimens in Lat. 54°. 

Body not glossy ; impunctured ; hairy underneath ; and except the 
forebreast, which is black, of a dull rufous. Head channelled between the 
eyes, behind them convex ; antennae rufous, shorter than the body : pro- 
thorax somewhat coarctate at the base ; minutely granulated ; obsoletely 
channelled, more conspicuously behind : elytra rufous anteriorly. 

This species comes very near to C. (Meriutn) Alni, but it is larger and 
has no white bands. 

,[Clytus palliatus Hald. is a later synonym of this species. It is 
taken in Canada and the Eastern States ; also on north shore of Lake 
Superior by Agassiz's Expedition.] 

[174.] Sub-genus Tetropium Kirby. — Eyes four, connected by an 
elevated line. Antennae robust, short : scape much incrassated, subcy- 
lindrical, remaining joints subclavated. Prothorax constricted anteriorly 
and posteriorly. Thighs much incrassated, sometimes clubbed. 



94 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The type of this subgenus is CaUidiiim ti-isie Fabr. for those with cla- 
vated thighs, and C. anlicum, for those in which they are incrassated 
nearly their whole length. These insects will be found to have four dis- 
tinct eyes, separated by the substance of the head elevated into a ridge, 
v;hich at first sight appears a continuation of the eye, but which evidently 
has no lenses implanted in it — they are also distinguished by their robust 
and short antennae. 

231. Callidium (Tetropium) cinnamopterum Kirby. Plate v, fig. 
8. Length of body 3^^ to 6 lines. Several specimens taken in Lat. 65^. 

At first sight this species seems the exact counterpart of Callidium 
triste, which it resembles in almost every respect ; but upon examination 
it will be found that the thighs of these two insects are of a very different 
shape, those of C. T. triste being much attenuated at the base, while those 
of C. T. cinnamopterum are not at all. In the latter also the sides of the 
fore -breast are red, and the elytra are considerably darker, very near the 
colour of cinnamon. 

The American specimens vary much in size, but all agree in the shape 
of the thighs. 

[Taken at Ottawa, Ont., by Mr. Billings ; Lake Superior (Agassiz.) 
Not common.] 

[175.] 232. Clytus undaytus Kirby. — Plate vii, fig. 5. Length 
of body 8 lines. Two specimens taken in Lat. 54°, 65°. 

Body black, underneath hoary from decumbent hairs, above velvetty. 
Head anteriorly hairy with whitish hairs, behind the antennae very thickly 
punctured ; palpi, labrum, tip of the nose and cheeks, eyes, antennae, and 
subface rufous ; prothorax rough with very minute and numerous granules, 
the base and apex have an interrupted band of yellow hairs, and a hoary 
spot on each side produced by hairs ; scutellum dark brown :• elytra with 
an oblique linelet adjoining the scutellum, another in the disk near the 
base, two wavy bands, the extremities of the anterior one pointing to- 
wards the base, and of the posterior one towards the apex ; the apex and 
suture, all pale yellow, produced by decumbent hairs : underneath on each 
side of the breast are three spots of the same colour, as likewise is thé 
tip of the ventral segments of the abdomen; the legs are rufous, sprinkled 
with hoary hairs. 

[A variety of C. undulatus Say. — Ent. Works, i, 119, plate 53. Taken 
during Long's second expedition by Say ; Lake Superior (Agassiz) ; and 
throughout Canada West.] 



THE CAÎÎADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 95 

233. Clytus lunulatus Kirby. — Length of body 7^ lines. One 
spe'cimen taken in Lat. 54°. Taken also in Canada by Dr. Bigsby, and 
in Nova Scotia by Capt. Hall. 

[176.] This species is extremely similar to the preceding, but its bands 
and spots are quite white without any tint of yellow : the prothorax has 
no posterior interrupted band, the anterior spot of the elytra is crescent or 
kidney-shaped, tlie thighs are dusky ; and the eyes are black ; but the 
most striking distinction is exhibited by the head, which is perfectly 
sniooth and without punctures, but when the occiput is disengaged from 
the prothorax, as it is when the head is inclined forwards, the front will be 
found to be separated from it by a bilobed line, behind which the head is 
thickly and confluently punctured. 

[Probably a variety of the preceding species.] 

234. Clytus fuscus Kirby. — Length of body 5^ lines. A single 
specimen taken in Lat. 54°. 

This species resembles the last in having the occiput similarly punc- 
tured, and the markings of the elytra are similar, except that instead of 
the white streak at the base there is only a dot : but it is of a brown 
colour, with the head and prothorax nearly black : the former is distinctly 
granulated ; the palpi, labrum, eyes, and antennae are rufous, as in C. 
undatus, and like that the prothorax has both an anterior and posterior 
interrupted band of white hairs ; the elytra and underside of the body are 
reddish-brown ; the legs rufous, posterior ones very long. 

[Taken at Ottawa and other places in Ontario.] 

235. Clytus longipes Kirby. — Length of body 5^4^ lines. A 
single specimen taken in Lat 54°. 

[177.] Body reddish brown, underneath hairy, with Avhite decumbent 
hairs. Head black, minutely and thickly punctured, with a longitudinal 
slight channel, transversely elevated between the antennae ; vertex ele- 
vated ; palpi, labrum, antennae and extremity of the nose, rufous : pro- 
thorax black, rather oblong, elevated longitudinally in the disk with an 
anterior bowed transverse ridge, followed by several minute acute tuber- 
cles, next in the middle is another shorter ridge, which is also succeeded 
by similar tubercles : the sides of the prothorax are granulated ; between 
the granulated portion and elevated disk, it is minutely reticulated, with a 
pore in the centre of each reticulation : elytra brown, subacute, with three 
bands formed of decumbent white hairs ; the first forming a crescent at 



96 THÉ CANADlAK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the scutellum, which runs along the base and down the suture ; the second 
in the middle first running transversely, then turning upwards towards the 
base and again turning down so as to form a hook next the suture ; the 
third near the apex, running transversely from the external margin to the 
suture and then turning upwards so as to form another crescent ; there is 
also a dot between the two first bands near the lateral margin ; there is a 
large hairy white spot on the sides of the breast, and the anterior ventral 
segments have a white hairy band at the apex : the legs are rufous, the 
hinder pair remarkably long. 

[Included in List of Canadian Coleoptera.] 

236. Clytus muricatulus Kirby. — Length of body 5 lines. Many 
specimens taken in Lat 54°. 

This comes extremely near to the preceding species, but is smaller, the 
discoidal ridges of the prothorax are nearly obsolete, that part has four 
white hairy spots, the bands of the elytra are differently shaped, and the. 
posterior legs are considerably shorter : the breast and base of the abdo- 
men underneath are hoary with white hairs, but not always spotted and 
branded. 

[Has not been identified as a distinct species.] 

[178.] 237. Hargium [Rhagium] lineatum Oliv. — Length of body 
5^ lines. Taken more than once in Lat. 54°, and also by Mr. Drake in 
the province of Massachusetts. 

Body black, rather glossy, hoary from longish cinereous hairs. Head 
constricted behind into a neck, punctured with large scattered punctures ; 
antennae shorter than the pro thorax, robust, last joint ovate, pedicel tes- 
taceous : prothorax constricted anteriorly and posteriorly, armed on each 
side by a stout rather sharp spine, punctured like the head, and hairy, but 
there are three longitudinal stripes without hairs, and the intermediate one 
without punctures, the lateral ones pass over the spines : elytra mottled 
with whitish or cinereous hairs, with three longitudinal ridges, the two 
external ones confluent near the apex, and a little higher up including 
between them a short abbreviated ridge ; the interstices are punctured 
like the head and prothorax ; at the base and lateral margin the elytra are 
reddish, and on the ridge next the suture there are two yellowish spots : 
coxae, trochanters, and base of the thighs reddish : abdomen carinated 
underneath. 

[Taken generally from Philadelphia northwards, under the bark of 
pine trees.] 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 97 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Geographical Distribution of Aphides. — The Aphis family is, as 
yet, very httle known in low latitudes, and there are only two instances of 
its occurrence to the south of the equate-. The first is a Madagascar 
genus, published by Coquerel : this genus has the fore wings more highly 
organized than those of any other known form of the tribe. The second 
dwells near New Caledonia, and is described by Montrouzier, and has 
much resemblance to some of the European Aphides. In Dr. Leith's 
collection of Bombay insects, I have observed an Aphis which, if its spe- 
cific characters are not obliterated by its shrivelled condition, is identical 
with a common English species. The next record of the family is in 
North Italy, where Passerini has published a monograph of the species 
therein. Africa, Asia and Australia are thus almost undiscovered coun- 
tries as regards Aphides, and afford a large space and require much time 
for research. The Aphides of America are unknown from the Southern 
end to the Northern States, where several new species have been 
described ; a kw there, are also species of Europe, and may have been 
introduced thence into America. Kaltenbach has published a work on 
the Aphides of Germany ; and Koch another, on those of the same coun- 
try ; and, notwithstanding the three monographs here mentioned, and 
various descriptions of species in France and in Sweden, there is much 
yet to be discovered in Europe, especially with regard to the migratory 
species, and to the more or less conspicuous and numerous alternate gen- 
erations, and to the influence of temperature and vegetation in changing 
the structure. The history of Aphides is connected with that of Coccin- 
ellae, Hemerobii, and Syrphi, which destroy them from without ; and with 
that of Aphidiidae, Allotridae, and a few Chalcidiae, which destroy them 
from within ; and with that of ants, which keep them as a flock, and feed 
on their honey. The little yellow ant lives with Aphides under ground ; 
the black ant is a guide to the discovery of the long-beaked Aphis in the 
crevices of the bark of oak trees ; and the large black and red ant resorts 
to the Aphides in woods. Some Aphides are especially subject to the 
attacks of Aphidii, from which other species, though equally numerous 
and noxious, are nearly free, weather and want of food being the agents 
in causing the latter to pass away. The comfrey Aphis is the frequent 
prey of a Httle red Dipterous larva, which seldom attacks other species. 
The fact that Aphides are stored by fossorial Hymenoptera as provision 
for their young is well known ; and I observed an instance of it in Fin- 



98 THE CANADIAK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

mark. The Aphides of that region must have a long continuance of the 
egg state ; in England this state varies from one month to eight months, 
accojding to the species, and according to the weather. The length and 
season of the egg state in the Aphides of hot countries has not yet been 
observed, and is an interesting subject for enquiry. — Francis IValker, in 
NeruiiuiN-s Entoniùlogiit. 

MoNOHAMMUS MAR.i\iORATOR, Kirby. — I was so fortunate as to 
receive a specin'ien of this rare insect from a friend last summer. It v/as 
taken in Richmond Square, Montreal, on the 27th of July, 187 1. Length 
of body one inch. The markings agree perfectly with Kirby's description, 
but as the antennae of his specimen were broken oft, I will describe 
those of mine. Antennae a little longer than the body, first joint 
chocolate brown at the base, remainder grey, through which the brown 
appears in spots and streaks ; second joint the same; third joint grey at 
the base, deepening into warm brown at the end ; fourth, fifth, sixth, 
seventh and eighth redder brown, grey only showing a little at the base ; 
remaining joints deep red. This is the only specimen I have got. There 
is another in the collection of the Natural History Society of Montreal, 
and Mr. Couper informs me that it was included in his Quebec List. 

PiERis Rap.e. — This destructive butterfly was very abundant about 
Montreal in 1870, and ruined the cabbage gardens around the city. Last 
summer they were not nearly so plentiful, and this coming season I hope 
to see their ranks still thinner, as a good many of the chrysalids that I 
examined this spring contained parasites in the pupa state. — F. B. Caul- 
field, Montreal, P.Q. 



COLEOPTERA TAKEN AT GRIMSBY. 

Cicindela lecontei, one S]jecimen, June 2nd. Omophron tesselatum. 
Elaphrus clairvillei Kirby — politus Lee. Dr. Llorn informs me that the 
specimen heretofore regarded by Leconte as Clairvillei, is unde.scribed. 
Blelhisa quadricollis, a specimen taken May 23rd. 
Ladmocrepis parallelus, two, taken in the lake June ist. 
Stenolophus cams, about the roots of trees in the swamp, May 13th. 
Tackys iripunctatus, under stones near water. 

Haliplus fasciatus. Ilydroporus striatopiinctalus. Agabus acuductiis. 
Colymbetis ( Scufop>terus ) coriaceus, Lloffm. Taken June ist. 

" longulus, a specimen taken also in the lake June 9th. 
Hydaticus bimarginatus. H. picciis. H. liberus. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 99 

Ochthebius nitidiis. Sperchopsis tesselatus. Clambus puberuhis. 

Adranes kconfei, four specimens taken in a nest of yellow ants, May nth. 

Ceophyllus monilis, taken in nests of yelloAv ants from 25th April to middle 
of Ma}^ Psclap/ms erichsonii. Tychiis longipalpus. 

Batrisiis Jiigricans, B. globosus, taken with other sp. of Pselaphidcz undei" 
leaves in the swamp. April. 

Efomalota lividipennis. Alcochara nilida, A. lata, A. rtibi'ipeiinis , Tachy- 
porus, brunneus, Bryoporus riifescens, Mycetoporus americanus, Acylop/i^ 
orus promis, Euryporus pundicoUis, P/riionthus sparsus, P. micans, P. 
sobriuus, P. terminalis, P. paederoides, DiocJius Schatwiii, Lathrobium 
puncticolle, L. rufidum, Scopaeus exigims, Stenus stygims, S. flavicorids, 
S. ànîiularis, S. aradus, Lathriîiiaeum sprdidum^ Prognaiha punctata. 

Paromalus se?ninidiim. Bœocera apicalis. 

Limulodes paradoxus. A specimen of this curious little Trichopterygidce. 
occurred in the before-mentioned nest of yellow ants with Adranes 
and Ceophylhis, making two blind species found in the same nest. 

Protnetopia sexwaculata, Trogosita viargi?iata, Sylvanus advena, Antherop- 
hagus convexiilus. 

Cryptophagus cdlaris. Taken in a nest of Humble bees. 

Corticaria rugiiiosa C. picta, Psepheniis tecontei, a specimen bred from a 
larva taken in the creek at Grimsby. 

Canthon nig/'icornis, a dead specimen found on the lake shore June 29th. 

Cremastochiliis PTarrisii, also taken on the lake shore. 

Agrilus cephalicus, A. egenus, Cardiophortis cardisce, Athous discaleratus. 

J. Pettit. 
Book Notice. — ^AVe have just received the first number of a new work 

on " Indigenous and Exotic Lepidoptera," ( Rlwpaloceres , Hderoceres), by 

Mr. Herman Strecker, of Reading, Pa., U.S. The work is well got up in 

quarto edition, with colored illustrations by Mr. Strecker himself It is 

to be published monthly at 50 cents a number, and we recommend it to 

the careful attention of our entomologists. We shall refer again to this 

book in our next issue. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Exotic Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. — I have a large collection of 
specimens of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera from Australia, Manilla, Mexico, 
and Central America, which I am now arranging for the purpose of sale, 
as I intend confining myself to Californian insects for the future. I will 
not exclude from the offered sale niy numerous Californian specimens. 1 



100 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

will continue to collect in all branches of the Californian entomological 
fauna, and I invite exchange. I have also a complete set of the Pacific 
Railroad Survey Reports (13 volumes), in excellent condition, which I 
shall be glad to dispose of. Apply to James Behrens, San Francisco? 
California. 

PlatysaiMIa Columbia. — I will give in exchange for a good example 
of this moth one hundred specimens of Lepidoptera of various genera from 
California, Southern and Atlantic United States, S. America, Europe, 
East Indian Archipelago, &c., or double the number for two examples; 
or, if it is preferable, I will pay in money. Herman Strecker, Box in, 
Reading P. O., Berks Cy., Pa. U. S. 

Cork. — We have a good supply of sheet cork of the ordinary thick 
ness, price 16 cents (gold) per square foot. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vols. i. 2 and 3. — We have a few copies 
left of Vols. I and 2, No. i, of Vol. i, being, however, out of print. Price 
$1.25 for Vols. I and 2 ; $1 Vol. 3. 

List of Canadian Coleoptera. — Price 15' cents each, embracing 55 
families, 432 genera, and 1231 species. (For labelling cabinets). 

Printed Numbers, in sheets, i to 2000, for labeUing cabinets. Price 
10 cents each set. 

Pins. — We have still a supply of Nos. 3, 5 and 6 left. A large quan- 
tity have been ordered, and are shortly expected. The prices in future 
will be slightly raised. The present stock will be sold at 75c. (gold) 
per packet of 500. 

These prices are exclusive of cost of transportation, and orders wil 
please state whether the package is to be sent by mail or express. 

Notice. — -The following scale for advertisements has been decided 
upon by the Editors : — 

Whole page on cover or fly-sheet $5-oo per annum. 

Half " " " " 3-00 " 

Quarter " " " " 1.50 " " 

For body of the Magazine, the rates to be 5 cts. per line for first insertion, 
and 3 cts. for every subsequent one. 

AGENTS FOR THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 
Canada. — E. B. Reed, London, Ont; W. Couper, Naturalist, Montreal 
P.Q.; G. J. Bowles, Quebec, P. Q.; J. Johnston, Canadian Institute, 
Toronto, Ont. 
United States. — The American Naturalist's Book Agency, Salem, Mass.; 
J. Y. Green, Newport, Vt; W. V. Andrews, Room 17, No. 137 
Broadway, New York. 




Caîiabiati ftûmolûai 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., JUNE, 1872. No. 6 

DESCRIPTIONS OF LEPIDOPTERA FROM ALABAMA. 

BV AUG. R. GROTE, DEMOPOLIS, ALABAMA. 

Nematocampa expunctaria, Grote. $ . — Pale ochreous, stained, and 
the veins lined with, a more intense shade. Transverse anterior line 
arcuate, dark ochreous, continued. Median shade arcuate at disc, thence 
running straightly downward appro.ximate to the transverse posterior line, 
continued. Transverse posterior line dark ochreous, even, distinct, 
slightly inwardly sinuate below vein 2. No vinous shadings whatever. 
Secondaries concolorous, with primaries ; a single even median line cor- 
responding with the transverse posterior line of primaries. Beneath 
paler, whitish ; secondaries immaculate ; primaries with traces of trans- 
verse posterior line superiorly, and a sprinkling of ochreous scales about 
the costal region. Body parts concolorous with wings. Expanse 23 m.m. 

Outline and ornamentation of N. filamentaria; but differing by the 
absence of any purplish stains, the more intense color and denser squa- 
mation, and quite prominently by the different shape of the transverse 
posterior line, which is less even in N. filameiitaria., and runs sooner and 
more deeply inwardly, attaining the internal margin further from the angle 
than in N. expimciaria. The course of the median shade differs also ; this 
more nearly attains the transverse posterior line on disc, and again on 
submedian interspace. This latter inflection is entirely wanting in N. 
cxpi/7ictaria, which seems a little the larger species. 

CùJichylis Robi7isonaiia, Grote. ^ . — Primaries blackish fuscous with 
five silvery white maculations above. The first is ovate, free from the 
base, well sized, touching internal margin, not attaining costal edge. The 
second is parallel, outwardly exserted inferiorly. Before the apices are two 
nearly similar sized moderate spots, and the fifth is larger and covers 
internal angle. Hind wings pale fuscous. Collar fuscous white; the 
thorax is white above. Caputal squamation pale, while the abdomen is 
pale fuscous. Expanse 14 m.m. Size of C. j-macu/a^ia Jioâ., and resem- 
bling that species, but differing in the relative size and position of the 
spots on the primaries, notably the basal one and that covering internal 
angle. 



102 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I name this little species after my friend and brother entomologist, the 
late Coleman T. Robinson, whose sudden death has caused so great 
sorrow in many circles, besides the one in which I knew him best. Who 
shall say now that he' wasted his time in describing the little insects he 
loved, when it is his descriptions of new species of North American Moths 
that will keep his fame after death, and, in the nature of human things, 
long after his other qualities shall have been forgotten by men ? So many 
are now properly sorrowing for him — I have only to remember this and 
be silent. 



NOTES ON PIERIS RAP^-E. 

BY G. J. BOWLES, MONTREAL. 

The April number of the Entomologist contains a communication 
from my esteemed friend Mr. S. H. Scudder, with reference to the yellow 
male variety of this species. In it he asks several questions which I shall 
endeavour to answer, adding some other particulars to make my notes as 
complete as possible. 

I think that entomologists will agree with me in considering P. rapce 
as one of the most interesting insects existing on this continent, not only 
with reference to its destructive habits, but also on account of its recent 
introduction and rapid dissemination over the country. The Colorado 
Potato Beetle is, perhaps, the only species whose progress has been so 
carefully recorded ; for both have "made their mark" as they spread from 
place to place, although the butterfly has not been such a formidable 
enemy as the beetle. A new subject of interest — the yellow male variety 
— is now added to the history of the butterfly, and it is certainly worthy 
of the attention of students, as it may, in the future, aid in solving some 
of the problems connected with climatic influences and the distinction of 
species. 

I first met with yellow males in 1863, and mentioned it in my paper 
on Pier is rapœ published in the Canadian Naturalist for August, 1864. 
Since then I have captured similar specimens each year, and found them 
to be produced throughout the season. I remember taking one or two 
so early in the spring that I felt satisfied they belonged to the very first 
brood of the year, which led me to conclude that the variety is likely to 
appear at all parts of the season^ and in every brood. Those which I 
captured on the wing have always been males, but, strange to tell, among 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 103 



a number reared in confinement during the summer of 1864, a j^ellow 
fci/iate made her appearance, smaller than usual, but of as dark a colour 
as any that 1 have seen of the other sex. It ir»ay happen, therefore, that 
the variety may become a permanent one, and, at some future time, be 
regarded as a distinct species. Who knows how soon favorable circum- 
stances may develope a new (and yellow) species of Pieris, to be called 
nova/igliœ or canadensis ! 

We cannot, however, claim this variety as the effect of a change of 
habitat and climate on P. rapce, as (with all due deference to Mr.Stainton) 
it has been met with in England. Curtis, in his work on " Farm Insects," 
(quoted in my paper before referred to), speaks of having in his collection 
a male P. rapœ " taken near Oldham, in Lancashire, which has all the 
wings of a bright yellow colour." From Mr. Stainton's assurance to Mr. 
Scudder, however, that it was unknown in Europe, its occurrence on that 
continent must be extremely rare ; very different from Canada, and 
especially the neighbourhood of Quebec, where I should say that, at a low 
estimate, one male P. rapœ out of five hundred is of a )^ellow colour, more 
or less intense. This estimate would allow for many specimens in a 
season, as, of all Quebec butterflies, our friend is decidedly the most 
abundant and prolific. I have seen them by hundreds, at one time, 
hovering over the fields of cabbages, to the dismay of the cultivators of this 
useful vegetable. It is curious that this variety should be comparatively 
common in America, and almost unknown in Europe. The fact would 
lead us to think that though it cannot have originated here, yet the 
tendency to diverge from the normal colour of the species has been 
increased by the transfer to this continent. 

The Canadian Pieris rapœ (and, I expect, the New England as well), 
is, in common with some other species of the genus, subject to great 
variation in colour and intensity of markings, apart from the yellow variety 
under consideration. The spring brood is of a much purer white than 
those produced later in the season, and has the blackish markings less 
in size and paler in colour. I have often seen spring males without the 
spot on the upper side of the fore wings, and having the blotch on the 
apex so much obliterated, that I have supposed them, before examination, 
to be P. oleracea. The spot, however, is generally present beneath, and 
can be faintly seen through the wing. As the summer passes, the mark- 
ings of the successive broods become mor-e intense, until in the autumn, 
individuals (particularly females), are met with which have a greyish 
appearance, from the number of black scales sprinkled on the wings, 



104 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

especially near the body. The illustrations on page 83 of the Report of 
our Society for 1 871, published by the Ontario Department of Agriculture, 
give an exact idea of the insect at this season. This change in colour 
has been noticed in England ; indeed, before its progressiveness had been 
observed, an eminent entomologist there separated the spring and autumn 
broods into distinct species. I quote from a letter received in 1864 from 
my friend Dr. Jordan, of Birmingham : — 

" You are probably aware that here in England we have two distinct 
broods of the insect, the first appearing in April, the second in July. The 
first almost wants the apical spot on the top wing in both sexes, and on 
the male the central spot is often also quite obliterated. To this the 
name of ^. metra was given by Stephens, who then supposed it a distinct 
species. In the autumnal brood, or typical P. rapœ, we have a larger 
and darker insect, with the spots more marked, and the black patch at 
the apex of the fore wing very much darker."' 

The yellow variety also shares in this progressive change of colour. 
The spring specimens are of a very delicate yellow, almost without spots, 
and are very handsome, while those appearing in the fall are of a sulphur 
yellow, and heavily marked. 

Dr. Jordan speaks of there being two broods of the insect in England. 
I think that in Canada they are more numerous. It is impossible, how- 
ever, to settle the number with certainty, as one brood encroaches on the 
next ; and from the time when the butterflies begin to deposit their eggs 
on cabbage plants in the hot-beds, in April and May, until October, larvae 
of all sizes and ages may be found feeding on the same plant. The short 
time required for the complete developement of the insect also favours the 
idea of there being three or more broods in one season. Some caterpillars 
reared by me in June, 1864, grew from one-twelfth of an inch in length to 
their full size, in eleven days ; they then became pupœ, and seven days 
afterwards, the perfect insects were produced. Allowing for the influence 
of temperature in accelerating or retarding their changes, thirty days 
would be a fair average to give as the duration of each brood, and this 
would be equal to four or five broods in the season in the latitude of 
Quebec. In fact, there is no other way of accounting for their surprising 
numbers in the latter part of summer. 

, I have not yet met with any parasite infesting this butterfly, though I 
have found pupœ which had apparently been destroyed by them ; and a 
fellow-student here (Mr. Caulfield) informs me that he now has about 
twenty chrysalids containihg some insect enemy. The most powerful 



THE OANADIAX ENïOMOLOaiST. 105 

agent in lessening their numbers is, in my opinion, the intense cold of 
winter, for, contrary to the rule with regard to insects passing the winter in . 
the pupal state, the chrysalis oi P.rapœ, unless placed in a sheltered situa- 
tion, does not seem to resist the effects of frost. In early spring, I have 
searched under the exposed coping-boards of fences, where these pupae 
were suspended in scores, and very rarely found one alive ; nearly all 
were killed and blackened by the severe cold, and any living ones brought 
into the house invariably died in a few days. The first brood of the year 
is, with regard to numbers, in wonderful contrast to the multitudes of 
larvee which must have come to maturity and pupated during the preceding 
autumn, and this difference can only be ascribed to the destroying effects 
of the winters cold upon the chrysalids. The species, in its new habitat, 
certainly has to pass through extremes of temperature which it has not 
been accustomed to in England — from which country it was most 
probably introduced ; and while the increased summer heat of Canada 
appears to have made it more prolific, by augmenting the number of 
broods, the greater cold of winter has balanced the account by killing oft" 
the surplus, which otherwise would have rendered the insect an intolerable 
pest. The "compensating" principle in the laws of Nature is thus in useful 
operation with regard to P. rapœ, and as the power of cold decreases in 
effectiveness through the butterfly becoming acclimatized (which Avill 
probably happen in course of time), no doubt other agencies will arise in 
the shape of new parasitic enemies, to keep the species within due 
bounds. 

It would be interesting to know how far this insect has now extended 
its range, particularly towards the west of Canada. The prediction I made 
in 1864 has been fully verified, as it has now spread over the Province of 
Quebec and the New England States ; and last year destroyed $500,000 
worth of cabbages in the vicinity of New York alone, according to the 
estimate of a leading newspaper there. It does not seem, however, to 
have made equal progress in Ontario. Could not our Kingston friends 
give us some information on this point ? It would be " thankfully 
received and faithfully applied."' 



The Entomological Report for 1S71 has now been issued, and, 
we trust, is by this time in the hands of all our members. Should any 
fail to receive it, the Secretary will forward a copy on being notified. 



106 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

MICRO-LEPIDÔPTERA. 

]JY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KY. 
Continued from page 92. 

DEPRESSARIA. 

5. D. Riley ella. N. sp. 

Brush dark brown, apical joint pale yellowish. Head, thorax, and 
fore wings pale yellow, faintly tinged with pink, and minutely dusted with 
fuscous, and with a fuscous streak on the base of the costa. Head and 
thorax slightly iridescent, wings scarcely so ; posterior wings a little paler. 
Under surface and legs pale yellowish, sparsely dusted with fuscous. 
Alar ex. s -3 inch. Named for Mr. C. ^ . Riley, State Entomologist of 
Missouri. Kentucky. Larva unknown. Also in the collection of Mr. 
Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. 

6. D. fuscooc/irella. A', sf. 

Palpi white, flecked with fuscous ; third joint fuscous, mixed above 
with whitish. Head pale whitish-yellow, flecked with pale fuscous, 
strongly iridescent. Antennae pale yellowish, annulate with fuscous, and 
basal joint fuscous. Thorax and anterior wings pale ochreous, the Avings 
suffused with fuscous at the base. A large oblique fuscous spot on the 
costa at about the basal fourth, reaching the fold, mixed next the costa 
about equally with pale ochreous. Anteriorly, this spot is distinctly 
outlined, but posteriorly, it passes gradually into pale ochreous, thickly 
dusted with fuscous, occupying the costal half of the wing, and spreading 
over the apical fourth of the w'ing, becoming darker towards the apex. 
Cili;£ silvery. Posterior wings and ciliss grayish-silver\-. Alai-. ex. A inch. 
The prevailing tint of the basal costal portion of the wing is fuscous. 
Kentucky. Larva unknown. 

7. D. fuscoluteclla. N. sp. 

Palpi dark purplish-brown. Head bronzed, purplish. Antennje pale 
fuscous and yellowish. Thorax and anterior wings pale fawn colour, 
with a silky lustre (under the lens pale yellowish, overlaid with fuscous)^ 
Posterior wings paler. Body yellowish, thickly dusted with brown, and 
wTth purplish reflections. Alar ex. W inch. Kentucky. Larva unknown. 

8. D. obscurusella. N. sp. 

Palpi and antennae dark brown, the palpi with a little ochreous inter- 
mixed, and with the second joint ochreous on the inner surface ; face 
pale ochreous, sparsely flecked with pale fuscous ; thorax and anterior 



THE CxiNADlAK ENTOMOLOGIST. 107 

wings dark brown, mixed almost equally with ochreous, and with a few 
scattered white scales. In some parts of the wings the dark brown scales 
are condensed into irregular, wavy, rather indistinct lines or narrow 
bands, one of which is placed at about the basal one-fourth of the costa, 
and is oblique and furcate, sending one of the branches nearly to the end 
of the disc ; at about the apical one-third they are again condensed into 
an indistinct zigzag line across the wing, and again into a brown irregular 
patch at the apex. Sometimes in fresh specimens these zigzag lines and 
spots in the apical part of the wing appear to be continuous ; but they are 
indistinct, and when the wing is a little rubbed, they appear as very indis- 
tinct separate lines or spots. Ciliœ dark fulvous, sprinkled with dark 
brown ; posterior wings pale grayish fuscous, becoming darker towards 
the tip. Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky. Larva unknown. Also in the 
collection of Mr. Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. 

9. D. pseudacacicUa. N. sp. 

■ Antennae and palpi dark purplish-brown, streaked and flecked with 
white. Head clothed with dark brown and white scales about equally, 
tinged with pale purplish. Thorax and anterior wings dark purplish- 
brown, streaked and flecked with white and ochreous especially ; a streak 
extending from the base nearly to the apex, just within the costal margin 
of which the prevailing hue is ochreous, mixed with white. A white 
costal spot at the beginning of the costal ciliae, and an opposite dorsal 
one, both small. Cilige grayish silvery, with a rather distinct and wide 
hinder marginal hne at their base dark brown. Hind wings pale ochreous- 
brown. Body and legs dark purplish-brown, with a nearly equal inter- 
mixture of white scales. Alar ex. nearly v inch. Very cominon in 
Kentucky. 

Dr. Packard {Guide, p. J4ç) mentions another species, D. robiniella, 
which seems to be very distinct from this, but which, like this, feeds upon 
the leaves of the Locust {Rolnnia pseudacacia). The larva of this species, 
when young, inhabits the mines of LitJwcolletis robifiiella, Clem., and 
L. oriiatella, Mihi, in the leaves of R. pseudacacia and R. Jiispida. When 
older, it sews together the leaflets, and lives between them. I once saw 
one cut its way into the mines of L. robiniella, proving thus that its 
frequent presence in those mines was not owing to its having accidentally 
wandered into torn mines. 

The young larva is green, with darker green longitudinal markings, 
with the head and next segment shining black, and mouth ferruginous. 



108 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

When older, it becomes pale green, with two dark brown longitudinal 
stripes on top of the third and following segments, with a row of dark 
brown spots on each side of each line, and a black longitudinal line on 
each side. 

10. D. bimaculella. N. sp. 

Palpi, head, thorax and forewings shining dark purplish-brown or 
black. Extreme tip of palpi yellowish-white ; there is a large white spot 
on the disc just beyond the middle, and a white spot or streak which 
starts from the beginning of the costal ciliae, but does not attain the 
dorsal margin. Cilise fuscous. Abdomen pale fuscous, each segment of 
the venter tipped with white. Alar ex. j4 inch. Kentucky. Common. 
Larva unknown. 

11. D. cercerisella. N'. sp. 

Palpi white, except the third joint, which is dark brown from the apex 
nearly to the base. Face, head, and anterior margin of the thorax, white. 
Antennœ dark brown, faintly serrated towards the apex. Thorax and 
anterior wings shining, soft, velvety black, dusted with a few ochreous 
scales which, in some lights, give it a bronzy hue. Three large snow-white 
costal spots, the first of which is the largest, extending to the fold ; the 
second is about the costal middle, and the third at the beginning of the 
ciliœ. A white dorsal spot opposite the third costal, and about four 
small white spots forming a row around the apex ; costo-apical cilia? 
short, dark brown ; dorso-apical ones longer and silvery white ; a dark 
brown hinder marginal line at the base of the cilise. Posterior wings 
scarcely emarginate beneath the tip, pale drab, faintly tinged Avith pink. 
Alar ex. ^ to V^ inch. 

The larva is very pretty. When young, it is snowy white ; when old, 
the basal half of each segment, above, is pearly white, and the posterior 
half shining black, with a shining black band across the head in front of 
the eyes, interrupted in the middle, and a transverse bow-shaped shining 
black streak on the vertex. The true feet are shining black. This is one 
of the few instances among the Tine'ma where the colours of the imago 
are indicated by those of the larva. It feeds upon the leaves of the Red 
Bud ( Cercis Canadensis), which it either folds or sews together. It is 
exceedingly abundant in the larval state, but is much infested by an 
ichneumonide parasite, so that I have been able to rear but a single 
specimen, and have captured another. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOaiST. 109 

LIST OF THE WRITINGS OF THE LATE 

COLEMAN TOWNSEND ROBINSON. 

BY AUG. R. GROTE, DEMOPOLIS, ALA. 

I give here a list of those of the Entomological writings of my late 
esteemed friend, Mr. Coleman T. Robinson, that have been published 
under his sole signature. 

These recommend themselves to the attention of the student by their 
conscientious statement and adequate illustration of the different species 
they discuss. They were all written subsequent to Mr. Robinson's return 
in 1868, from a journey to England and Continental Europe, during the 
prosecution of which a representative collection of European Lepidoptera 
was acquired, and especial attention was paid to the smaller moths. Mr. 
Robinson saw and talked with Zeller, whose researches and studies on 
the Micro-Lepidoptera have furnished the basis on which our best authors 
have founded their classifications. He could not fail to be benefitted by 
such contact, and I know he carried with him to his early grave a sweet 
recollection of the old Professor who had honored him with his good 
fatherly counsel and even affectionate consideration. Five papers, under 
the common title of Descriptions of North American Lepidoptera, and 
illustrated by 86 figures, have been already published under the joint 
authorship of Mr. Robinson and myself in the Transactions of the 
American Entomological Societ}'-. The sixth and last paper, bringing, 
according to our original agreement, the number of illustrations to one 
hundred, and with a revisionary supplement, is in great part completed. 
The collection on which these and all our other joint entomological 
writings were based, is now in the possession of the American Entomo- 
logical Society. Sometime I hope to be able to publish this Sixth Paper, 
and bring to a conclusion our joint plan and labors. How deeply do I 
feel the loss of my clear-headed, talented friend and coadjutor ! 

L — Lepidopterological Miscellanies. Annals of the Lyceum of 
Natural History, February ist, 1869, pp. 152 to 158, Vol. IX., and 
Reprint, with one coloured plate. 

In this Paper the following species are described and illustrated : — 

Euphanessa mendica, Packard, p. 152, plate i, fig. i. 

Euphanessa unicolor, Robinson, p. 153, plate i, fig. 2. 



110 THE CANADIAN, ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I am inclined to refer this Texan species to Walker's genus Ameria; 
to which also Crocota cupfaria, Walk., belongs. 

Oligostigma albalis, Robinson, p. 153, plate i^ fig. 3. 

Catadysta bifascialis, Robinson, p. 154, plate i, fig. 4. A Texan 
species allied to C. opidentalis, Lederer. 

Ero^ne7ie texana, Robinson, p. 155, plate i, fig. 5. Our only described 
North American species, and allied to Zeller's E. ramburiella. 

Depressaria cinereocostella, Clemens, p. 155, plate i, fig. 6. 

Depressaria atrodorsella, Clemens, p. 156, plate i, fig. 7. 

Depressaria pulvipennella, Clemens, p. 157, plate i, fig. 8. 

Depressaria lecojitella, Clemens, p. 157, plate i, fig. 9. 

Depressaria grotella, Robinson, p. 157, plate i, fig. 10. 

In thus illustrating the closely allied species of this Tineid genius, Mr. 
Robinson has performed a very useful task. 

II. — Notes on American Tortricid^. Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society, Vol. 2, February, 1869, pp. 261 — 288, with six 
lithographic plates containing eighty- six illustrations. 

B. The same reprinted; a pamphlet of 27 pages, with the plates 
coloured. 

With this article Mr. Robinson commenced his labours on the 
Tortricidœ. Forty-five species of the genus Tortrix are described and 
figured, twenty-three of which are noticed for the first time, one re-named, 
and fifteen referred here from the other genera. Fourteen species of the 
genus Teras are described and figured, nine for the first time, three 
referred here from other genera, one European species recognized as 
occurring in this country. Finally, twelve species of Co7ichylis are also 
described and illustrated. Of these, three belonging to that section of the 
genus which contains the silver-spotted species, are newly described ; of 
the remainder, seven are first noticed in this paper, and two for the first 
time referred to this genus. 

III. — List of North American Tortricid.t.. Part i. New 
York Printing Company, October, 1869. 

IV. — Lepidopterological Miscellanies, No. 2. Annals of the 
New York Lyceum of Natural History, Vol. IX., December, 1869, pp. 
310 to 316, and Reprint. 

In this paper are described the following species : — 

Hypena iniernalis, Robinson, p. 311. This species is now known as 
Hypena torenta, Grote ; the name used by Mr. Robinson is preoccupied. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. Ill 



Ilypena evanidalls, Robinson, p. 311. This species is allied lo H. 
/ui/nuli, Harris, and has probably been confounded with it. In a paper 
on the North American species of the genus in MSS., the differences are 
pointed out. 

Schocnobi2is sordidcllus, Zeller, p. 31. 

Schoeiiohius lojigirostrellus, Zeller, p. 312.' 

Schoenobiiis melinellus, Robinson, p. 313. 

Schoenobius cleviensellus, Robinson, p. 313. This is Chilo aqtdlelhis, 
Clemens, but the name had been previously used. 

Schoenobius dispersellus, Robinson, p. 313. 

Schoenobius unipunctellus , Robinson, p. 314. 

Schoenobius tripunctellus, Robinson, p. 314. 

Cratfibus 77iinime//us, Kohinson, p. 315. 

Cr ambus satrapellus, Zeller, p. 315. 

Crambus bipimcfellus, Zeller, p. 316. 

So far as known to me, the above list contains mention of all the 
writings for which the late President of the American Entomological 
Society was alone responsible. 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirby's Faima Boreali- Americana : Inseda. 



(Continued from Page 96.) 

23S. Pachyta liturata Kirby. — Length of body 7-9 hnes. Several 
specimens taken in Lat. 54° and 65°. 

[179.] This is the American representative of P. quadriniaculata, from 
which it differs principally in being not so hairy, with hoary instead of 
yellow-tinted hairs : the punctures of the prothorax and elytra are more 
minute ; the antennae are rather shorter, and the elytra, instead of two 
subquadrangular black spots, have three less black linear ones, the two 
anterior ones being partly parallel, and in some specimens confluent. 

GENUS LEPTURA, Linn. 

This genus may be thus subdivided with respect to the species about 
to be described. 



112 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



* Eyes emarginate, or kidney-shaped 

t Elytra triangular. 

a truncated 

b — 



truncated ) , ,, 

.,, • ,1 ^ > at the apex. 

premorse, or with a smus taken out j '■ 

I ■ prothorax anteriorly^ constricted without posterior 

angles. 

2 : not constricted, posterior angles acute. 

c rounded at the apex. 

ft Elytra linear. 

a truncated ] . ,, 

, J , >■ at the apex. 

D rounded j 

** Eyes entire. 

* t a 

239. Leptura chrysocoma X/7'<^_>'. — Plate v., fig. i. Length of body 
5>4— 634: lines. 

Several specimens taken ; the largest, in the journey from New York ; 
the smaller, near Cumberland-house. Taken likewise by Dr. MacCulloch 
and Capt. Hall, in Nova Scotia. 

[180.] This beautiful insect is related to Z. viretis, but perfectly distinct. 
The body appears to be black, but that colour is, in most parts, nearly 
concealed by a thick and mostly long coat of brilliant golden hairs with 
a very slight tint of green, where the coat is thin the body appears 
minutely punctured. Head subelongated, the neck exserted, subtri- 
angular; nose with only a few scattered whitish hairs; antennae black, 
third, fourth, and fifth joints rather slenderer and longer than the succeed- 
ing ones : prothorax between globose and bell-shaped, constricted anter- 
iorly, channelled, grossly punctured : substance of the elytra pale testa- 
ceous, towards the apex externally they are dusky ; the golden down on 
them is shorter and decumbent ; apex diverging and obliquely truncated : 
underside of the abdomen particularly brilliant from decumbent hairs : 
legs less hairy than the rest of the body. [Taken from New York to Lake 
Superior, but not common. More frequently taken in the neighbourhood 
of Quebec] 

240. Leptura subpubescens Kirby. — Length of body not noticed. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body black, thinly coated with yellow hairs. Head and neck 
grossly punctured ; antennae longer than the prothorax, black, downy, 
intermediate joints rather slenderer than the others, fourth shorter than 
the fifth : prothorax shaped as in C. chrysocoma, widely but obsoletely chan- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 113 

nelled ; rough and reticulated, as it were, with numerous confluent punc- 
tures, sides more hairy than the disk : elytra thickly punctured, pale 
testaceous, black at the apex, Avhere the suture curves outwards so that 
they diverge from each other, extremity nearly transversely truncated : 
abdomen underneath minutely, breast rather grossly, punctured : podex 
subemarginate. 

* t b I. 

241. Leptûra erythroptera Kirby. — Length of body 8 lines. 
Taken in Nova Scotia by Capt. Hall. 

[181.] Body very black, slightly downy, underneath minutely punc- 
tured. Head shorter than in the last section, as well as the neck 
obsoletely channelled ; thickly but not minutely punctured ; antenn» 
rather longer than the pro thorax ; third and fourth joints a little slenderer 
than the others, and pale red at the base ; the sixth is pale with a black 
spot on each side at the apex ; and the whole of the eighth is of the same 
colour; the last joint is acuminated ; the prothorax is constricted anter- 
iorly, and the constricted part is perfectly smooth, the rest is thickly and 
confluently punctured and wrinkled ; at the base the prothorax is 
depressed and obsoletely trilobed : scutellum black, representing an 
isosceles triangle : elytra of a dull red, grossly and deeply punctured \ 
extremity scooped out with the external angle longer than the internal 
and acuminate : mesosternum emarginate posteriorly. [Taken in Canada 
on flowers in July ; not common.] 

242. Leptura canadensis Olivier. — Length of body di/^ to 8 lines. 
Taken in Nova Scotia by Dr. MacCulloch. 

Body very black, slightly downy, minutely punctured. Head as in 
the last species, but the neck is not channelled ; antennae with base of the 
fifth joint, the whole of the sixth and eighth, except the black apex of 
the former, pale or pale rufous : prothorax as in L. erythroptera, only 
deeply and confluently punctured but not wrinkled : elytra black, san- 
guineous at the base. In other respects this species resembles that 
insect ; the external angle of the apex of the elytra is however shorter. 
I Quite common from Georgia to Lake Superior.) 

- t b 2. 

243. Leptura tenltor Kirby. — Length of body 5^ lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

[182.] Body black, rather slender, slightly punctured, thinly coated 
with decumbent yellow hairs. Antennas shorter than the body, fifth joint 



114 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

scarcely longer than the fourth : prothorax between bell-shaped and a 
truncated cone, a little constricted in the middle, fringed with yellow hairs 
anteriorly and posteriorly : scutellum triangular : elytra testaceous, yellow 
at the base, and w-ith three yellow bands, the first interrupted ; oblique 
sinus at the apex not so deep as in the two preceding species: legs 
testaceous; abdomen of a deeper colour; and segments scarcely emargi- 
nate. This species difiers in habit from the two preceding ones, it is 
narrower in proportion, and comes nearer to L. qiiadrifasciata, but the 
posterior angles of the prothorax, though acute, are not so prominent ; it 
belongs however to the same subdivision, with the last mentioned insect. 
[Considered by Newman to be synonymous with Sh-angalia fugax?^ 

* t c. 

244. Leptura brevis Kirby. — Length of body 5 lines. Taken in 
Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body shorter than usual in proportion to its width ; black, underneath 
minutely punctured and thinly covered with rather silvery decumbent 
hairs. Head thickly and confluently punctured, rather downy with erect 
hoary hairs ; antennœ shorter than the body ; fourth, fifth, and sixth joints 
long and slenderer than the rest ; six last short and pale at the base : 
prothorax between bell-shaped and globose, deeply and confluently punc- 
tured ; downy with some erect hoary hairs ; anteriorly constricted, poster- 
iorly depressed : scutellum linear covered with pale decumbent hairs : 
elytra very grossly and deeply punctured, shorter than the abdomen and 
rounded at the apex, with a lateral band bent a little inwards towards the 
base, which it does not reach, of the colciur of the yolk of an egg ; anus 
entire : down on the legs yellow. [A variety of L. vagajis Oliv. Taken 
in Canada, also in N. Y. and Penn.] 

245. Leptura sexmaculata Z/>;;/. — Length of body 5 J^ lines. Two 
specimens taken in Lat. 65°. 

[183.] Body rather short, black, downy, minutely punctured. Head 
very thickly and miriutely punctured, obsoletely channelled ; antennae 
slender, shorter than the body, fifth joint considerably longer than the 
fourth : prothorax shaped as in the preceding species but less depressed 
posteriorly ; very thickly as well as minutely punctured : scutellum tri- 
angular : elytra pale-yellow^, wath an arched black spot at the base, then 
follows an interrupted band consisting of three acute black spots placed 
in a triangle, beyond the middle is a dentated black band which reaches 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 115 

neither the suture nor the lateral margin ; the apex also, the suture, and 
the lateral margin towards the apex, are all black. 

Variety B. Head not channelled : spot at the base of the elytra 
coalescing with the intermediate and lateral ones of the anterior band, 
and reaching the lateral margin ; interior spot reaching the suture so as 
to form the half of a spot common to both elytra ; the intermediate band 
is broader and reaches both the suture and lateral margin. [Belongs to 
Stra?igalia (Pachyta). Taken at Quebec by Mr. Couper ; Lake Superior 
by Agassiz's Expedition.] 

"- tt a. 

246. Leptura SEMiviTTATA AVrZ'r. — Length of body 6 lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body long and narrow, black, underneath slightly and minutely punc- 
tured, with the sides of the breast and abdomen brilliant with a silvery 
lustre from decumbent silky hairs, above glossy and almost naked. Head 
thickly punctured, but behind each eye there is a levigated space ; 
antennae longer than the prothorax, intermediate joints not slenderer 
than the others, the fourth as long as the fifth; neck short and levigated: 
prothorax bell-shaped, not constricted anteriorly, depressed posteriorly ; 
thinly punctured, especially in the disk : scutellum triangular : elytra 
punctured but not thickly, punctures almost arranged in rows, towards 
the, apex they are very slight ; a reddish-yellow subflexuose stripe runs 
from the middle of the base of the elytra a little more than half way 
towards the apex, which is diverging and truncated : the ventral segments 
of the abdomen terminate in a reddish membrane. [Synonymous with 
L. vittata Oliv.; common in Canada on flowers during June and July; 
taken from Alabama northwards.] 

[184.] 247. Leptura gulosa Kirby. — Length of the body 5 lines. 
Taken in Nova Scotia by Dr. MacCulloch. 

Very nearly related to the preceding species, from which it differs 
chiefly in being much smaller, in having the underside of the body more 
thickly covered with hairs glittering like silver ; in having the throat pale- 
red ; the fifth joint of the antennae longer than the fourth ; the punctures 
of the elytra more numerous and scattered ; the yellow stripe ^-unning 
nearer to the apex of the elytra, dilated at the base and not flexuose : the 
fore-breast also in the disk, the after-breast on each side, and the base of 
the thighs are obscurely red : the tibiae are piceous. 



116 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

* ft b. 
248. Leptura subargkntata Kirby. — Length of the body 4 lines. 
Taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body narrow, entirely black, very minutely and thickly punctured, 
.underneath glittering, but less conspicuously with silver pile; antennas 
shorter than the body, nearly filiform, fourth and fifth joints of equal 
length ; prothorax perfectly bell-shaped, anteriorly not constricted, 
posterior angles acute, diverging and covered Avith silver pile : elytra 
rounded at the apex. [Taken in Canada and Lake Superior.] 

[185.] 249. Leptura simills A7r/^j.~T>ength of body 3^3 lines. A 
single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

This may possibly be the other sex of the preceding species which it 
resembles in every respect, except that the antennae are rather longer, the 
scape or first joint, all but the base on the upper side, is rufous, as are 
likewise the thighs and four anterior tibiœ ; the posterior thighs are 
however black at the apex. 

250. Leptura longicornis A'/nV)'.— Length of body 5 lines. A 
single, specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

At first sight this species a good deal resembles L. semivittata and 
gulosa of the former section, but its eyes are entire, and its antenna 
much slenderer and of a different type, more nearly resembling those of 
Z. argcntata and similis. Body black, minutely punctured, down.y, 
especially underneath, v/ith silvery hairs. Head minutely, thickly, and 
confluently punctured ; labrum and base of the mandibles rufous ; last 
joint of the palpi securiform; antennae very slender nearly as long as the 
body ; scape incrassated, rulous, black at the base : prothorax a little 
constricted anteriorly, very thickly punctured with a longitudinal dorsal 
impunctured line or channel : scutellum longitudinally concave, rounded 
at the apex ; elytra nearly linear, grossly punctured, glossy, nearly black, 
with a pale stripe extending from the middle of the base to near the apex, 
and gradually approaching the suture ; apex subtruncated : legs rufous at 
the base. [Belongs to the genus Acmœops Lee] 

[186.] 251. Leptura Proteus Kirby.-— 'Ltwg^h of body 3^ — 5)4 
lines. Taken abundantly in Lat. 54° and 65°. 

Body narrow, black, punctured, somewhat glossy, rather hairy, especi- 
ally underneath, with decumbent hairs, those on the elytra have somewhat 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 117 

of a golden lustre, the rest are silver)^ Nose more grossly punctured 
than the rest of the head ; vertex convex ; eyes subovate, pale with a 
slight golden lustre ; antennae filiform, longer than the prothorax, 
obscurely rufous, with the four first joints black, fifth joint longer than 
the fourth : prothorax campanulate, anteriorly constricted, posterior angles 
a little divej-ging, thinly punctured ; channelled, the channel running 
between two dorsal gibbosities : scutellum triangular : elytra rather widest 
at the base, and punctured there more grossly next the suture ; diverging 
and truncated at the apex : tibiae piceous or rufo-piceous ; four posterior 
thighs rufous at the base. 

Variety B. In this variety only the base of the six last joints of the 
antennae is rufous, all the thighs are rufous at the 
base, and the tibiae of a clearer red, but they are 
dusky at the apex; tarsi rufous at the base. Length 
of the body 3?^! lines. 

C. Elytra with a stripe at the base, tips and lateral margin 

rufous : antennae entirely black : legs as in variety B. 
Length of the body 4^ lines. 

D. Elytra with a longitudinal rufous stripe dilated at the 

base and apex ; bead of the lateral margin also rufous ; 
antennae and legs nearly as in B, but the whole of 
the tarsi is obscurely rufous. Length of the body 
3 — 4 lines. 

E. Elytra rufous with the suture and a stripe near the 

margin abbreviated at both ends, dusky : antennae as 
in A ; legs as in B. Length of the body 4 — 5 lines. 

F. Elytra rufous, with a dusky suture ; antennae as in A ; 

legs as in D. 

G. Like F, but elytra luteous ; antennae all black. Length 

of the body 4 lines. 
H. Like F and G, but legs and antennae black. Length of 
the body 3^ lines. 

Z. Proteus seems to vary ad infinitum in the colour of the elytra, 
antennae, and legs, but as all the varieties agree in every respect except 
colour and size, and the elytra advance so gradually from pale rufous to 
black, or vice versa, there can be little doubt of the identity of the 
different varieties. [This very variable species is common throughout 
Canada. It belongs to the genus Aanœops Lee] 



118 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

[187.] 252. Leptura longiceps Kirby. — Length of body 4 lines. 
Several specimens taken in Lat. 54° and 65". 

Like the preceding species but shorter in proportion with a longer 
head. Body black, punctured, hoary with rather silvery down : head as 
long or longer than the prothorax ; eyes pale, subtriangular ; antennae 
with the second, third and fourth joints slenderer than the rest : prothorax 
shaped as in L. Proteus, constricted before, depressed behind, but without 
diverging angles, channelled but with no gibbosity on each side the 
channel : elytra nearly linear, very thickly punctured, dirty-yellow, with a 
dusky lateral blotch extending from the base beyond the middle of the 
elytrum, suture and subtruncated apex black ; down yelloAvJsh. [Belongs 
to Acmœops Lee] 

END OF CERAMBYCIDiK. 



OBITUARY. 

We grieve to have to record the death of another devoted Entomologist, 
Mr. Coleman T. Robinson, of New York, who expired, after a very brief 
illness, on the ist of May last. Mr. Robinson was born in Putnam 
County, N. Y., in 1838, and had but recently completed the 35th year of 
his age. When quite a young man, he made a prolonged tour through 
Europe, Egypt and the Holy Land, and spent some time at the University 
of Berlin. On his return to New York, in 1 861, he engaged in business as 
a stock broker in Wall Street, and soon became the head of a very 
successful and enterprising firm, Messrs. Robinson, Cox & Co. So shrewd 
and successful were his speculations that in a few years he amassed a large 
fortune, and on his retirement from business a couple of years ago, he was 
reputed to be worth about a million and a half of dollars. Latterly he 
resided near Brewster's Station, on the New York and Haarlem Railway, 
where he had purchased a handsome country seat. Notwithstanding his 
devotion to business of so engrossing and exciting a character,he yet found 
time to indulge in his favorite study of Entomology, and in connection with 
his friend, Mr. Grote, described a large number of new species of North 
American Lepidoptera, chiefly belonging to the families of Sphingidœ, 
Bombycidse, Noctuadse and Tortricidas. A list of his published papers, 
prepared by his coadjutor, Mr. Grote, is given on another page. We are 
glad to learn that amongst his other bequests, Mr. Robinson left the 
handsome sum of $10,000 to the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, with 
which he was connected for several years. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 11.9 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



A New Departure. — We invite especial attention to the card of that 
talented and well known Entomologist, Mr. Francis Gregory Sanborn. 
We heartily congratulate our esteemed confrere on the stand he 
has taken on the behalf of Practical Entomologists. Mr. Sanborn 
is thoroughly qualified, from his scientific attainments and per- 
sonal reputation, to take this step, and Ave sincerely tiaist a new era may 
be dawning for Entomological Science, in which the professional skill of 
competent scientists may -receive an equal share of recognition with that 
of members of the various other learned professions. We feel, however, 
quite satisfied that while Mr. Sanborn has laid doAvn his terms of consul- 
tation, he will always be ready, as heretofore, to aflford any information to 
brother Entomologists, or to students struggling to overcome the diffi- 
culties of the science. — \Editor C. -5'.] 

Strangalia luteicornis. — On one of the last days of July, 187 1, 
as I emerged from the woods which cover the eastern end of Bishop's 
Island — one of the most romantically situated of the Thousand Isles — I 
came upon a sunny glade, and in it stood a flowering shrub, (the name of 
which I do not know,) in full bloom. The blossoms were thronged with 
the insect hosts — well nigh all orders being represented in sufficient variety 
to stock a fair-sized entomological cabinet. My attention was most 
attracted to the Coleoptera, from the great numbers of Typocerus fugax 
and some few specimens of Strangalia luteicornis. The latter, from the 
extreme narrowness of their bodies and elytra, as well as from their 
markings, were very noticeable ; they were also particularly active, running 
over the flowers, taking to flight, or dropping down among the leaves in a 
way that almost defied capture. I, however, succeeded in taking one ; 
and learning from a great authority in such matters, that though well known 
in Pennslyvania, it has not, as yet, been included among the natives of 
this Province, I make this note of the fact of my capture. — R. V. Rogers, 
Kingston. 

Notes and Queries. — Trichius Bigsbii. — Gnorimus viaculosus, 
Burmeister, Knoch. This insect seems to be very rare in this part of 
Canada. During nearly thirty years collecting, I have found only one 
specimen, taken at Druramondville, in the Niagara District. Other 
collections seem to have been equally unfortunate. 

Pelidnota punctata. — Common about London and Niagara; has never 
to my knowledge, been found near Toronto. 



120 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Desmocerus cyaneus. — About 2 5, years ago, I took a colony of about 
30 specimens off some elder bushes in rear of Trinity College. I have 
never met with another specimen near Toronto, one I found in fall of 1870 
at the Sault St. Marie. 

Calosoma scrutator. — Of this magnificent insect, many dead specimens 
may be collected on the south shore of our Toronto peninsula after a 
southerly wind, but 1 have collected but two living specimens on this side 
of the lake. 

Query. — is it known that any of the large Carabidœ are capable of 
ejecting an acid liquid like the Bombardiers t The following anecdote 
may prehaps be worth embalming in the Canadian Entomologist : — 
In the fall of 1839, 1 was wandering with a friend over the rocks at 
Thurand, near Dresden, and found a magnificent Carabus, about an inch 
long, probably Auratus or Auronitms. Examining it, the beast ex- 
ploded, and shot me in the eye. The pain was so intense, lasting for 
full a quarter of an hour, that, notwithstanding my Entomological 
proclivities, the insect was allowed to escape. 

Query. — Can any of your correspondents refer me to a paper on the 
sugar from the " Mexican Honey Ant?" I have seen it, but cannot recall 
Avhere. On mentioning this to my late lamented friend, Mr. Williamson, 
who was for years engaged on railway construction in Mexico, he informed 
me that the Indians were often in the habit of knocking down ants' nests 
from the boughs of trees, and extracting honey from the interior ; this 
honey having been formed, not by the ants, who build the suspended 
nests, but by a species of 'bee (he called them Sweat Bees), which 
constructed their comb in the centre of the ants' nest. I should be glad 
to obtain any information of my late friends statem.ent. — H. H. Croft, 
Toronto. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 
Exotic Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. — I have a large collection of 
specimens of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera from Australia, Manilla, Mexico, 
and Central America, which I am now arranging for the purpose of sale, 
as I intend confining myself to Californian insects for the future. I will 
not exclude from the offered sale my numerous Californian specimens. _ I 
will continue to collect in all branches of the Californian entomological 
fauna, and I invite exchange. I have also a complete set of the Pacific 
Railroad Survey Reports (13 volumes), in excellent condition, which I 
shall be glad to dispose of Apply to James Behrens, San Francisco 
California, 



C|! faaitian ftomotûgist. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., JULY, 1872. No. 7 

NOTES ON ARGYNNLS CYRELK. 

]'.y \V. SAUNDKRS, l.ONDON, ONT. 

On the 7th of June, while turnmg over some loose rails lying on a 
rnoist piece of ground, near the edge of a wood, I found attached to the 
underside of one of the rails, lying high and dr}', two >spinous larvae, 
which, from their appearance and location, I at once suspected to be the 
larvae of some species of Argy?iîiis. The Wild Violet also, the food 
plant of at least several of this family, growing in abundance here, 
helped to confirm my suppositions. These afterwards proved to be the 
larvae of Argynnis cybele. Both larvae were in the act of spinning a 
small web of silk, to Avhich their terminal prolegs were attached, indi- 
cating that the change to the chrysalis state would soon take place. 
The foUoAving description was at once taken : — 

Length 1.70 inches. Body thickest along the middle segment;?, 
tapering a little at each end, coils itself up when disturbed. 

Elead medium sized, flat in front, slightly bilobed, each lobe tipped 
above with a short tubercle, from which arises a moderately long black 
hair ; colour black in front, edged posteriorly above, and half way down 
the sides with dull brownish-yellow. On the front there are many fine 
black hairs of varying lengths. 

Body above black, with a faint tinge of reddish brown, armed with a 
transverse row of branching spines on each segment. On the second 
segment there is a branching spine on each side the dorsal line all ])lack, 
and another pair on sides between the second and third segments, black 
above, brownish-yellow at base. On the third segment there are four 
spines similarly situated, that is, one sub-dorsal pair, and another pair 
lower down, and placed between the third and fourth segments, all black 
above, brownish-yellow at base. On the fourth segment there is one 
pair of spines only, the sub-dorsal. From the fifth to the twelfth 
segments inclusive, each is alike ornamented with a transverse row of six 
branching spines, those on each side the dorsal line entirely black, or 



122 THE CANADIAN ENTOiMOLOrilST. 



with but a slightly paler shade at base ; the next' row lower dow'n black 
above, with a small portion of their base brownish-yellow, excepting on 
the twelfth segment, where they are all black ; but in the next row below, 
the spines have a larger portion of their Ijase brownish-yellow, with a 
small space around the base of each where the same colour prevails. 
Terminal segment with two pairs of black branching spines, one pair 
I)laced behind the other, the hindermost being a little the shortest. On 
the sides of each of the anterior segments, below the spines, there are 
several shining black tubercles, each emitting a small cluster of short 
l)lack hairs. Spiracles oval, black, edged with a paler shade. 

Under surface dull dark reddish-brown. 7'he fifth, sixth, eleventh 
and twelfth segments each have a transverse row of shining tubercles, 
emitting tufts of short black hairs ; feet black, prolegs have a patch of 
l)lack on the outside at their base, reddish-brown above, and within. 

Before turning to chrysalis, the colour at the base of the spines 
changed 'from l^irownish-yellow to a semi-transparent greenish hue. 

One specimen hung itself up June 9, and became a chrysalis June 
10. From the first, the chrysalis is very dark coloured. The following 
description Avas taken a few days after the change was effected : — 

Chrysalis. — Length T.30 inches. Colour brown, spotted and streaked 
with black, the whole surface having a polished appearance as if it had 
been varnished. Head case square above, the flat portion terminating on 
each side in a slightly raised blackish tubercle ; a dark line extends 
across from one tubercle to the other, bordered in front and behind witli 
yellowish broA\'n. A double ^-entrai row of dark brown or blackish 
tubercles, one pair on each segment ; below these there is a second row 
of smaller tubercles of a paler colour along the middle segments, just 
above the spiracles. At the base of the wing cases is a pointed projec- 
tion. Anterior segments raised to a sharp ridge, and the ventral edge of 
the wing cases have a similar ridge along the basal portion. Antennae 
cases dark brown ; spiracles oval black. Dorsal region of posterior 
segments dark brown, nearly black. 

On visiting tlie same locality on the 9th of June, three chrysalides 
were found on the under side of pieces of bark which had been peeled 
off a dead tree, and were lying scattered about. The pupae were found 
attached to those pieces Avhich were lying with their convex side up- 
wards, thus affording a dry and sheltered spot under for the larvae to 
attach themselves to. I then collected a number of such pieces of bark, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 123 



and laid them about in this manner in spots where the Wild Violets grew 
thickest, .and on my return two or three days after, found six more 
chrysalides, and another larva just about to change. I feel assured that 
\\-ith such traps as these laid about in places where they are feeding, any 
one may secure specimens of these larvae without trouble during the first 
week or ten days in June. 1 have never succeeded in finding them other- 
wise, although I have searched long and often. One of the chrysalides pro- 
duced the imago on the 26th, another on the 27th of June, and others 
at intervals between the 27th of June, and the 4th of July. The speci- 
men which changed to a chrysalid on the loth of June produced the 
imago on the 29th, but this was kept in a cool room all the time, and 
was hence probably longer in perfecting than it would have been if 
exposed to the warming influence of the summer's sun. I should judge 
tlie ordinary duration of the chrysalis state, Avhen left in their native 
haunts, to be from fourteen to sixteen days. All the specimens bred 
])roved to be Argynnis cybdc. 



ON SOME 

LEAF-MINING COLEOPTERA. 

/BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINtlTON, KENTUCKY. , 

It is necessary for me to correct a serious error into which I have 
fallen. 

At page 165, v. 3, I have described a larva mining the upper surface 
of leaves of the White Oak {Querats alba), which seemed to me to 
answer the requirements of Dr. Clemens' Lithocolletis tubiferella, which 
also mines the leaves of Qiiercits alba. The lar\'a was not removed froni 
the mine, but viewed through the integument. It seemed to me to 
resemble greatly, if it Avas not identical with, Dr. Clemens' species. The 
mine answered, in every respect, to that described by Dr. Clemens. At 
the same time I remarked the peculiar appearance of the larva, Avhicli 
" differs from the ordinary flat Lithocolletis larva as much as that does 
from the larva of the first or cylindrical group." In fact I should never 
have suspected it to be a Lithocolletis larva but for the resemblance, both 
of the mine and larva, to that of L. tiibiferella, as described by Dr. 
Clemens. 1 did not succeed in rearing the imago, and do not know 



124 ^ÏHE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

what it would have produced. On the next page (i66, v. 3), I mentioned 
a larva precisely like it, but in a different blotch mine, inhabiting the 
leaves of Willow Oaks, and another in leaves of the Black Oak, still 
another in the leaves of the Beech, another in the Sugar Maple, and yet 
another in the leaves of a species Çii Desmodium. Viewed through the 
integument, all of these larvas, except the Desmodlum miner, resembled 
the supposed larva of L. tidnfereUa. The miners of the Beech and Sugar 
]Maple Jeaves appeared to be identical Avith each other and with the 
supposed L. tubifcrdla, but their mines differed from it, and resembled 
those in the leaves of the Black and Willow Oak in being more irregular 
blotches. ' The miners of the Black and Willow Oaks differed from the 
others by being of a bluish or smoky colour instead of yellowish-white. 
The miner of the Desmodiuin differed from the others in shape resembling 
the larva' of Leucanthiza, as described by Dr. Clemens. But the mine 
and cocoon (or rather nidus), are indistinguishable from those oi Lilho- 
colletis guttifinitdia Clem, and allied species of Lithocolletis. These larvœ 
are all Coleopterous ! They remained in the mines- without food from 
September to the latter part of April. All died except the miners of the 
Beech {Fagus fcrrugmed) and of the Dcsmodium. In the latter part of 
April these became pupœ, remaining in that Condition for ten days, when 
the imagines emerged. The miner of the Beech proved to be Brachys 
aeruginosa. Say, as identified by Dr. Horn, as I am informed by Mr. Wm. 
Saunders. 

The miner of the JJes/iiodiu/u proved to be Meioiiius laangatus, Say, 
as identified by Mr. Johnson Pettit, of Grimsby, Ont. The larva -of the 
Brachys resembles that of Chrysobofhris fcmorata, as figured in Packard's 
Guide, p. 457, more nearly than that of Trachys pygniea, figured on p. 458. 
The head is rounded in front ; the first segment is much the largest, and 
the larva tapers rapidly thence to the fourth segment, and thence 
more gradually to the apex. The larva of Mctonius laevigatus is flat- 
tened, and is rather widest about the middle, tapering, however, more 
rapidly to the tail than towards the head; the first segment is largest, 
and the head rounded in front. It resembles the larva of Trachys 
in outline more than that of Chrysobofhris. In examining dead speci- 
mens of all these larvae remoA'ed from the mines this spring, I was not 
able to detect any trace of feet. 

I have no excuse to plead for this error other than the facts above 
stated, and ignorance of Coleopterous larvœ. 



THE CÂXADIAX ENTOMOLOGIST. 125 

Hispa qiiadraia, Fabr, mines tlie leaves of the Linden ( Tilia Ameri- 
cana). 

Hispa i/uiet/iia/is, \Veber, mines the leaves oi Eiipaioriuiii a^eratoidcs. 
Both species pupate in the mine. Both identified by Dr. Horn. 



DK8CRIPT10N.S OF 

GELECHIA ADUNCELLA and GELECHIA LABRADORICA. 

BV AU(;. R. OROTK, DK.MOPOLIS, ALA. 

In a very interesting paper publi.shed by Profe.ssor Zellcr in the 
Transactions of the Royal Imperial Zoological Botanical Society of 
Vienna^ under the date of July, 1868, I find the description of a North 
American Gelechia. The specimens -were communicated to Prof. Zeller 
by Baron V. Osten-Sacken. I give here a free translation of Professor 
Zeller's comparative description : — 

Gelechia aderucella. Zeller. — Allied to G. ligiiklla. The yellowish- 
white transverse line of the primaries, which becomes pure white on the 
costal edge, is removed farther towards the hind margin of the wing. 
It is strongly bent below costa towards the apices, and a little widened, 
is continued on the costal edge outwardly. The ground colour of the 
base is greyish-brown, so pale in hue as to allow the three black dots 
(tAvo on the fold, one obliquely over the last of these outwardly at the 
middle of the wing), to be more or less distinctly perceivable, whereas in 
G. ligiilella and vorticella no dots are visible on the black ground colour 
of the wing. This greyish-brown tint deepens, beyond the outer two 
dots, gradually into tlie broad black shade which margins the transverse 
line. The fringes of the secondaries are pale grey, becoming paler 
outwardly, and are even at base paler than the external portion of the 
wing itself Beneath, the forewings exhibit beyond the middle, and in a 
corresponding position with the superior end of the transverse line of tlie 
upper surface, a rather distinct white spot. In size this species agrees 
with an average specimen of G. ligulclla. 

In the Wiener Entotnologische Monatsc/irift for June, 1864, p. 200, I 
find a description, of which I give here a translation, of a sjiecies of 
Gelechia from Labrador, by Mr. H. B. Moeschler : — 

Gelechia labradorica, Moeschler. - f — Antennae greyish-yellow with 



ISC THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

whitish-yellow annuji, palpi greyish-yellow, terminal joint pale yellowish, 
feet, head, thorax and abdomen greyish-yellow. Forewings of a darker 
greyish-yellow, subcostal nerviiles darker, brownish. Hindwings whitish- 
grey, a narrow dark marginal line. Beneath, the forewings are browni.sh- 
grey, ^^'ith a narrow yellow marginal line. 

£xj)a/isc 2 2 mil. 

This inconspicuous species is illustrated on plate 5, at hgurc 17. 
On the same page is recorded the occurrence of Gelechia amfinudla 
in Labrador. 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTER.X. 

BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTOX, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Paj;c lOS. 

DEPRESSARIA. 

D. pallidodu-cUa. N'. sp. 

Head and palpi very pale ochreous, almost white, a little darker on 
lop, a dark brown spot extends almost entirely around the base of the 
third joint of the palpi, and another entirely around it before the apex. 
Antennae brownish, with about six white annulations in the apical part. 
Thorax and base of the wings pale ochreous, sparsely dusted Avith fuscous, 
with a fuscous line across the wing close to the base. About the basal 
one-fourth of the wing a fuscous streak passes obliquely backwards as far 
as the fold, and from thence to the apex the wing is pale ochreous, rather 
thickly dusted with fuscous and dark ochreous. with the extreme apex 
fuscous. Posterior wings pale fuscous ; ciliae of all tlic A\ings grayish- 
ochreous ; abdomen dark ochreous, each segment above tipped with ver\' 
pale or whitish ochreous. Under surface very pale ochreous, with fuscous 
patches on the anterior surfaces of the n>eso and meto-thoracic legs. 
Anterior legs dark brown on their anterior surfaces. Alar ex. less than 
I'-.T of an inch. Captured in May in Kentuck}-. 

The posterior wings in this species are deeply emarginate beneath the 
apex ; this and the succeeding species which resemble each other being 
the only two described American species which display this character. 
'Jliis species may be distinguished from the next by its smaller size, paler 
color, and the brown tip of the forewings. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 12/ 

D. versicolorella. N. sp. 

Head and palpi ochreous, tliickly dusted Avith brown ; a brown 
annulus around the base of the third joint of the palpi, and another before 
the apex. Antennae dark brown, faintly annulate with ochreous, and 
with five or six white annu-lations in the apical portion. Thorax and 
anterior wings ochreous, thickly dusted with dark brown ; a little less 
thickly in the basal fourth of the wing, with a brown streak across the 
base of the wing, and a brown streak extending obliquely from the costa 
about the basal fourth, to the fold, which, however, is scarcely distin- 
guishable from the thickly dusted portion of the wing behind it ; no 
brown spot at the apex. Posterior wings pale fuscous : abdomen ochreous, 
the segments not margined with Avhitish, as in the preceding species. 
Alar ex. i''; of an inch. Captured in Kentucky in Ma}'. 

D. bicosto-iiinculclla. A^. sp. 

Head pale yellowish, the vertex dusted with fuscous ; antennae dark 
l)rown ; second joint of the palpi pale yellowish, tipped with brown 
beneath : third joint brown, sprinkled above with pale yellowish : thorax 
and anterior wings blackish, or very dark brown, with ochreous and gray 
intermixed, with a small and indistinct ochreous spot on*the costa, near 
the base, and another distinct costalous at the beginning of the ciliae, and 
an opposrte dorsal one; ciliae yellowish-ochreous. There are several 
rather undefined irregular blackish spots or patches on the wings, which, 
to the naked eye, appear to form diree irregular transverse bands, not very 
definite in outline, one of which adjoins each of the costal ochreous spots, 
whilst the other is between tliem. Alar ex. i''i inch. Kentucky. 

D. (jiierciella. N. sp. 

'J'his species is a Depressaria in every respect except that fJiere is a 
small but very distinct tuft of erect scales at the apex of the thorax. I ha\'e 
but a single specimen, which, however, is in perfect condition, and shows 
no sign of any injury, so that 1 (-annot dou.bt that the tuft is a normal 
structure. 

Antennae dark brown or rather blackish, annulate with white ; palpi 
ii;on gray ; head silvery, flecked with dark brown or blackish scales ; 
thorax iron gray, the tuft being ochreous ; anterior wings dark iron gray, 
with a distinct small blackish spot on the costa at about the basal fourth, 
and two other smaller ones on the costa, one about the middle, and the 
other at the beginning of the apical ciliae ; there are three or four 
similar small ones on tlie disc ; ciliae ochreous ; posterior wings pale 



128 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

slate colour, and the abdomen is yet paler. 'J"he entire insect, in some 
lights, shows purplish reflections. Under the lens, the iron gray colour is 
resolved into blackish or dark brown, mixed with ochreous and whitish 
scales. Alar ex. \\ inch. 

The larva has the head and first segment dark purplish-brown, except 
the anterior margin of the first segment, which is whitish. Remaining 
segments whitish, with two longitudinal narrow pale purplish lines on top, 
outside of which, on each side, is a wider deep purple one; there is also 
a multitude of small purple spots, from each of which proceeds a hair. It 
sews together leaves of the Oak (Qiicra/s .ohtusiloba) in May, and 
remains in the pupa state about ten days, the imago appearing early in 
June. 

The two preceding species and D. obscurusdla, aulc. J>. io6, and I). 
lùslrigella, ante, p. Q2, resemble each other \'ery closely. D. obscunisella 
is more ochreous than the others, and the markings assume the form 
rather of narrow irregular and zig-zag lines, although, on close inspection, 
three dark costal spots may be discovered as in quercicUa, but less dis- 
tinct. D. bicostomacuIeUa is smaller than the others, and the three costal 
blackish spots have, in it, become to the naked eye three irregular bands, 
narrowing towards the dorsal margin. 1 have no specimen ofZ>. bisiri- 
gella now before me, but I think it can be distinguished by the more 
linear shape of the ochreous streaks before the ciliae, and by the two 
small ochreous patches about the middle of the wing. D. quercidla may, 
however, be more readily distinguished by the thoracic tuft. 

As the species of Dcpressaria described in this and the preceding 
No. differ somewhat, structurally, it is possible that some of them ought 
not, in strictness, to be placed in this genus. Yet they approach it more 
nearly than any other. The following notes will explain their similitudes 
and differences: — 

D. dubitelhih'Xi, the second joint of the palpi much thickened, form- 
ing a small undivided brush ; the superior ])ortion of the discal vein Ls 
very oblique, and the superior branch is united to the subcostal at the 
end of the cell. 'J'he abdomen in my single specimen is broken off. It 
does not belong strictly in Dcpressaria. 

D. albisparsdla has the palpi of Dcpressaria, but the brush is very 
large ; the wings in my single specimen are closed so that I cannot 
observe the neuration. The antennae are minxitely but distinctly pectin- 
ated, more so than in the true Dcpressaria. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 129 

D. ccrcerisella and D. biniacidella resemble each other in the ornamen- 
tation as well as structure. The abdomen is subdepressed, the palpal 
brush is small and undivided, except at the apex. The neuration is that 
of Depressaria proper, though the superior and inferior branches of the 
discal nervure respectively, originate a little nearer to the subcostal and 
median than is usual in true Depressaria. 

D. pseiidacaciella has the' abdomen subdepressed, scarcely tufted, and 
the superior branch of the discal vein arises very near to the subcostal ; 
otherv.-ise, it is a true Dipressaria. 

D. fitsco-ochrella has the abdomen and palpi of Depressaria, but tlie 
neuration of the hind wings is like that of some species of Gelechia : that 
is, the superior branch of the discal vein is absent, and the subcostal is 
furcate behind the cell. D. bicosfotnaculclla, D. RileycUa, D. obscuruscUa, 
D. Versicolorella^ and D. paUidochrella, are true Dcpressaricc, I believe, 
tliough the abdomen in my single specimen of D. obsciirusella is missing. 
D. pallidochreUa and D. versicolorella are very deeply emarginate beneath 
the apex of the hind wings. D. qnercidla has the small thoracic tuft, but 
is otherwise a true Depressaria. 

All of the foregoing species agree in the neuration of the anterior 
wings, and all have the Depressaria habits of seeking concealment, and of 
sliding about„upon their backs in their efforts to escape. 

HAGNO, gen. iwv. 

At ante p. p/, 1 have described a species as Depressaria cryptolecIdeUa, 
and have there pointed out the differences between it and the true 
Depressariee. Indeed, it is scarcely more nearly allied to Depressaria 
than to several other genera ; but having then but a single specimen of 
that species, and none of any other species allied to it more closely than 
the species of Depressaria, I preferred to place it provisionally in that 
genus. Since then, however, I have bred the species mentioned below, 
and not wishing to encumber that genus (already large) with any thing 
which does not rightly belong there, and, not knowing what else to do 
with these species, I have concluded to erect for them this new genus. 

Head and face slightly roughened. Antennae more than half as long 
as the wings ; face rather narrow ; eyes large, globose ; tongue scaled, 
longer than the anterior coxae ; maxillary palpi minute ; labial palpi 
very long, completely overarching the vertex, second joint without a 
brush, third joint accuminate, about two-thirds as long as tl:e second. 



130 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Posterior wing not emarginate beneath the apex, wider than tlie 
anterior, the costal margin nearly straight, the dorsal regularly curved. 
The discal cell is closed : the costal vein attains the margin just before 
the apex ; the sub-costal at the apex ; the median sends a branch to the 
posterior margin before the discal vein, and becomes furcate at the discal 
vein, delivering both branches to the posterior margin. The discal vein 
is slightly oblique, and sends two branches to the dorsal margin ; internal 
vein, simple. 

Anterior wings wiiiest near tJtc apex ; costal margin a little convex, 
dorsal margin nearly straiglit, apical margin obliquely curved, and apex 
obtusely rounded. Discal cell closed ; costal vein attains the margin 
about the middle, and the sub-costal attains it before the apex, giving off 
one branch before the discal ^-ein ; the median rounds gradually into the 
discal, sending, near the discal, two long curved branches to the dorso- 
apical margin ; and the discal sends off four veins, the superior of which 
is furcate, delivering one of its branches to the apex, and the other to the 
costal margin before the apex ; the three other branches of the discal are 
delivered to the apical margin behind the apex ; the sub-median is furcate 
at the base ; the internal is wanting, and the fold is very distinct. The 
neuration is, therefore, that oi Deprcssaria. The abdomen is also slightly 
depressed, though not so much as in Depressaria ; and it seems to differ 
from that genus only in having the palpi more elongate, and without any 
brush, and in its wider wings, which are more obtusely rounded at the 
apex. It is certainly not equivalent to either Exœretia or Oriholelia, but 
possibly may be equivalent to Crypio/ee/ua. which, however, has not the 
depressed abdomen. 

Can this genus be the ec|ui\-alent of I\^i/oeorsis, Clem. ? (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sa., Phila., i860, p. 212). It meets all the requirements of Dr. 
Clemens' diagnosis, except as to the form and neuration of the fore zvings. 
Not only so, but what I ha\'e called t/ie pattern of coloration is the same 
in my species as in those described by Dr. Clemens, especially as to the 
peculiar markings of the antennae and palpi ; and e\'en the very shades 
of colour are the same to a great extent. I have not seen any of Dr. 
Clemens' species, and can only compare mine with his written descrip- 
tions. The striking resemblance between my species of Hagno and 
those of Psilocorsis, as described by Dr. Clemens, did not attract my 
attention until after the preceding portion of this paper was in the hands 
of the printer, for, on comparing the fore wing of H. faginelia with a 



THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. 131 

sketch of that of Fsi7ûcû,rs/s,3.s described by Dr. Clemens, the very decided 
differences at once satisfied me that the genera were not the same ; and 
the species were accordingly describ'ed as belonging to the new genus 
Hagno. Subsequently, my attention was attracted to the close resem- 
blance between the species, and a closer comparison has suggested the 
probability that Dr. Clemens has misdescribed the forewings of his genus, 
and that the tAvo genera may be equivalent. The differences are con- 
lined entirely to the fore wings ; but then they are decided, and are as 
follows : — 

JJr. Clemens says that in Psilocorsis the hind margin is obliquely 
pointed. In Hagno, the costal and dorsal margins are nearly parallel- 
The wing is widest just before the apex, which is obliquely truncate with 
the angles rounded. In Psilocorsis, there is a secondary cell which I have 
not been able to detect in Hagno. In Psilocorsis, the subcostal gives off 
(besides the long branch from near the waa^aXt) , four branches from near 
iJte (ud of the cell, and the fourtJi is furcate. In Hagno, only three are 
given off (besides the long one from the middle), from near the end, and 
the ////Vv/ of these is furcate. In Psilocorsis, the median vein gives oïï four 
branches from near the end of the cell. In Hagno only three. In 
Hagno, the discal vein gives off two branches, but Dr. Clemens does not 
mention any branches from it in Psihicorsis. 

These differences are too great to occur in one genus ; and as they 
first caught my attention, they satisfied me that the genera were very 
distinct. On closer examination, however, I cannot help suspecting that 
there is some mistake in Dr. Clemens' diagnosis, and that the genera will 
prove to be equivalent. 

/. H. cryptoIechicUa. 

D. cryptolcchiella. Ante p 91. 

2. H. f agin el/a. A^. sf. 

Ochreou-s yellow, with a silky lustre ; anterior wings dusted with 
brown, and with confused indistinct dark brown blotches, and Avith a 
row of dark brown spots around the apex. The antennae are annulate 
with brown ; the second joint of the labial palpi has a dark brown stripe 
along its under surface, which is continued along the under surface of the 
third joint to its apex, and the third joiilt likewise has a similar stripe 
along the outer, and one along its inner surface. Anterior surface of 
the two first pair of legs with dark brown patches, and their tarsi annulate 
with dark brown. Ada/- ex. V[ inch, Kentucky, 



132 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The larva sews together the leaves of Beech Trees (Fagus ferruginca) 
feeding between them, and there passing the pupa state, the imago 
emerging in May. The larva is v«diitish, Avith the head ferruginous, the 
next segment faintly so, and there is a pinkish patch on each side of the 
anterior margin of the third segment. 

H. cryptokchiella also pupates between the leaves of its food plant, 
and this habit, like the stripes on the palpi, which are common to both 
species, might almost be considered generic characters. 

Dcpressaria cercerisdla, ante p. io8, seems to connect this genus witli 
that. It has the abdomen but little depressed, the palpi elongate, as in 
this genus, and the brush is scarcely deserving that name, being very 
small, and appearing to be divided only near the apex. It agrees also 
v/ith this genus in carrying the wings rather more nearly horizontal than 
Dcpressaria, and while it has not the dark stripes on the terminal palpal 
joint, it has that entire joint black. But in Hagno, the anterior wings are 
not pointed, the apical margin being oblique, whilst in D. cercerisclla, as in 
all my other species of that genus the anterior wings have the apex 
pointed or obtusely pointed. It also differs from Ilaguo, and agrees 
with Depressaria, in not pupating between the mined leaves. 

TELPHUSA, gCll. UOV. 

Nearly allied to Dcpressaria, from which it differs in having the 
abdomen not depressed, the antennae more setiform ; the palpal brush 
^-ery small, though there is a trace of a longitudinal division ; and the 
terminal joint of the palpi longer than the second. The superior branch 
of the discal vein arises from a common stalk with the apical portion of 
the subcostal, so that the discal sends oft" but a single independent 
branch; but this is likewise the case in some species oï Dcpressaria, as 
e. g. D. pseudacacieUa and some others ; and in all the species of Deprcs 
saria, when it is independent, it arises very close to the sub- costal, the 
difference in this respect being that the letter V, formed where they arise 
from a common stalk, is split at the apex, when they do not. D. cerccri- 
sella has the normal neuration of Dcpressaria, but has a very small scarcely 
divided brush. In Hagno, inihi, they are more distinctly separated than 
in any species oi Dcpressaria that I have seen. With these explanations, 
the account which I have given of the neuration of Hagno will do for 
this genus and for Dcpressaria also. In Hagno, the palpi are as in 
Dcpressaria, except that there is wo brush. Enicostoma, as defined by 
Clemens, has very nearly the same neuration with Dcpressaria also, but 



THE Cx\.NADlAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



133 



lias the third palpal joint short. In TelpJmsa, the costal margin of the 
hind-Avings is a little excised from about the middle to the tip, and the 
apical part of the subcostal vein is curved. In all these genera, as well 
as in Callima and Trlcotaphe, the neuration of the fore wings is the 
same. ' The two latter genera differ somewhat from each other and from 
the preceding genera, in the neuration of the hind wings. 

T. curvistrigella. N. sp. 

Palpi dark purple, the tip of the second joint and an annulus near 
the tip of the third, white ; head white ; palpi white, annulate with dark 
])urple above ; thorax and anterior wings rich dark purple-; at the base of 
the costa is a patch of whitish, mixed with purple, and just behind it is a 
rather wide white streak, which begins on the costa, crosses the wing 
obliquely to the dorsal margin, and extends along it and into the dorsal 
ciliae nearl}^ to the apex ; just behind the middle of the wing in the dark 
purple part of it, is a faint indication of a whitish fascia. Alar ex. 5,^ inch. 
Kentuckv. 



HINTS TO FRUIT GROWERS. 

PAPER NO. 5. 

.BV W. SAUNDER.S, LONDON, ONT. 

THE PEACH BORER. 

The wasp-like moth of the peach borer, Egcria exitiosa, will be busy 
during the present month, depositing her eggs on the bark of the trunks 
of the Peach trees ; then as soon as the eggs hatch, the young grubs Avill 
begin to eat their way to the inner bark, where it is difficult to reach 
them. Much good may yet be done, either in preventing the motlis 
from laying their eggs, or, if laid, in destroying the young larvae, by 

brushing the trunks and main 
\. f- branches of the trees with soft 

soap, reduced with lye to about 
the consistence of paint. Fig. 8 
respresents_.^both sexes of the 
2. ^ moth ; I is the female, 2 the 

J'iy- t=- male. It will be observed that 

they are very unlike each other, so much 'so that they may readily be 




134 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



mistaken for difterent species. Besides the disparity in size, the fore 
Avings of the male are transparent, \\'hile those of the female are opaque, 
and blue ; the female also has a broad orange colored belt encircling the 
abdomen, which is wanting in the male. 

■ri-.N'l' CATKRPILLARS. 

It is gratifying to be able to note that the American Tent Caterpillar, 
Clisiocampa Ainej'icana,. has been quite scarce during the present season, 
as compared with former years. In fig. 9 we give a side and back view 

a and /^ of this well known 







pest ; L represents one of the 
ring-like clusters of eggs, and 
J, the cocoon. During this 
month the eggs will be laid 
for the next year's crop of 
caterpillars ; they are usually 
placed upon the smaller twigs 
of the trees, each ring or clus- 
ter containing about -two hun- 
dred and fiftv. 

The Forest 'J'ent caterpillar 
Clisiocampa sylvatica, fig. 10, 
'g has been equally scarce ; in- 
b deed we haA-e not met with a 
full-grown speci- 
men of either va- 
% riety this summer, 
f|> although in past 
years they have 
swarmed on our 
i-'io-. 9. - trees and fences. 

Whether the severity of the weatlier last winter operated 
unfavorably upon them, or whether their decimation is due to 
the increase of their natural insect foes, we are unable to 
determine ; the fact, however, is an interesting one. 

THE GOOSEBERRY FRUIT WORM. 

There is probably no insect more troublesome to the cul- 
tivator of the Gooseberry, or more difficult to contend with, 
than the worm which attacks the fruit, popularly known as the " goose- 




THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 135 

berry fruit worm." It is a pale shining" green or reddish-green caterpihar 
abolit three quarters of an inch long, with a pale brown horny-looking 
head, and with a patch of a similar colour on the second segment. It 
lives within the fruit, making its ingress and egress ' through a small hole, 
Ijarely big enough to allow its body to pass through ; and as there is no 
room in the enclosure in which it lives for the larva to turn itself, when 
danger threatens it backs out very expeditiously, and by means of a silken 
thread, always ready, ahows itself to drop gently to the ground; but when 
the disturber of its quiet has gone, it draws in the thread by which it had 
xdescended, and thus regains its former position. The first indication of 
its presence is in the premature colouring of the fruit it is operating on, 
and an unnatural grouping of the berries, which soon put on a withered 
look. On examination, it is found that the berries surrounding the one 
in • which the insect lives have been drawn together, and bound with 
silken threads ; and to facilitate this binding process, such berries are 
usually detached from their natural position by biting through the stems, 
and are then held in place by the silken threads only. This insect does 
not confine itself to to the cultivated gooseberry ; we have found it on the 
wild ones as well, especially on the Prickly Cxooseberry, J?iâes cynoshati. 
.It also freely attacks the Currant, both the white and red varieties, and 
occasionally though less often, it is found on the Black Currant likewise. 
In the case of these smaller fruits, a single berry is not large enough for 
the worm to shelter itself^ in ; so here it draws the clusters together and 
lives in their midst. 

During the latter part of Juiie, this worm, now full grown, lowers itself 
by the silken thread already referred to, to the ground, where it con- 
structs a small silken cocoon amongst dry leaves or other rubbish, and 
Avithin this changes to a dark brown chrysalis. It remains in this condi- 
tion till the following spring, when it appears late in April as a small grey 
moth. 

Fig. II represents' the moth and chrysalis, 
natural size. The fore wings of the moth are 
])ale grey, with many streaks and dots of a 
Pio-. n.' darker shade ; the hind wings paler and dusky. 

The moth deposits its eggs soon after the fruit has set, and when hatched, 
the young larva begins to burrow at once into the fruit. This insect has 
been very numerous during the present season. Where it once establishes 
itself it is very difficult to eradicate ; in proper time hand picking is the 




13G THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST., 

surest remedy, but as the worms will, by this time, have gone into the 
pupa or inactive state, it is too late to apply this means now ; some good 
may, however, be done by raking up and burning all the dry leaves and 
rubbish under and about the bushes. It has also been recommended to 
give fowls the run of such places, when they are said to scratch up and 
devour many of the chrysalides. In the absence of such friendly help, a 
top-dressing of lime or ashes would probably prove beneficial. For 
fuller details in reference to this insect the reader is referred to the report 
of the Entomological Society of Ontario for 1S71, p. 42 and 43. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF 

TWO SPECIES OF AN.\PHORA. 

P,V AUC.. R. OROTK, DRMOPOI.IS. 

In Ur. Clemens" Tineid genus Anaphora, the fore wings are 12-veined. 
The submedian fold, however, seems to me to become a true vein 
towards the margin, giving an additional vein {vein ib). Internal 
nervure, vein la, shortly furcate at base. Median nervure sending 
out vein 2 near the extremity to internal angle ; and emitting 3 and 4, 
nearer together, on to the external margin. From the base of- the wing 
at the middle of the discal cell, a " veinlet " is emitted which is furcate 
before the centre of the wing, sending one branch, the lovs'er, out to 
extremity of the cell between the origin of 4 and 5, near 4, and angula- 
tedly connected Avith it, while 5 seems indépendant. Its upper branch, 
apparently the " median fold,"' terminates between veins 5 and 6. An 
analogous "veinlet" is thrown off from the lower side of sub-costal 
nervure beyond the point of furcation of the median " veinlet," and 
terminates at the extremity of discal cell, and at the origin of vein 8. 
Veins 7, 8, 9, near together at base ; 8 to apex ; 9 to costa ; 10 a little 
removed at base ; 1 1 thrown oft" near base of the \<mg. Flind wings 
8-veined ; veins la and ib divaricating on to the margin. Discal cell 
closed by a " veinlet ;" vein 4 thrown off from a furcating median veinlet 
at the middle of the discal cell ; 5 thrown off from the " veinlet," closing 
the cell between 4 and 6, near to 6, which latter is sub-continuous with 
the upper fork of the median cellular "veinlet." The two internal veins 
are counted together. Vein 7 to apex ; 8 to costa shortly before the tip. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 13^ 



Anaphora niortipemiclla, ( kote ^ . — Labial palpi reflexed, thro^\■^ 
back o\er and as long as the dorsum of thorax, but not closely applied, 
thickly scaled but less so than in allied species, fuscous outwardly along 
the sides, dead whitish on the inside. Head and thorax abo\e dead oj' 
dirty whitish. Primaries pale, dirty whitish, with heavily sprinkled black 
scales on costal region at base, fading outwardly. A black scale patch at 
extremity of discal cell, and a larger one on sul)median fold, below 
median vein, at about the middle of the Aving ; parallel with this at base, 
a few black scales. There is a taint sprinkling of black scales over the 
median nervules, and about internal angle are two or three better marked' 
black points on the margin. Four costal black marks before the apex, 
the first of these above discal spot ; other costal marks towards the base 
of the wing. Fringes fuscous, faintly lined. .Secondaries fuscous, much 
darker than, and strangely contrasting AVithjthe pallid primaries. Beneath 
both wings fuscous with ochrey stains. The basal joint of labial palpi is 
prominently dark fuscous or blackish outwardly. Expans<: :?■,' m. ni. 
Central Alabama. June. 

Smaller than A. phniiijroiitdhu and easily recognized by its pallid 
discolorous fore wings, which are also a little more determinate at apices 
and internal angle than usual. 

Anaphora agrotipcnncUa, (Jrote ^ . — Fuscous or blackish wood brown. 
Labial palpi reflexed. and as long as the dorsum of thorax, a little paler 
inwardly, blackish outwardly. Primaries above fuscous, blackish, with a 
light purplish reflection. From the base outwardly, below median vein, 
is a prominent pale streak fading externally, where it is diffuse and dark 
ochrey. It is bordered beneath at base by black scales like a dash, and 
surmounted and partly interrupted by a black scale patch below median 
nervure before \<t\w 2, On the discal cell is an unprominent black scale 
patch towards the base, beyond which aji obscure ochrey longitudinal 
median shade, sometimes lost, stretches over the nervules, and is inter- 
rupted at the extremity of the cell by a distinct black subquadrate scale 
patch. Faint l:)lackis]Ti costal and terminal marks ; fringes fuscous. 
Secondaries and their fringes fu.scous. lîeneath, both wings and body 
parts blackish-fuscous. Expaiisr 27 /;/.///. ('entrai Alabama ; June antl 
July. Very common. 

1 have only seen males of this species, in which the ornamentation of 
the fore wings above recalls that of various species of Agrotis, such as 
A. jaculifcra, etc, I have tried to recognize in this species A, Popeanella, 



138 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Clemens, from Texas, but, I have failed to reconcile his description with 
my specimens, which are not " luteoiis or yellow along inner margin." 
In A.agroHpenneUa, at the extremity of the median ochrey shade subtermi- 
nally, are a few black scale points. I'hese can hardly be the same as the 
row " of dark brown spots'' oi Popeanella. 

Neither can L, from the, description, consider the differences of colour 
and ornamentation as produced by any defect in the condition of Dr. 
Clemens' specimens. 

Recently, a specimen of -1 agrotipciiiidla came into my room to light, 
upo,n which, even before capture, 1 saw several large scarlet mites. Upon 
pinning the insect, 1 found them to be five in number, moving freely over 
the body. When the insect settled, they collected on the dorsum of the 
abdomen, and were hidden by the wings. The specimen did not seem 
to be suffering from the presence of these proportionately enormous 
external parasites. After the death of the moth, they left its body for the 
table, which thev traversed in various directions with considerable celerity. 
1 regret I did not observe them further. 

The genus Anaphora is represented in Cuba by a species much 
exceeding in size our A. phitnifrontcUa, which latter exceeds the two 
species described above in expanse.,^ Specimens of the species above 
described arc contained in Coll. American Ent. Societ}'. 

I am sure \\'e are all grateful to Mr. Stainton for his collection, in 
book form, of the Avritings of the late Dr. Brackenridge Clemens, on 
North American Tiuciiia. A\'ithin the limits of 282 beautifully printed 
l^iages, we have collected all of Dr. Clemens' writings on this group, with 
memoranda of his descriptions in other families of the moths, and copies 
of his correspondence. No student of North American INlicro's can afford 
to be without this book, which is enriched with notes on our , species by 
its talented editor. As a matter of international courtesy, this publica- 
tion deserves meritorious remembrance. 

From an original engraving of the head of Anaphora Popea/icl/a, on 
page 60. fig. 4, we see that its palpal structure differs from that of A. 
plumifrontclla. \\ith which latter A. inortipenneJla and A. agrotipcnndla 
coincicle. • — 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Female Decors. — Last summer an enthusiastic lepidopterist in 
Kingston put a young female Cecropia moth {Platysainia Cecropia) in a 
bo.v, with wire gàiize on one side, and placed it on his verandah — which. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



139 



by the way, is at a considerable distance from any trees. Although my 
friend did not watch very long, }'ct, the first night he caught fi\-e males, 
attracted thither in some unknown and m\-sterious- wav, In' their fair 
relative ; the second night, ten males were captured, and on the third, 
eight more were taken ; while, in the morning, the scattered remains of 
five other amorous moths, (slain doubtless by the cats), were found lying 
near the cage. Several specimens of Ttica Polyplieiiitis were taken in the 
same manner. Is not this decidedly the easiest and most successhil 
way of collecting a good harvest of these gorgeous creatures ? — R. A'. 
Rogers, Kingston. 

Blistering Jj1':etl1':s.. — - During the past month complaints have 
reached us of the ravages of one of the Blistering Beetles, Macrobasis 
fabricii, Lee, (Lyfta ciucrca, I*'ab.,) on potato vines. They are said to 
have been very destructive in tlie to\\-nship of Burford, destroying the 
tops in some localities, eating small holes all (n'er the leaves. 

Fig. 1 2c7 represents this 
species, the hair line at 
the sides showing its nat- 
ural size. b is another 
variety of Blistering Beetle 
not yet found in Canada, 
but destructive to the po- 
tato in some parts of the 
L'nited States. 

Complaints reached us last year from a correspondent in the eastern 
part of Ontario, of the Striped Blistering Beetle, Epicaiita vittata, fig. 13, 
damaging, in fact almost destroying a crop of Beets. In 
some of the southern parts of the Western States they arc 
very abundant on tlie potato \-ines, sometimes injuring them 
considerably. Should any of our readers meet with either 
of these insects in any quantity, we should be greatly 
obliged if they would collect a few ounces of them and for- 
ward by mail, as we are anxious to have their medicinal 
value as blistering agents more thoroughly tested than they have hereto- 
fore been. — W. Saunders, London, Ont. 





Fig. la. 



STRfDULATiGN OF Orthosoma cvunjjk icl\m, Fixbr. — The stridulating 
noises made by many Long-horned beetles ( Cera/nbycidce) are well kno\\'n 
to be produced by rubbing the posterior margin of the prothorax against 



140 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

certain horny jjrocesses between it and the mesothorax, or against the 
base of the elytra. It is not so generally known, however, that the above 
named insect forms a decided exception to the rule. This species is a 
true fiddler, stridulating like the Orthopterous Locustidœ by rubbing the 
hind femora against the elytra. If a specimen be carefully examined, the 
inside of these femora will be found rasped from the base to near the tip, 
by a number of short longitudinal ridges, which, when played against the 
thin and sharp emarginations of the elvtra, produce the rather loud 
creaking so peculiar to this beetle. 

I cannot recall any author who has published this fact, though as 
Prionus coriarli/s is called "the ftddler," in Germany, that species may 
stridulate in the same manner. — C. Y. Riley, St. Louis, July 9, 1872. 

P. S. — PrioiiHs Imhriconiis \j\\\w. (i. e., the dark brown form which, I 
believe, is labeled obliquicortiis in Le Conte's collection), likewise stridu- 
lates by rubbing the hind femora against the lateral edges of the elytra. 
But as the thigh in this species does not reach as far above the wing- 
cover as does that o( Orfhoso/na cylindricunLwt find no rasp on the inside, 
which is perfectly smooth ; and the noise is produced by the friction of 
the inner lower margin, principally near the end of the thigh, where it is 
slightly dilated.— C.V. R. 

Insects ix Penx.syi,vaxia. — The Seventeen-year Locusts, as they arc 
called, have made their appearance here aijd in the vicinity. Here, very 
abundantly, but diminish in numbers at Jersey Shore and Lock Haven. 
P\irther westward, T saw none. In the stage from the depot to Jersey 
Shore, I listened to an exposition by a physician ! on the poisonous 
qualities of the insect in question, of the existence of which C|uality he 
was quite assured. The lady, however, who was his inquisitor, thought 
it strange if the ''locusts" were really so poisonous, that the children, 
who handled them freely, were not more frequently poisoned. The 
doctor got over this by assuring the lady that they were not "aggressive." 

Popular report gives the year 1865 as that of their last appearance, but 
this is not \t\y reliable authorit}*. 

So far as intervals of business allow me to judge, 1 should .say that 
insect life is not abundant in North-western Pennsylvania this year. An 
Argynnis observed at Ridgway,nearly at the summit of the AUeghanies, in 
considerable abundance. Have not yet determined the species. Cicin- 
delà, principally repanda, ! 2 guttata, with a few purpurea, found on the 
banks of the Susquehanna from Schickshinny downwards. — W. V. 
Andrews, Williamsport, Pa., June, 1872. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., AUGUST, 1872. No. 8 



THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

Our readers will no doubt be pleased to learn that the condition and 
prospects of the Entomological Society are now eminently satisfactory. 
The roll of membership has been increased by upwards of forty names of 
new members during the current year. The Library, which now begins 
to form a very important feature in the attractions and usefulness of the 
Society, has been largely added to ; among the rare and valuable books 
lately acquired, we may mention an excellent copy of Westwood's edition 
of Drury's Exotic Entomology, in three volumes, quarto, containing one 
hundred and fifty well executed coloured plates ; Boisduval & LeConte's 
North American Lepidoptera, a scarce old book, containing 78 coloured 
plates ; a complete edition of Kirby & Spence in four volumes, published 
in 1822 ; a good copy of Curtis' Farm Insects, containing 16 coloured 
plates, and a host of admirable wood-cuts ; Boisduval & Guenee's Lepi- 
doptera, in seven volumes, handsomely illustrated ; Westwood's Classifi- 
cation of Insects ; Agassiz's Lake Superior ; besides many new works of 
value, and sets, niore or less complete, of the publications of several 
leading scientific societies. We aim at the formation, in time, of a com- 
plete library of works upon American Entomology, supplemented by the 
leading publications of European countries. In this object it is in the 
power of many of our readers to afford us material assistance. Authors' 
own publications, the proceedings of Societies, gifts of books or donations 
in money to the Library fund, will always be most acceptable. 

The Society has recently transferred its quarters from the City Hall, 
London, where it occupied a room kindly provided free of rent for some 
years by the City Corporation, to more accessible and convenient apart- 
ments on the corner of Dundas and Clarence Streets. Members and 
visitors will find in these rooms the cabinets and library of the Society, 
and every facility for the comparison and study of specimens. 

The property of the Society has recently been enriched by the thought- 
ful bequest of its late lamented member and former Secretary-Treasurer, 
the Rev. James Hubbert, Professor at St. Francis College, Richmond, 
P.(^. Shortly before his death, which occurred in Florida, whither he had 



142 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

gone for his health, he bequeathed to the Society his large cabinet of 
fifteen drawers, and a good useful microscope. The former will be 
devoted to the reception of a collection of local insects, while the latter 
will at all times be at the service of members for the purposes of study 
and investigation. 

It has been a source of no small gratification to the editor and his 
coadjutors to receive so many kind expressions of appreciation of their 
" Annual Report to the Legislature of Ontario,"' which has been recently 
distributed aniong all the members of the Society. The favoraj^le notices, 
too, that have appeared in many English and American publications, 
aftbrd them much encouragement in the prosecution of their entomolo- 
gical labours, to which they regret they are unable to devote more than a 
small proportion of their time, each of them being necessarily engaged in 
other deeply engrossing pursuits, and having but httle leisure at his com- 
mand. They are happy to be able to record that the issue of the Cana- 
dian Entomologist during the current year has so far been regular and 
punctual,, and they trust that it will continue to be so in future. They 
very gratefully acknowledge the valuable assistance they have received 
from many friends in various parts of the United States and elsewhere, 
whose contributions have given their publication a scientific status that it 
would not otlierwise have attained. They earnestly trust that these 
favours will be continued to them, and that many others also will be led 
to join their corps of correspondents, and aftbrd tidings of the insect world 
from all parts of the continent of America. 

One Word More. — The Secretary-Treasurer desires the attention of 
members in arrears to the fact that the financial year of the Society closes 
in September, Avhen a report of receipts and expenditures has-, by law, to 
be presented to the Legislature. As there are still nearly fifty who have 
not yet paid their subscriptions, he trusts that this intimation will suftice, 
and that they will kindly send him the amounts respectively due by them 
•at their earliest possible convenience. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FEMALE OF 

ANAPHORA AGROTIPENNELLA. 

1\V AUd. R. OROTE. DEMOPOLIS. 

In this sex, the labial palpi are short, not exceeding the front to 
which they are closely applied, porrect. In the male they are reflexed 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 143 



and tlirown back over the dorsum of the thorax, which they equal in 
length. Ill colour and appearance the sexes do not differ. In repose, 
the $ labial palpi are closely applied to the thorax in the living speci- 
men, and from their pale ochrey outer colour have the effect of thoracic 
vittee. In my original description I call them blackish " outwardly;" the 
exposed upper portion is pale or ochrey, else they are blackish. In the 
dried specimen they are apt to become a little elevated. A. agrotipenneUa 
varies in the obsolescence of the discal ochrey shades, while the pale 
submedian dash itself is sometimes a little indistinct. I have already 
noted that Dr. Clemens' A.- Popeauella disagrees A\'ith A. agrotipenneUa by, 
among other characters, its being described as luteous along the inner 
margin ; that author's description of A. arcaiiella better agrees, but this 
must be decidedly distinct also, since Dr. Clemens places A. arcanella in 
a distinct section \ labial palpi shorter in the ^ than in the other species ; 
ascending but not recurved. This character is totally opposed to our 
species, in which the ^ labial palpi are as long as in A. phtmifrontella^ 
which latter species I have taken at night at Hastings, on the Hudson, 
N.Y., in July. There is a certain correspondence in the position of the 
dark spots on the fore wings in this genus, which gives a similarity to the 
specific diagnoses. 



xNUTES ON ATTELABUS BIPUSIT'LATCS, Fabr. 

BY MARY K. .MUKTFELDT, KIRKWUOD, ST. LOUIS, ^W. 

In the spring of 1 871, my attention was attracted by the peculiar 
manner in which many of the leaves of the Laurel Oak (Q. iJiibricaria) 
were rolled up. The cases thus formed were compact and cylindrical, 
^■arying in length from one third to one half an inch, by an average 
diameter of one-fifth of an inch, and very neatly finished up. Several of 
them were opened, and each found to contain a single, smooth, spherical,, 
translucent-yellow egg, about 0.04 inch in diameter. Desirous of rearing 
ihc insects, I collected quite a number of the interesting little nests, and 
watched, with much curiosity, for the larvas to appear — not knowing, at 
that time, what to expect. But my observations were not rewarded; and, 
after several weeks of impatient waiting, I made another examination into 
the contents of the now blackened and shriveled up cases, and found two 
or three very small larvae, dead and shrunken, but evidently of some 
curculio. 



144 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

During the latter part of April of the present year, I again found the 
cases in considerable number on the same species of Oakj and one 
evening, about the ist of May, after sunset, I was so fortunate as to 
discover the parent beetle in the act of finishing up one of her nests, 
trimming up and tucking in the ends with her beak. After watching her 
movements for a short time, I secured both beetle and case. The 
former was at once submitted to Mr. Riley for determination, and pro- 
nounced to be Attdabus hipustulatus, of Fabricius. 

If one of these nests be very carefully unrolled, the jiiodiis operandi of 
its construction can readily be seen. The egg is first deposited near the 
tip of the leaf, and a little to one side ; the blade of the leaf is then cut 
through on both sides of the mid-rib, about an inch and a half below ; a 
row of punctures is made on each side of the mid-rib of the severed por- 
tion, AA^hich facilitates folding the leaf together, upper surface inside, after 
which the folded leaf is tightly rolled up from the apex to the transverse 
cut, bringing the egg in the centre ; the concluding operation is the tuck- 
ing in and trimming off the irregularities of the ends. No trace of any 
gummy substance to assist in keeping the case in shape can be perceived, 
except the slight extravasation of sap caused by the punctures and pres- 
sure of the beak of the little artisan. 

As I have never been able to observe these beetles working on their 
cases in the day-time, except on the occasion referred to, Avhen it was 
already growing somewhat dark, I conclude that their period of greatest 
activity is during the night. 

Observing that the cases invariably dropped to the ground a {itsN days 
after completion, I collected a number, and placed them upon moistened 
sand in a breeding jar. By ]\Iay 15th, several of the eggs had hatched, 
the tiny larvae produced from them being oval, translucent-white, with 
strong broAvn jaAvs ; they seemed to be feeding upon the dry substance of 
their nest. An examination a few days later showed this to be the case, 
. as the larvae had grown considerably, and had excavated quite a cavity in 
their dwelling. On opening one of the nests about the last of May, I 
was much surprised to find the inhabitant already in the pupa state. 
Several of the remaining cases — Avhich Avere by this time reduced to mere 
shells — contained full-groAAai larvœ, of Avhich the folloAving are the general 
characteristics : — 

Average dorsal length 0.22 inch, diameter on abdominal segments 
0.06 in., tapering anteriorly from fourth segment. Color shining yellowish- 
Avhite ; thoracic segments slightly depressed on dorsum and SAA'ollen on^ 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 145 

venter ; abdominal segments convex above and- flat beneath, each one 
divided into three irregular shallow transverse folds, lateral surfaces with 
a double row of smooth polished oval tubercles, most symetrical in form 
and position from segments 4 to 1 1 inclusive ; above the tubercles on 
each segment is a deep depression ; a few tine light hairs are scattered 
over the general surface. Head horizontal, rounded, small — about half 
the diameter of first segment, into which it is somewhat retractile — 
shining, translucent white ; mandibles and other mouth parts reddish- 
brown, surrounded by longish hairs. Some of the larvœ have from three 
to five fine purplish longitudinal lines on dorsum, the medio-dorsal one 
being most distinct ; in others these lines are- wanting. They always 
remain curled up, and move sluggishly on one side if placed upon a flat 
surface. 

The pupa is cream-white in color, 0.12 inch in length, broadly shoul- 
dered with an almost triangular outline ; thorax bent forward, beak 
pressed down and extending below wing cases ; on top of thorax is a 
shallow depression surrounded with short browii hairs ; abdominal seg- 
ments sharply ridged and roughened with minute hairs, posterior ex- 
tremity terminates in a pair of bristly points, white, tipped Avith brown. 
The change to pupa takes place inside the larval nest, and the insects 
remain in this state only from five to seven days, the first beetles issuing 
on the 2nd of June. 

The perfect insect is well known : a small, highly polished, black 
curculio with two large orange-red spots at bases of elytrai It has been 
figured by Harris in his " Injurious Insects," but his description of the 
cases oi Atialabus as " of the size and shape of thimbles," does not apply 
to this species, nor does he record any observations upon the habits of 
the larvae. 

I have also found the cases of this curculio on the leaves of Red and 
Post Oak, and recently took a single one, some larger than the others, on 
Hazel. The Laurel Oak, however, seems to have the preference, and the 
cases formed from its leaves are much neater and more symetrical than_ 
those found on other trees. 

The second brood of larvae may be found early in July. 



American Association for the Advancement of Science.— The 
Rev. C. J. S. Bethune and Mr. W. Saunders, the President and Vice- 
President of the Entomological Society of Ontario, have left for Dubuque 
to attend the meeting of the ^association as representatives of Canadian 
science. 



146 THE CANADIAN ENTOMQLOGIST. 

MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 

liY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 13'. 

CIRRHA, i;'t7/. )10V. 

At page 92, ante, I have described as Depressaria albispar sella, a 
species which, on examination of other specimens, I have concluded to 
make the type of a new genus. As stated on a preceding page, the 
species was described from a single captured specimen, the wings of 
which were not spread. The specimen was also slightly injured, so as to 
cause the brush on the palpi to appear to be divided, and to obscure 
some of the markings of the wings, which are faint even in perfectly fresh' 
specimens. Since then I have bred and captured other specimens, and 
find that it differs from 'Dcpressaria in the following particulars : — 

The antennae are more distinctly pectinated, the brush on the palpi is 
long, ragged, and not divided, and the abdomen, though depressed, is not 
flat enough for Dcpressaria. 

Having ascertained its food plant, I have given it a more appropriate 
specific name, and annex the following more correct description : — 

C. plaiaucUa. 

(Dcpressaria dlbisparsclla, ante, p. Ç2.) 

Dark gray-brown, the head a little paler and somewhat iridescent ; 
palpi and antennae dark brown • anterior wings dark gray-brown ; about 
the middle is a small pale or whitish spot, and there is another of the 
same hue and equally indistinct about the end of the disc, behind which 
is an indistinct whitish narrow fascia sometimes obsolete in the middle. 
Alar ex. f 3 in ; Kentucky. 

The larva feeds on the underside of leaves of Sycamore trees (Platanus 
occidentalis.) It is yelloAvish-white, with contents green, and it lives in a 
roll or short tube formed of the down of the underside of the leaves. 
Imago in the latter part of June. 

DEPRESSARIA. 

Further study induces me to make the following additional remarks 
and changes of the species which I have placed in this genus. Dr. 
Clemens, in his account of his Dcpressaria Lecontella, states that it is the 
only true Dcpressaria "he has thus far met with," adding that "we 
possess numerous nearly allied species." Mr. Stainton, in his edition of 



THE CAÎfADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 147 

Dr. Clemens' papers (a cop}' of which he has kindly sent to me), suggests 
thaf these species probably belong to Cryptolechia (Dr. Clemens having 
also suggested tliat they were intermediate between Gelechia and Depres- 
saria). I have little doubt that the majority of the species which I have 
placed in Deprcssaria belong to this intermediate group. But from an 
unwillingness to multiply' genera, I have placed them in Depressaria, 
indicating the points in which they structurally differ from that genus, and 
giving, when known, the food plant of the larvœ, so that the insects may 
be identified and disposed of in other genera by future students having 
easier access to European 'specimens, and to the works of European 
authors. I will, however, indicate my views as to their generic affinities a 
little more fully. D. cryptohxJiiella I have already remo^'ed to Hogiio, and 
D. albisparseUa to Cirr/ia. 

D. duhitella, I am satisfied, should be removed, at least provisionally, 
to Gelechia ; though even the elastic limits of that accommodating genus 
(the Micro-Lepidopterist's "waste-paper box") will hardly stretch to 
receive it. Still it is nearer to that genus than to Deprcssaria. 

D. cerccriscila, I think, will hereafter be placed in CryptolccJiia, but 1 
have not sufficient knowledge of that genus to be certain. Mr. Riley 
informs me that he has known the species long, and has referred it 
doubtfully to Gelechia. I think, ho^^•ever, that it is nearer to Deprcssaria. 

D. biniacii-Ielhi must accompan}' D. ccrccrisella. 

R. Rihyella I consider a true Deprcssaria. 

D.^ bistrigclla, D. fusco-ochrella, D. fiiscoliifeclla, D. ohsciinisella, D. 
pscudacacicUa, D. iucosfomacN/el/a. 

In these six species the palpal brush is longitudinally divided, but the 
brush is rather too small, the anterior wings are too ^narrow, and the 
colours .are too dark bro\\-n for Depressaria, and the abdomen, though 
depressed and tufted at tlie sides, is hardly fiat enough for Deprcssaria 
proper. Yet as I cannot place them in Gelechia, and from the divided 
brush they cannot belong to Cryptolechia, I lea\'e them for the present in 
Depressaria. The division of the brush is mucli more distinct in the 
living insect than in the mounted specimen. 

D. qucrciella has the same structure as the six preceding species, 
except that it possesses a small double tuft at the apex of the thorax. It 
is not a true Depressaria, and is probably the type of a iiew genus. 

D. palUdochrella and D. versicolorcUa. 

These species have the abdomen as distinctly flattened and tufted at 



148 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the sides as the true Depressariœ, and the brusli is as distinctly divided. 
Their small size, narrow fore wings, and deep emargination of the hind 
wings beneath the apex, suggest doubts as to the propriety of their loca- 
tion in Depressaria. 

I have described the neuration of these species as compared with 
Depressaria in a previous paper. 

In all of these species (except dubitella ?) the wings in the li\'ing insect 
aje carried almost horizontally, or but little deflexed, in repose. 

One colourational peculiarity is common to many of the species which 
I have placed in Depressaria and to many species oi GelecJiia ; that is, 
the costal pale streak at the beginning of the cilice, and the opposite 
dorsal one. Another peculiarity, though possessed by some Gelechiœ, is 
more characteristic of Depressaria : that is, the small ochreous or brown 
spot or spots on the disc. Gelechia dubitella (Depressaria dubitella, ante), 
has the discal ochreous spot, but not the costal or dorsal streaks. D. 1 
' cercerlsella has the costal and dorsal streaks and about four small ochreous 
spots on the disc. (By an oversight, I omitted to mention these in the 
description). In D.I bluiacuIeUa, the costal and dorsal streaks are white, 
and there is a rather large white spot on the disc. In D. RUeyella and 
D. fuscoîuteella, the costal and dorsal streaks are absent, and the discal 
spots are minute, indistinct, and dark brown. D.l pseudacaclella has the 
costal and dorsal streaks, but not the dots on the disc. So have D. 
blstrlgella and D. blcostoinacukUa. In D. quercleUa, D. paUidùchrella, D. 
versicolorella, D. fusco-ochrella, and D. obsa/rusella, neither the marginal 
streaks nor discal spots are perceptible. 

Though I think that hardly enough \\-eight is given to the " pattern of 
colouration,'' as characteristic of genera, and even perhaps of higher 
groups, neverthless its value is subordinate to that of structure, and in the 
genus allied to Gelechia, one is soon at a loss as to what value really 
should be attached to it. As the genus Gelec/ila is at present constituted, 
I do not doubt that many, perhaps most entomologists, would place the 
majority of the above described species in that genus. But a genus which 
contains them, and such species as G. roseosujfu sella (which Mr. Stainton 
says is a true Gelechia), to say nothing of such species as G. Hermonella, 
is certainly a hetorogeneous assemblage. Perhaps, however, that is not a 
very serious objection, for in my humble judgement no well defined and 
constant line exists between Depressaria (including in it Exaeretia and 
Orthotelia) Cryptolechia, Gelechia and other allied genera, and the more 



THE CA^^1DÎA^^ ENTOMOLOGIST. 149 

thoroughly the alHed species are made known, the more completely will 
the supposed distinction vanish. 

ADRASTEIA, ge}l. llOy. 

The two following species resemble each other very closely, not only 
structurally, but in ornamentation. They are closely allied to Gclechia, 
or rather to some species of that genus. The second joint of the palpi is 
clothed beneath with a dense spreading, but scarcely divided, brush ; the 
basal joint of the palpi is distinctly clavate, and the wings have distinct 
though small tufts of raised scales, and rows of separate raised scales not 
in tufts. Having but a single specimen of each species, I have not 
denuded the wings to examine the neuration. It, however, can be seen 
to approach closely that of Geleckia, if it is not identical witli it. In all 
other respects the genus agrees with Gelechia. 

A. Alexandriacella. N. sp. 

Head and second joint of the palpi grayish-white flecked with dark 
brown ; third joint dark brown, with the tip and an annulus about the 
middle, white. Antenn£e dark brown, faintly annulate with white ; thorax, 
to the naked eye, gray ; under the lens, white, flecked densely with dark 
brown, and with a minute ochreous or yellowish-white tuft on each side 
at the tip ; anterior wings to the naked eye gray, mottled with dark brown 
spots and with a few small white spots ; under the lens they appear dark 
brown, largely intermingled with grayish-white, and the white spots are 
seen to be four minute tufts of raised scales placed • \ ■ An irregular 
white fascia, angulated in the middle towards the apex, crosses the wing 
at the beginning of the ciliag. To the naked eye, this fascia appears as 
two small white streaks, one at the beginning of the costal, and the other 
of the dorsal cilise. Apex dark brown, with a row of small white spots 
around the base of the ciliae ; ciliae pale luteous, dusted with dark 
brown. Posterior wings pale fuscous ; abdomen pale fuscous, somewhat 
iridescent. Â/ar ex. ^-i inch. Captured at Alexandria, Kentucky, in 
June. 

A. fasciella. N. sp. 

Head yellowish-white, dusted with dark brown ; antenna; dark brown ; 
first and second joints of the palpi dusted with dark brown, third joint 
dark brown, scarcely flecked with white, and white at the tip ; thorax and 
anterior wings pale gray mottled with small dark brown spots, one of 
which is just A^àthin the dorsal margin near the base, another behind the 



150 THE CAKAbiAN ËNtOMOLOGÎSt. 



first and on the costal margin, another just within the dorsal margin, 
about the middle, vnth a small one near it on the disc, a larger one about 
the end of the disc, with a small one near it on the costal margin, just 
behind which is a narrow angulated white fascia indistinct in the middle. 
There is a small tuft of ochreous scales on each side of the apex of the 
thorax, a scattered patch of raised scales about the basal fourth of the 
wing just within the costal margin, another behind it near the dorsal 
margin, another further back near the costal margin, and a row of scat- 
tered raised scales within the dorsal margin. Viewed along the surface 
from the direction of the base of the wings, these raised tufts and scale.s 
exhibit prismatic colors. Â/ar ex. ^A inch. Kentucky, in June. 

Errata.— Ante p. 127, for '"costalous "' read " costal pale ochreous." 
In the description of £>. pseudacaciella, line 4, place the ; before *' espe- 
cially" instead of after it. 



NOTES Ox\' LIMOCHORES BIMACULA, Scudd. 

BV C. S. MINOT, BOSTON. 

The following is a description oi Limochores bimacula, Scudd $ , Hes- 
peria acanoofus, Scudd., which I drew up some time ago : — 

Dark brown marked with chrome yellow. 

Above: head, thorax, abdomen and antennœ black, the head and 
abdomen having a few yellow hairs. Both Avings dark olive bro^^'n ; 
primaries with an indistinct spot a little above and beyond the outer 
termination of the disk ; a large patch extends over the middle third 
from the outer margin to the disc, and is crossed by a black velvety dash, 
which if continued would bisect the apical angle. Secondaries with chro 
maceous hairs over the central and basal portions. 

Beneath : palpi, femurs, thorax, abdomen, and the fringes of the 
wings whitish, both wings chromaceous. Primaries with three bright 
spots, and black at the basal, grey along the interior part of the A\'ing. 
Secondaries with the costa slightly and the abdominal fold more or less 
covered with black scales and hairs. 

^ '$ % % taken in the last of July and first of August in company 
with Etiphyes metacomet. Harr.. to which it is closely allied. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 131 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OK BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMl'iLEI) F.V THK KDITOK. 

From Kirbys Fauna Boreali-Ameruana : Imfcia. 



CCoLitiuued from Page 11».; 
FAMILY ANOBlD.t. 

[190.] 253. Anobiu.m I'OVKATUAi Kirby. — Ecngth oi body 2 lines. 
A pair taken in Lat. 65". 

This species very closely resembles A. siriaiuni, of which it may be 
regarded as the American representative. It differs principally in having 
a rather large excavation in the middle of the elevated back of the pro- 
thorax, the sides of which are armed with a triangular tooth or promi- 
nence. 

The male is obscurely rufous, both above and below, the female is 
browner above. [Taken in Canada by Mr. Billings. Belongs to the 
genus Hadrobregmus?\^ 

254. Cis MiCANS Fabr. — Length of body i line. Two specimen.s 
taken in the Expedition. 

Body subcylindrical, black-brown, glossy, with numerous short upright 
pale rather glittering hairs ; minutely but not very visibly punctured. 
Head rather flat and lacunose ; antennae and legs testaceous. Prothorax 
anteriorly sinuated on each side with the middle lobe rounded and pro> 
jecting a little over the head ; sides slenderly margined ; posterior angles 
roundejd. Punctures of the elytra seem almost, but very indistinctly, 
arranged in rows. 

[191.] FAMILY SCULYTIDA'. 

255. ToMicus vmi Say. — Length of body 1 3/|" — 2 lines. Frequently 
taken in the journey from New York to Cumberland-house, and also in 
Lat. 65^ 

Body cylmdrical, deep chestnut, glossy, hairy underneath. Head 
above with scattered granules ; nose fringed with yellowish hairs ; antennae 
testaceous : prothorax rather oblong, angles rounded, anteriorly granu- 
lated with minute elevations, posteriorly punctured with scattered punc- 
tures, hairy next the head and on the sides : elytra hairy on the side, with 
five rows of transverse punctures next the suture, which reach only to the 
truncated part : punctures of the side and apex scattçred ; apex truncate^i 



152 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

obliquely and excavated, with the external edge of the excavation armed 
with four denticles, of which the second and third are the largest : legs 
pale chestnut ; tarsi testaceous. 

In the other sex? the elytra are entire and unarmed, and the dorsal 
rows of punctures on the disk of the elytra are more numerous. 

Variety B. Entirely rufous, or pale-chestnut. [Quite common in 
Canada under bark of Pine trees.] 

[192.] 256. Apate bivittata Kirby. — Plate viii., fig. 5. — Length of 
body I ^ lines. A pair taken in the Expedition. 

Very near A. domcstica (A. limbata F.) but distinct. Body piceous or 
nigro-piceous, cylindrical ; underneath with some scattered pale hairs- 
Head rough with minute elevations or granules ; nose terminating in a 
transverse ridge ; antennae testaceous with a very large knob : prothorax 
.subglobose, reddish, rough behind with numerous transverse rugosities ; 
before with sharp points or denticles ; elytra with several rows of punc- 
tures, and two luteous stripes which unite at the apex of the elytrum ; or 
perhaps it might be better to say, luteous, with two piceous stripes, one of 
the disk and the other of the side, but not reaching the apex : anus and 
legs testaceous. 

In the other sex the front, or rather face, is hollowed out into a con- 
cavity ; the prothorax is black anteriorly, and less rough from rugosities 
and points. [Belongs to the genus Xyloterus, Er. LeConte (Trans. Avç\. 
Ent. Soc, 1868) states that this species is taken from " Maine to Alaska. 
In the $ the head is concave, and the thorax finely transversely asperate 
before the middle ; in the Ç the head is convex, and the thorax much 
more roughly asperate. This species varies greatly in colour, the black 
elytral vittce sometimes occupy nearly the whole surface, and sometimes 
are almost wanting."] 

[193.] 257. Apate rufitarsis Kirby. — Length of body i^./^ ^lines. 
Two specimens taken in the Expedition. 

Body cylindrical, black, hairy underneath. Head hairy; face concave ; 
antennae pale testaceous : prothorax rufous posteriorly, granulated especi- 
ally anteriorly ; elytra punctured in rows, rufous, with a black humeral 
blotch : tarsi rufous. 

The face of the other sex is probably plane ; and the prothorax with 
more prominent points and asperities. [Unknown to LeConte. J 

258, Apate (Lepisomus) rufipennis Kirby. — Plate viii., fig, g, 
Length of bodv 1% lir^e, Ty-'Q spiciiaei? taken in Lat 65°, 



THE canadia:n' entomologist. 153 

[194.] Body black, minutely punctured, hairs white, decunâbent ; 
those of the prothorax and elytra looking like minute scales. Head with 
a pair of minute tubercles, not easily discovered, in the space between the 
eyes, anteriorly transversely impressed ; mouth and antennae pale rufous : 
prothorax very thickly and minutely punctured, Avith a rather obsolete 
longitudinal dorsal ridge : elytra dull-red, with several rowâ of larger punc- 
tures, the interstices of which are very minutely and thickly punctured, at 
the base rough with minute elevations : legs rufous. [Belongs to Poly- 
graphus Er. Taken according to LeConte in " Alaska, Canada, Maine, 
Louisana." (^ F;V/6' Trans. A. E. Soc, Sept. 1868, p. 169).] 

259. ArATE (Lepisomus) nigriceps Kirby. — Length of body i line_ 
A single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Smaller than the preceding. Body rufous, minutely and thickly 
punctured. Head black, with a very minute tubercle between the eyes ; 
nose impressed ; antennae and underside of the head pale rufous : elytra 
sculptured as in the preceding species, but the rows of punctures are less 
conspicuous. [Synonymous with the preceding, according to LeConte.J 

260. Apate (Lepisomus) brevicorxis Kirby. — Length of body i 
line. A single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body l)lack, covered with hoary hairs, above resembling scales. An- 
tennae very short with a small knob, rufous : front without a tubercle; 
nose not impressed ; elytra not striated. This species seems to indicate 
another section of the genus. [Unknown to LeConte.] 

[195.] 261. HvLURCUS RUFiPENNis Kirby. — Length of body 3 lines. 
Many specimens taken in the journey from New York to Cumberland- 
house, and in Lat. 65''. 

Body dusky, hairy, rather gloss}-, punctured. Head black, confluently 
punctured ; vertex obsoletely channelled ; antennae rufous : prothorax 
constricted anteriorly, and dusky-rufous ; base with a double slight sinus, 
and dorsal ridge terminating in an impression at the angle between the 
sinuses : elytra rufous, furrowed ; furrows punctured ; interstices of the 
furrows rough with minute elevations, especially at the base, which is 
inflexed : tibiae and tarsi dull-rufous ; the former denticulated on one side. 

N. B. In some specimens the elytra and anterior part of the prothorax 
are piceous or nearly black; in others the elytra are testaceous, and the 
prothorax' piceous and paler anteriorly. [Belongs to Dendroctomis Er. 
Taken in Alaska. " The punctures of the thorax a,re not very den,sç, and 
Qf twQ %\iQ.% i4tern)i.x;e4'''~ï,.e Conte,] 



134 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



FAMILY CURCULIONID.-E. 

[196.] 262. Calandra PERTiNAX 6>//z.7dr.— Length of body 7 lines. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body obversely pear-shaped, black, naked. Head immersed in the 
prothorax, smooth ; rostrum rather shorter than the prothora.x, compressed, 
impunctured, channelled above at the base and tumid ; antennae a little 
longer than the rostrum, scape as long as the rest of the antennae, knob 
pear-shaped : eyes immersed, lateral, subovate, not meeting below : pro- 
thorax oblong, rather narrowest anteriorly, tricostate, the two lateral 
costae sending a branch towards the base ; four depressed broad punc- 
tured dull-red stripes occupy the intervals between the elevated parts ; 
sides a little elevated and punctured ; the punctures of the stripes and 
sides are whitish ; scutellum an isosceles triangle, excavated at the base : 
elytra oblong, very slightly furrowed with whitish punctures in the fur- 
rows ; suture, and alternate interstices, elevated ; the others or depressed 
ones dull-red : body underneath with scattered whitish punctures varying 
in size ; postpectus and tarsi chestnut. [Belongs to the genus Spheno- 
phorus Schonh., of the family Curcuîionidœ. Not uncommon in Canada.] 

263. HvLOBius coNFUSUS Kirby. — Length of body 43^ lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby, also in Massachusetts by Mr. Drake. 

[197.] Body oblong, of a dark pitch-colour, hoary from decumbent 
hairs, confluently more or less punctured. Rostrum thickish and rather 
shorter than the prothorax ; thickly and confluently punctured : prothorax 
with a dorsal levigated line not reaching the base ; disk with numerous 
confluent irregular excavations or wrinkles ; sides confluently punctured : 
elytra with ten rows of oblong deep punctures, the interstices of which 
are confluently punctured, mottled confusedly, except at the base, with 
whitish hairs : thighs armed with a short tooth ; tibiae, as in the othe^ 
species of the genus, armed at the apex with an inflexed stout spine o^" 
claw ; tarsal claws reddish. 

264. Lepyrus colon Linn. — Length of body 6 lines. Several spe- 
cimens taken in Lat. 65°. Also taken by Dr. Bigsby in Canada. 

Body black covered witli decumbent gra)- hairs. Rostrum arched, 
tliickish, a little longer than the prothorax, confluently punctured, having 
also a dorsal longitudinal ridge, terminating between the eyes in a little 
narrow excavation : prothorax narrowest anteriorly, covered with minute 
elevations producing wrinkles, and having also a dorsal longitudinal ridgç 



TjrtË CiANADtAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 155 



and two oblique, rather curved stripes formed of dense white hairs : the 
elytra have several rows of punctures, with the interstices minutely granu- 
lated ; each elytrum has a discoidal white dot a little below the middle, 
and, in several specimens, there is also an indistinct one between it and 
the apex : on each side of the abdomen underneath, as in Z. arcticus, are 
four yellowish round spots formed of hairs. In some specimens the 
pubescence has a tawny hue, in others the indistinct spot is obliterated. 
[Taken in Canada.] 

[198.] 265. I>EPYRUS GEMELLUS Kifby. — Plate v., fig. 7. — Length of 
body 7^ lines. A single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body very black, covered more or less with decumbent wdiite hairs, 
and also with minute tubercles. Rostrum as in L. Colon : prothorax 
ridged, confluently tuberculated, minutely punctured between the tuber- 
cles, marked on each side with an obHque stripe composed of white hairs: 
elytra confluently tuberculated, with five pairs of longitudinal streaks, 
converging towards the apex : the first and fifth including the rest. 

[199.] 266. Cleonis vittatus Xirdy. — Length of body 3^^ — 5 lines. 
Several specimens taken in the Expedition. 

Body narrow, black, covered with decumbent hoary pile. Head 
thickly covered with hairs, but on each side from the eye to the insertion 
of the antennae, the hairs are less dense, Avhich gives the appearance of 
a blackish stripe ; rostrum thick, shorter than the prothorax, obsoletely 
ridged, punctured : prothorax obsoletely ridged, punctured with rather 
large scattered punctures, often concealed by the hairs, with three blackish 
stripes, produced as in the head by the hairs being thinner : the elytra 
also have three similar stripes, and are punctured in rows : the abdomen 
underneath appears as if dotted with black from the same cause. 



ZOOLOGICAL PARALLELISM. 

RV PROF. JAMES T. BELL, BELLEVILLE. 

In making a general survey of the Animal Kingdom, it is impossible 
to avoid being struck by the remarkable parallelism which exists between 
the several orders and families, and even genera and species, that com- 
pose the respective classes into which it is divided, and which reveals 
itself in the representative types that abound throughout its whole extent. 



i ôfî THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

'fhus if we take the mammalia as our starting point, we shall find 
that the carnivora are represented among the birds by the raptores, 
among the reptiles by the crocodiles and serpents, among the insects by 
the predaceous beetles, ichneumons, and dragon-flies, among the annulosa 
by the spiders, crabs, lobsters, &:c., among the mollusks by the cuttle-fish 
and by some of the gastropods and a few brachiopods, and among the 
radiates by the sea-urchins, star-fish, sea-anemones, and many of the 
animalculcC. 

Confining our observation to the parallelism between the mammalia 
and the birds on the one hand, and the insects on the other, we find that 
the carnivorous mammals are well represented among the Coleoptera as 
follows : — The felidse, the typical carnivora, by the Cicindelidas, whose 
resemblance is acknoAvledged in their \'ernacular name of " tiger-beetles." 
The canidae, dogs, wolves, foxes, are fitly represented by the Carabidœ, 
the weasel tribe by the StaphylinidcC, and the hyenas and vultures by the 
Silphidce; while the marine carnivora, the seals and whales, find their 
representatives in the Dytiscidœ and Hydroidas; and the various species 
of raptorial birds are no less fittingly typified by the Libellulidœ, ichneu- 
mon-flies, sphexes, and the predaceous wasps and hornets ; not forgetting 
the ants, which have a highly developed carnivorous organization. 

I shall not follow out in detail the obvious resemblances that may be 
observed between the pachydermatous animals and the Lucanidaî and 
other dendrophagous insects,- as well as between the bovine, equine, and 
ovine tribes, and the gallinaceous and cursorial birds on the one hand, 
and part of the Scarabeidae and Chrysomelidae, and most of the Orthoptera 
on the other; or those not less remarkable that exist between the goat, 
deer, and, antelope families, and the Cerambyx, Clytus, and Leptura 
genera. 

If the hints I have thrown out should induce some of my younger 
entomological brethren to study more closely the relation of the Insects 
to the other members of the Animal Kingdom, my intention will be 
amply fulfilled. 



PERSONAL. 

Baron Osten Sacken. — ^Ve regret to announce that this eminent 
Dipterist has returned to Europe " for an indefinite period, several years, 
or perhaps for ever." His last contribution to American Entomology will, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. Î57 

he informs us, be the Third Volume of the Monographs of N. A. Diptera,. 
written by Mr. H. Loew, of Meseritz, Prussia, and translated by thsr 
Baron. It will shortly be published by the Smithsonian Institution,, 
unifonn with the preceding volumes. Baron Osten Sacken, as our 
readers are no doubt well aware, is the great, if not the only, authority of 
American Diptera, and was always, during his long residence in the 
United States, most ready and willing to afford any information or assist- 
ance that was sought from him. We deeply deplore his removal from 
us, and trust that it will only be temporary after all. He bears with 
him our best thanks for his many kindnesses, and our hearty wishes for 
his continued welfare and prosperit}', wherever he may be. 

Mr. C. V. Riley. — We are desired to announce to our readers thai 
Mr. Riley is making a special study of Galls, with the intention, before 
long, of publishing a full and illustrated paper upon the subject. He will 
be glad to receive the co-operation and assistance of all who can aid him 
in his investigations. It is in the power of every collector to do some- 
thing in this way, for no one can be much afield in quest of insects- 
without observing many specimens of these wonderful structures. Samples- 
can be easily transmitted by mail to Mr. Riley at a very trifling expense. 
He expresses himself willing to assist others, as much as he is able, by 
exchanges, etc. He purposes henceforth making the habils of insects of 
all orders, and the study of Galls more particularly, his specialty. His 
address is C. V. Riley, office of the State Entmologist, cor. 5th & Olive- 
streets, St. Louis, ,Mo. 

Crambid^. — Mr. W. Saunders (London, Ont.) is engaged in working- 
up the history of the various species of Cramhidœ inhabiting Canada and 
the adjoining States. He will be thankful for any assistance that may be 
afforded him by loan of specimens, and information as to locality, time of 
appearance, etc. 

Hemiptera. — Mr. E. Baynes Reed (London, Ont.) is preparing a 
list of Canadian Hemiptera. As nothing has hitherto been done in this- 
order in Canada, the co-operation of all members of the Society is much, 
required in order that the catalogue may be rendered as complete as- 
possible. Specimens will be gratefully received by Mr. Reed, and 
returned when desired. 

Prof. Macoun. — This gentleman started about the middle of last 
month upon a five weeks' collecting tour along the North Shore of Lake 



58 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Superior. He devotes his attention chiefly to Botany, but intends col- 
lecting Coleoptera at a fev/ special localities. We look for some good 
results. 



NEW ILLUS'JllATED WORKS on AMEPv1Cx\N LEPIDOPTERA. 

The Lepidopterist of the present day — be he merely a collector of 
these beautiful " winged flowers," or a student of the order — possesses 
vastly improved advantages over his predecessor of even ten years ago in 
the accurate and artistic drawings that are being so copiously issued from 
the press. There are now no less than three serial works in the course 
of publication, whose chief object is to afford faithful coloured illustra- 
tions of Butterflies and Moths. Foremost amongst these is a work that 
bears off the palm beyond all competitors in this or any other land — one 
that we have often before noticed in these pages, but which we cannot 
too often or too highly commend--- Eazcards' Butterflies of North 
America. This magnificent publication has now reached its Ninth Part, 
and will with the next issue complete its First Volume. We earnestly 
trust that its talented author will not rest content with this splendid 
iino?nunent of his industry and ability, but will go on with the work till the 
beauties of all our Butterflies have been faithfully portrayed. Since our 
last notice, two new numbers have appeared : Part viii., containing illus 
trations of Nephasia menapia, Pieris Beckerii ( N. sp.), P. vcrnalis, P. 
virginiensis, Argy tints Nevadensis, Grapta comma, and G. dry as ; Part ix., 
containing Papilio AJax, varieties Walshii, Telamonides and Marcellus, 
Grapta interrogationis, varieties umhrosa and Fabricii. 

Next to Mr. Edwards' work comes a new serial by Mr. R. H. Stretch, 
of San Francisco, Cal., entitled Illustrations of the Lygœnidœ and Bomby- 
ddœ of North America, whose object is " to furnish, in a compact form, 
good coloured illustrations of all the species of these two families of 
Moths found north of the Mexican boundary, with accompanying letter- 
press, embodying everything of interest in relation to each species which 
may have appeared in print, together with additional information from 
original sources. " Two parts out of the proposed thirty have thus far 
appeared ; the remainder are to be issued at intervals of about six weeks. 
Part i. contains good coloured drawings — not equal indeed to those in 
the above-mentioned work, but still very good and reliable — of eight 
-species of Alypia, Scepsis fuIvicoUis Walker, six species of Ctemicha, and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGlSt. 159 



Psychomorpha Epiinenis Drury. Part ii. contains coloured figures of no 
less than twenty-one additional species, many of them new and rare. 
The price of each part is only one dollar, or with plain instead of colored 
plates, seventy-five cents. (Address: — R. H. Stretch, P.O. Pox 1802, 
San Francisco, Cal.) / 

The third work to wiiich we desire to draw' attention is entitled 
•• Lepidoptera, Phopaloccres and Heteroceres, Indigenous and Exotic ; 
with descriptions and coloured illustrations, by Herman Strecker," Read- 
ing, Pa. It is the intention of the author to issue the work in monthly 
parts, each containing one plate. As yet we have received only the first 
number, which illustrates a new species of Emperor Moth, Platysamia 
Gloveri Strecker, and exhibits both male and female of tlie insect, with 
upper and lower surfaces. 'Hie price of each part is but fifty cents. 

We sincerely trust that all these handsome publications will meet with 
such hearty support from tlie entomologists of America as will encourage 
their public spirited authors to carry them on till the work is fully com- 
pleted. 



M ISC ELI, AN EC) US. 

Prizes for Insect Collections at the Approaching Exhibitions. 
—We are glad to observe that so much appreciation is shown of the value 
of Entomology in the formation of the prize lists of our various exhi- 
bitions throughout the Province. At the Provincial Exhibition, to be 
held in Hamilton Sept. 23- -37, the following prizes are offered :- 

"Collection of Native Insects, with common and technical names 
attached, and classified so as to show those injurious and those beneficial 
to Agriculture and Horticulture ; ist Prize $15 ; 2nd do $10." 

At the Western Fair, to Ijc held at London Oct. 8 — 11: — " Collection 
of Native Insects, with common and technical names attached ; ist Prize 
$10 ; 2nd do $8 ; 3rd do $4. 

" Collection of Native Insects, with common and technical names 
attached, injurious to field crops and fruits ; ist Prize $6 ; 2nd do, $4. 

"Collection of Foreign Insects, with common and technical names 
attached ; ist Prize $6 : 2nd do $3." 



160 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

At the Central Exhibition, to be held at Guelph Oct. i — 4 : — " Col- 
lection of Native Insects, common and technical names attached ; ist 
Prize $7 ; 2nd do $4. 

"Collection of Native Insects, common and technical names attached, 
injurious to field crops and fruits ; ist Prize $7 ; 2nd do $4."' 

Hyperchiria varia. — The remarkable larva described' l)y me in the 
Canadian Entomologist, Vol. II., 28, is that oî Hyperchiria î'(7;?(r, Walk. 
I have in my collection specimens of Macaria liturata (of Europe) 
collected at Jamaica Plains in June and July. — C. S. Minot, Boston. 

Moths at Sea. — Captain Robert Fuller, of the S. S. Northumbria. 
informs me that last September, when about twenty miles off Oporto, 
" weather fine," a very considerable number of moths made their appear- 
ance during the evening, and settled on the masts and sails of the ship by 
hundreds. So numerous were they, that with one grasp of the hand you 
could secure four or five moths. Several specimens were caught for me ; 
but until yesterday I had not been able to see them. They all prove to< 
be our common Plusia Gamma ; and Capt. F. told me he did not observe 
any other kind on that occasion. These must have been part of a large 
flight, as he described them as clustering in masses all over the ship. I 
certainly think that many of the rare insects occasionally captured round 
our coasts are brought here in the above manner : after a long and almost 
exhausting flight over the sea, they very often gain foothold on some pas- 
sing vessel, and some day or two may elapse before they again take wung : 
then it may often happen to be near the English coast ; the fugitive pos- 
sibly captured, and dubbed an English specimen, worth a considerable 
sum, of course. These particular insects, P. Gamma, are most common 
here ; but it is just as likely to happen to a continental species. Doubt- 
less we owe many of our present extensive list of new species to home- 
ward-bound shipping. — W. H. Tiigwell, in N'cwman's Enfoniologist. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

Trinity College School, Port Hope, Ont. — Visitor: — The Lord 
Bishop of Toronto ; Head Master: — The Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A. 

The course of instruction includes all the usual branches of a sound 
education in Classics, Mathematics, English, German, French, Natural 
Science, Book-keeping, Drawing and Vocal Music. 

Fees: — Board and Tuition, $220 per annum. Michaelmas Term will 
commence on Thursday, Sept. içth. For further information apply to the 
Head Master. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., SEPT, 1872. No. 9 

NOTES ON THE EGGS AND YOUNG LARV.« OF 

MELIT^A HARRISIL 

BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONTARIO. 

For several years past, I have tried to obtain eggs from this species by 
confining the females in small boxes, but without success until this year, 
when several of these insects were taken during the third week in June, 
and shut up in boxes and laid aside. They were unfortunately overlooked 
until the 5th of July, when in one box was found a cluster of 14 eggs 
which were about hatching, and in another 3 1 in one cluster, and three 
detached ones near it. Those in the latter box had not been so long 
laid, and their colour was unchanged, and from them the following 
description was taken :— 

Length iV of an inch, width -sV of an inch. Colour green, of rather 
a pale shade; nearly barrel-shaped, contracted towards the upper end, 
which has a nearly flat or shghtly concave smooth surface. The sides 
are ornamented with a series of sixteen raised striae placed at regular 
intervals, and the bottom end is somewhat flattened, and attached firmly 
to the surface of the box. 

The other lot of eggs, which were just about hatching, had lost their 
green colour, and presented a whitish hue around the sides and towards 
the bottom ; while the upper portion was dark brown, from the colour ot 
the young larva showing through the transparent egg-shell. While ex- 
amining one of the eggs under the microscope, one of the mandibles ot 
the enclosed larva was thrust through the egg-shell near the upper surface, 
and soon after the other appeared near by in the same manner, and after 
some effort these were made to meet, and then shortly a small opening 
made, which admitted of the head being partly thrust through, when the 
larva soon began to eat the egg around, with the view of removing the 
top. The thickened strice of the egg were not ruptured without much 
effort, the points of the mandibles being thrust through the interspaces, 
and the thicker ridge grasped and torn, after many endeavours, by pulling 
inwards. As the opening progressed, the sides continued to be eaten 
down sufficiently to admit of the head being thrust through, the thinner 



162 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

interspaces being easily disposed of. After tearing through two or 
three of the striœ, the larva rests awhile from its efforts, and then 
begins afresh. On the upper flat surface there appears a black forked 
line, which varies in different specimens, which is caused by the diverging 
lines on the front of the head showing through; the lines varying as the 
position of the head is changed. After one hour and thirty-five minutes 
had been spent in these efforts (including frequent rests), the top was 
gnawed nearly around, when the head was pushed up, and the lid tilted 
over. The larva now rested for about ten minutes, although there was 
no obstacle to its egress, and then commenced to extricate itself, by first 
bending its head /backwards and forwards, and stretching upwards. The 
second segment, with the first pair of feet, was soon extricated ; the feet 
were placed on the side of the egg-shell, and thus a foothold gained by 
which to help to withdraw the third segment Avith the second pair. In 
like manner the fourth segment was soon extricated; then working its 
body from side to side with the head upwards, and alternately working it 
round with the head downwards, grasping with its jaws at adjoining eggs, 
or anything else within reach, the remaining segments were speedily 
withdrawn, the whole operation not occupying more than five or six 
minutes. 

Description of young larva fresh from the egg : — 

Length about aV of an inch, cylindrical. 

Head large, rounded ; colour dark greenish-brown, nearly black, with 
a forked line in front like an inverted Y, the diverging lines uniting a litde 
above the middle, and the single line continued to the tip. 

Body above dull pale yellowish, each segment with a transverse row of 
slightly darker raised dots, each emitting a single pale brown moderately 
long hair ; on terminal segment is a yellowish patch above. 

Under surface similar to upper ; feet pale, semitransparent ; prolegs 
pale yellowish. 

Not knowing the food plant of this species, I tried the larvae, in vain, 
on a great variety of plants and shrubs, including violet, pansy, willow, 
grass, clover, polygonum, and purslane, changing the food about every 
two or three hours for about two days and a half, by which time all but 
three had died of starvation. Then on examining " Abbot's Notes on 
Georgian Butterflies," as published by Mr. Scudder, Can. Ent., vol. 4, 
p. 85, I found that the larva of ismeria, a closely allied species, feeds on 
Helianthus. No time was lost in procuring some common sunflower 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 163 

leaves, of which the three remaining weakened specimens at once began 
to eat ; two of them soon became plump and active, but the other died. 

After the first moult, the following description was taken : — 

Length iV of an inch. Head medium size, dark brown : second 
segment pale on its anterior edge, brown behind, third segment brown 
also, the remainder of body being very pale brownish, with several round 
greenish-white spots on each segment. There is also, on each segment, 
a transverse row of pale slightly raised dots, from each of Avhich arises a 
single brownish hair. 

By the i6th of July, the larvse had again moulted, and load now grown 
to a quarter of an inch in length, and were thus described : 

Head small, bilobed, black and shining, with a few short pale brown- 
ish hairs. 

Body above brownish-black, dotted and spotted with greenish. Second 
segment with a transverse row of tubercles, from which arise brown or 
blackish hairs. Third and fourth segments each with four black branch- 
ing spines ; spines and branches all nearly black. From fifth to twelfth 
inclusive, each segment has six spines, the two upper pairs of which are 
black, tipped with greenish, and with a little greenish colour at base, the 
fine hair-like branches being black or brown. The lower pair of spines 
are set in a band of pale greenish-white ; where they partake of the same 
colour, both spines and branches, and this greenish-white stigmatal band, 
has a broken brownish line running through it. On twelfth segment is an 
additional dorsal spine, placed a little behind the others ; terminal seg- 
ment with four spines arranged in two pairs, one above the other. 

Under surface paler and greenish. Feet tipped with black ; prolegs 
pale semi-transparent. 

Soon after this date, one of these larvae escaped from confinement, 
and could not again be found ; the other soon ceased feeding, and be- 
came lethargic, and still continues so, but whether alive or dead now I 
can scarcely tell, although I fancy it is still living. From the observa- 
tions of Mr. Scudder on Ar^ynnis bellona, published in the September 
number of the American Naturalist, and also from remarks made in cor- 
respondence by Mr. Edwards, who has closely watched many members of 
this interesting family, as well as from my own observations, it seems 
highly probable that most, if not all of our species of both Argynnis and 
Melitœa, pass the winter in the larval state, the larvae becoming lethargic 
while quite young. 



164 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

LIST OF THE 

NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF CATOCALA. 

BY AUG. R. GROTE, DEMOPOLIS, ALA. 

The present list is based upon a paper on the genus Catocala recently 
published in the Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 
The sequence of the species there adopted is here retained, with an 
unimportant change in a single instance for convenience of reference. 
The species are grouped according to the colour and design of the hind 
wings. Such an arrangement must, to a certain extent, be arbitrary, yet 
little violence seems to be done to the general affinities of the species by 
its adoption in this genus. With regard to the position of the species 
with black hind wings, it must be conceded that they are most nearly 
allied to the species with yellow secondaries. For instance, C. epione 
resembles C. consors ; C. Robinsonii, C. habilis, etc. But I inaugurate the 
genus with the black winged species from the consideration that such 
species are not found in other continents, and that in North America the 
genus attains its fullest representation. I allow them to precede the 
more typical specific forms, such as certain of the red winged species, and 
conclude with the yellow winged Catocalœ, as has been customary with 
regard to the European species. From the Atlantic district we have at 
least one strictly representative species. This is C. j'elida, which repre- 
sents the European C. f?'axmi in our fauna. But I do not know C. 
Walshii, and thus have not been able to decide upon the degree of 
relationship between the red winged species of the two Continents. 

In the following list, the names of species not known to me in nature, 
are followed by a dash ( — ). Those hitherto found in Canada are pre- 
ceded by an asterisk (*). Mr. Saunders has kindly enabled me to add 
to the number of species hitherto known to me from various points in 
Canada. The Cahfornian and Texan species are separately indicated ; 
the rest are from the Atlantic district. I have not cited Mr. Walker's 
erroneous determinations in this genus, elsewhere pointed out, from a 
desire to avoid increasing the synonymy. While our collections from the 
Territories are as yet scanty, we must expect the discovery of many new 
species of the genus. Of the fifty-nine (59) here enumerated, ten (10) are 
known to me only by description. In the State Collection in St. Louis, I 
have been shown a specimen of C Robinsonii taken in Missouri. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 165 

CATOCALA, Ochsejiheimer. 

1. Hind wings black and unhanded above \vith blackish fringes. 

iNSOLABiLis, Guenee. 

2. Hind wings black and unbanded above with white fringes, some- 

times interrupted with black. 
*EPI0NE, Westwood. 

Noctiia epione, Drury. 
LACHRYMOSA, Giceuee. 
RoBiNsoNii, Grofe. 
*viDUATA, Guenee. 

Catocala vidua, Guenee. 
DESPERATA, Gucnec. 

1 Phalœna vidua, Smith. 
RETECTA, Grote. ■ \ 

FLEBiLis, Gro^e. 
TRiSTis, Edwards. 

3. Hind wings black above, with a white band. 

*RELiCTA, Walker. 

4. Hind wings various shades of red above, with a black median band. 

CALiFORNiCA, Edwards. (California). 

Stretchii, Behr. — (Virginia city). 

*BRiSEis, Edwards. 

ADULTERA, Hinze. — (California ; teste Lederer). 

IRENE, Eehr. — (Ft. Tejon). . 

*UNijUGA, Walker. 

JUNCTURA, Walker. 

Walsh II, Edwards. — 

* PART A, Guenee. 

cocciNATA, Grofe. 

*ULTRONiA, Guenee. 

Eunetis ultronia, Hubner. 
*AMATRix, Guenee. 

Lamprosia amatrix, Hubner. 

Catocala selecta, AValker. 

var. Catocala nurus, Walker. 
*CARA, Guenee. 
*C0NCUMBENS, Walker. 
MARMORATA, Edwards. (Ureka). 



166 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOaiST. 

*ILIA, Gimiee. 

Phalaena ilia, Cramer. 
UXOR, Guenee. — 

(an spec, praec. ?) 

5. Hind wings orange above with a median black band. 

zoE, Behr. — (Searsville). 
INNUBENS, Guenee. 

var. Catocala scintillans, G. 6^ H. 

6. Hind wings black above, with a narrow even yellow band. 

*CEROGAMA, Guenee. 

7. Hind wings yellow above, with a median black band. 

*NEOGAMA, Guenee. 
SUBNATA, Grote. 
PiATRix, Grote. 
PALAEOGAMA, Guejiee. 

var. Catocala J)hala7iga, Grote. 
HABiLis, Grote. 
CONSÔRS, Guenee. 

Phalaena consors, Smith, 
PONDEROSA, G. 6^ R. 

Catocala nebulosa, Edwards. 
MULiERCULA, Gueuee. 

BADIA, G. &^ R. 

'"antinympha, Walker. 

Noctua paranympha % Drury. 

Ephesia antiny7npha, Hubner. 

Catocala affinis, Westwood. 

Catocala melanympka, Guenee. 
SERENA, Edwards. 
I ELECTA, Walker. 
*Clintonii, Grote. 
NUPTiALis, Walker. — 

ABBREVIATELLA, GrotC. TcxaS. 

FREDERici, G^'ote. Tcxas. 
MiCRONYMPHA, Gueuec. 
*POLYGAMA, Guenee. 
AMASIA, West-wood. 

Phalaena atnasia, Smith. (Upper figure). 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 16^ 

FORMULA, G. &> H. 

Phalaena amasia, Smith. (Lower figure). 
CONNUBIALIS, Guctiee. — 
GRYNEA, Walker. 

Catocala nuptula, Walker. 

*PRAECLARA, G. à^ R. 
FRATERCULA, G. 6- R. 

* MINUTA, Edwards. 

var. Catocala parvula, Edwards. 
GRACILIS, Edwards. 

Catocala similis, Edwards. 

Hind wings yellow above without a median band. 
'■'androphila, Guenee. 

Corisce arnica, Hubner. 

LINEELLA, GrotC. 

MESSALiNA, Gtccnee. 



PHYLLOXERA VASTATRIX IN PORTUGAL. 

The Gardeners'' Chronicle of the 20th inst. records a meeting of the 
Scientific Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society on the 17 th inst. 
The following communication formed part of its proceedings : — " From 
the Foreign Office came a copy of a communication from Her Britannic 
Majesty's Consul at Cintra, alluding to the appearance of the new Vine 
disease in Portugal ; one vineyard, producing an average quantity of 70 
pipes, last year only produced one pipe, the total loss in the Douro 
district bein^ estimated at 500 pipes." In connection with this com- 
munication, it appears desirable to mention that a trade circular of the 
1 2th inst. directs attention to a pamphlet from Oporto, published in June 
last (by Ernesto Chardron, Rua dos Clerigos), which treats at length of 
the same insect pest. This pamphlet, although it adds no new facts to 
the natural history of Phylloxera vastatrix, as ascertained by Westwood, 
Planchon, Lichtenstein, and Riley, has the merit of giving the locality 
where the insect first appeared in Portugal. It appeared first in the 
parish of Gouvinhas, where its ravages have been so great that one 
quinta, planted in 1842, producing in ordinary years 50 pipes of wine, 
was reduced in 1870 (otherwise a good year) to two pipes only. 



168 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The question arises, how did the Phylloxera first reach Portugal ? It 
seems to me that there are only two likely means of conveyance in this 
instance. It must have got there, either in the egg or larval state, on 
canes imported from abroad. Or if such has not been the case, I presume 
winged gravid females have been carried from the infected districts of 
France into the vineyards of the Alto Douro ; or perhaps the last-named 
locality has served as starting place for the French "Vignobles," after the 
presumed arrival of the insect from America. 

England, France, and Portugal are now infested ; hoAV long Spain will 
remain free from the plague no one can say. Lately the Phylloxera has 
made its first appearance in Switzerland, in the cantons of Argovie, 
Schaftlaousen, Zurich, and Thurgovie ; and there can be now but little 
hope that the Rhine and the Moselle districts will escape much longer. 

The fact of the matter is, that even leaving Nature's own operations 
out of the question, the trade and exchange of choice varieties of hothouse 
Vines and hardy seedlings are now so extensive, that man is the real 
carrier of the pest. 

Is it asking too much to call for international co-operation in the 
checking of the plague, universal as it is sure to become ? One would 
think that the threatened destruction of wine-growing all over Europe and 
America is an evil, not only to the nations concerned, but of universal 
consequence. Governments there are which are enlightened enough to 
offer enormous prices for a sure remedy to destroy the insects ; but why 
not fight the enemy ab ovo, by strictly ascertaining and confining its 
depredations to its present centres of dispersal and eradicating it there ? 
Much might be done by stopping the distribution of canes and seedlings 
from countries at present occupied by the Phylloxera. 

If some such measure were adopted on international grounds by all 
countries concerned, one fruitful source of propagation would be closed 
up. Local energy might then be applied to the task of overseeing the 
districts attacked, and doing battle with unforseen arrivals in fresh 
localities. 

Means have been found effectually to stop the importation of domestic 
animals affected by certain diseases. Surely rules could be devised to 
bar the distribution of cultivated plants when found to be accompanied 
by their insect foes. 

It is the plain interest of the viticulturist, as well as that of the public, 
to agitate until protective international measures are taken in this grave 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 169 

matter ; and I feel convinced that future generations will honour the 
State which takes the lead of a movement to counteract a disease of such 
alarming influence over the prosperity of a widely spread and, until lately, 
remunerative culture. — Albert Muller. ■ 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 150. 

GELECHIA. 

This huge genus comprehends insects of great variety of size and 
structure, but unfortunately it has not yet been found practicable to sub- 
divide it. It contains, no doubt, material for several genera, and for the 
convenience of the student, if for no other reason, its subdivision is tht 
desideratum in microlepidopterology. The young student who finds a 
micro with the palpi simple or but scarcely at all thickened with scales 
beneath, the fore wings comparatively narrow, and the hind wings deeply 
excised beneath the tip, and is told that it is a Gelechia, may well be 
astonished when he finds a larger insect, with the hind wings not at all 
excised beneath the tip, and the palpi overarching the vertex, with a large 
brush beneath the second joint, which may even present some appearance 
of longitudinal division, and is told that it, too, is a Gelechia. Several of the 
species which I have placed provisionally in Dep-essaria, some entomolo- 
gists would, no doubt, place in this genus. The species hereinafter 
described belong, with two or three exceptions, unquestionably to Gelechia. 
Possibly, the entomology of other localities may furnish the connecting 
links between these species and those that I have placed in Depressaria, 
but I have not met with the connecting links, and the two groups of 
species seem to me to be as essentially distinct as Gelechia roseosiiffusclla, 
Clem., or G. Ilennanella, Stainton, are from Depressaria albipitnciella, as 
figured by Stainton. A few of the species, however, described below, do 
not belong to the group represented by G. roseosuffusella ; but to those 
having a small brush on the second joint of the palpi. 

G. iJioraceochrella. N. sp. 

Second joint of the palpi with a small but distinct brush; palpi dark 
brown, ochreous along the inner surface and the second and third joints 
tipped with ochreous ; apical half of the tongue yellowish ; antennas 



170 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

annulate with ochreous and brown ; head silvery, tinged with pale purple 
and flecked with dark brown; thorax ochreous; anterior wings dark grayish 
brown, with darker brown spots and somewhat sprinkled with ochreous. 
Alar ex. -h inch. Kentucky, in June. 

At first glance this species is likely to be mistaken for G. fuscopidvella 
post, but it is much darker in color and the reddish-ochreous thorax also 
distinguishes it. 

G. obsciirella. N. sp. 

Palpi 7niich thickened beneath, almost brush like ; palpi dark brown, 
mixed with ochreous ; ochreous on the internal surface, and extreme tip 
of third joint ochreous ; head silvery with a faint purple tinge, and flecked 
with brown ; antennas annulate v\àth ochreous and brown ; thorax and 
anterior wings ochreous, densely flecked with dark brown, in some lights 
showing a very faint roseate tinge. Alar ex. i\ inch. Kentucky, in 
June. 

This species also might, on a casual glance, be mistaken for fusco- 
pulvella post, but the absence of anything like distinctness or definite form 
in the markings of the wings distinguishes it. It is a very plain and 
inconspicuous insect. 

G. fuscopulvella. N. sp. 

Second Joint of the palpi almost forming a brush, externally dark brown, 
with dark ochreous intermixed, internally pale ochreous ; terminal joint 
dark brown, with an almost equal' quantity of yellow ochreous, intermixed; 
antennae alternately annulate with ochreous and brown ; head and 
anterior wings dark yellowish-ochreous, dusted with dark brown, and with 
a faint roseate tinge, the apical portion being about equally ochreous and 
, dark brown. There are three distinct dark brown costal spots, the second 
of which is about the middle ; the first is most distinct, and is connected 
with some irregular dark brown streaks on the disc. See G. thoraceochrella 
ante. Alar ex. iz in. In Kentucky in June. 

G. fuscomaculella. N. sp. 

Palpi zuith the second brush scarcely brush-like, ochreous and fuscous, 
mixed in about equal qualities, tipped with pale ochreous ; head ochreous, 
dusted with brown ; thorax brown ; anterior wings dusted with broAvn, 
which is aggregated into irregular spots and blotches. Alar ex. j4 inch. 
Kentucky. 

G. quercitiigracella. N. sp. 

Ochreous-gray ; second Joint of the palpi not at all brush like, but some- 
luhat thickened or ificrassate towards its apex beneath; palpi dark brown. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 171 

with a little ochreous intermixed ; third joint annulate with pale ochreous 
at the base, middle and tip ; head ochreous-gray ; antennae with alternate 
annulations of dark brown and pale ochreous ; thorax and anterior wings 
ochreous-gray. There is a brownish patch at the base of the wings, an 
oblique dark brown streak from the costa, not far from the base, crossing 
the fold, but not quite reaching the posterior margin ; extreme costa dark 
brown, a dark brown costal spot about the basal third, another larger one 
about the apical third, the wing between the latter and the dorsal margin 
being overlaid with dark brown ; apical portion of the wing densely 
dusted with dark brown ; ciliae gray, with some intermixture of dark 
brown scales. Alar ex. }4, inch. Kentucky. 

The larva is slender, white, with a black spot behind each eye, and 
two small black ones, one above the other, on each side of each segment. 
Later in larval life, the black spots on the first segment spread, and cover 
the posterior margin of the segment, becoming confluent on top ; and the 
larva becomes dirty yellowish, with small black spots on each segment, 
and the space between the segments (or rather where the segments pass 
into each other), becomes suffused with pink. It feeds on the leaves of 
the " Black Jack" (Qiiercus nigra) in the latter part of June and in July. 

G. grisella. N. sp. 

Gray, densely dusted with dark brown, base of the costa dark brown ; 
head but faintly dusted ; antennae dark brown ; palpi with the second 
joint densely clothed beneath, but scarcely brush-like, dark brown exter- 
nally, with a white annulation near the apex of the second joint, and 
another at the base of the third. Alar ex. /u inch. Kentucky. Imago 
in May. 

G. albistrigella. N. sp. 

Second joint of the palpi but slightly thickened beneath toivards the apex. 
Entire insect (except as stated below) dark brown in some lights, faintly 
tinged with purple, green, or bronze ; a small oblique white costal streak 
just before, and a few indistinct whitish scales or small spots in the apex, 
near the dorsal ciliae ; ciliae pale fuscous, with a dark brown hinder mar- 
ginal line before their middle. Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky, in June. 

The wings are not spread in my single specimen, and I have not 
examined the neuration. It is rather a pretty species, which in its general 
appearance and style of ornamentation, seems to approach Strobisia, 
Clemens. 

G. suffusella. N. sp. 

Second joint of palpi slightly incrassate beneath towards the apex ; both 



172 THE CAIS'ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

joints silvery white, witli a fuscous band before the apex of the second, 
and with two fuscous annulations on the third, and extreme apex fuscous ; 
head pale ochreous ; antennae Avith alternate ochreous and brown annu- 
lations ; anterior wings pale ochreous, suffused near the base with pale 
fuscous, behind which is an oblique pale band across the wing, and 
behind that an oblique fuscous band, behind which the wing is paler 
again, with another large pale fuscous patch before the beginning of the 
costal ciliae, and the apex dusted with fuscous ; the whole wing is 
suffused, according to the light, with roseate, silvery, pale golden or pale 
green ; the golden tinge is most distinct along the dorsal margin. Alar 
ex. 3, à incli. Kentucky, in May. 

G. dlscoinaculella . N. sp. 

Second joint of the palpi but little thickened beneath ; palpi dark brown, 
with dark ochreous intermixed. Antennae brown ; anterior wings gray, 
densely dusted Avith brown, the dusting more dense towards the apex, 
with a small triangular ochreous patch at the beginning of the costal 
ciliae, and a small one opposite on the dorsal margin. In some lights, two 
minute golden spots are visible, one about the midde, and the other about the 
end of the disc. 

Alar ex. 3-8 inch. Kentucky, in May. 

G. auriinaculella. PI. sp. 

Very near the preceding species but distinct, I think. Second joint of the 
palpi dusted with white, third joint but little dusted, both joints brown ; 
head silvery, dusted Avith dark brown, and with metallic hues ; thorax and 
anterior wings pale ochreous, almost whitish, mixed in about equal 
quantity with dark brown, which in places is aggregated into patches and 
Avhich forms an oblique fascia about the basal fourth of the wing ; apical 
half of the wing mainly dark brown Avith a AA^hite costal spot alf the 
beginning of the ciliae and a smaller opposite dorsal one ; On the disc are 
three minute and indistinct golden yellow spots or streaks. Alar ex. tt? inch. 
Kentucky, in June. 

G. ? cui'vilineella. N. sp. 

Palpi simple, pale gray mixed Avith broAvn ; antennae pale gray, annu- 
late with broAvn ; head, thorax and Avings dusky gray, sprinkled with 
hoary ; a hoary spot on each side of the thorax above the wings ; two or 
three indistinct, dusky, longitudinal short streaks on the wings, the most 
distinct of AA^hich is on the fold before the middle. In some lights there is 
a tolerably distinct curved or zig-zag line beginning at the base of the wing, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. , l73 

passing thence to the casta, thence to the fold and backwards and forwards 
from the costal margin to the fold, to about the apical fourth, where it sud- 
denly curves up to the dorsal margin at the beginning of the cilice. In some 
lights this line is invisible. Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky, in May. 
. G. Physaliella. N. sp. 

Second Joint of the palpi a little incrassate beneath. Lower face creamy 
yellow ; palpi, head, thorax, and anterior wings dark brown, a little 
bronzed, rather indistinctly dusted with ochreous, and still more indis- 
tinctly with white. Alar ex. i% inch. Kentucky. 

The larva mines the leaves of the "Ground Cherry" (Physalis 
Viscosa) in September, and perhaps earlier, as I found there many empty 
mines. It mines the under surface, and produces a tubicular swelling of 
the upper surface. It pupates among leaves on the ground, and (in the 
breeding cage at least) the imago conceals itself among the leaves and 
••trash" on the ground. I have never seen any specimens except the 
two that I succeeded in rearing ; but the mines are abundant. The 
following are my notes about the larvae : — " Larvae now (Oct. 6th) about 
Y^ inch long ; one of these in the mine appears bright bluish-green, with 
the head yellowish ; another is pale bluish or bluish-green, almost white, 
suffused with pink upon the back, head pale brownish. Oct. 7, one of 
them has left the mine ; it is 3^ inch long, robust, deep purple, with the 
head and ' shield ' of the first segment green. Two imagines April 14." 
They were kept in a warm room. 

G. quercivorella. N. sp. 

Second Joint of the palpi slightly incrassate beneath. Palpi very dark 
brown, mixed in almost equal proportion with white. Head white, rather 
sparingly flecked with dark brown. Antennae dark brown, annulate with 
white ; thorax and anterior wings dark iron gray, with a blackish costal 
spot about the middle of the costa, and another smaller one at the begin- 
ning of the ciliae, and with other irregular and irregularly disposed dark 
brown spots on the wing ; the dorsal margin paler gray. Hind wings 
of a leaden hue, faintly tinged with purplish. Alar ex. h inch. Imago 
in June in Kentucky. 

The larva is white with bright red spots, closely resembling that of 
G. Hermonella. It feeds on Oak leaves, and when first observed, was 
forming a closely-fitting tube of white silk around itself on the under side 
of the leaf This tube it closed in a day or two after, and by some means 
spun a band of brown silk across the middle of it on the outside. 



174 THE CAÎs^ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

G. longifasciella. Clem., F?'oc. Ent. Soc. PJiila., i86j, p. 12. 

TelpJmsa ciirvistrigdla, ante p. ijj. 

After my former paper was in the hands of the printer, I became 
satisfied that the species which I had made the type of this genus could 
be nothing else than G. longifasciella, Clem. It was discovered unfor- 
tunately too late to prevent the publication of the species as Telphusa 
curvistrigella. The genus Gelechia has, become so large and unwieldy, 
and contains such a variety of size, ornamentation and structure, 
that the temptation is great to put every thing that will admit of it in 
another group. If this species had not been before described, I think I 
should permit it to remain as the type of the ncAv genus Telphusa, as I 
placed it in the preceding number. But as Dr. Clemens (a better ento- 
mologist by far than I claim to be), has placed it in Gelechia, and that 
genus comprehends such a diversity of forms that it may include almost 
any thing of a certain (or rather uncertain) general structure, and as on 
further observation I am satisfied that this species really approaches nearer 
than I had supposed to the true Gelechia ( G. roseosiiffusella, Clem., being 
my type), I desire to retract my generic and specific names, so that the 
species will stand as described by Dr. Clemens, G. longifasciella. It is 
not, however, a true Gelechia of the roseosuffiisella type. 

G. variiella. N. sp. 

White ; apical half of the forewings suffused with golden yellow, 
usually deeply so, sometimes faintly, becoming deeper towards the apex, 
and with indistinct whitish spots and transverse streaks in the apical part. 
Four distinct dark brown costo-apical spots at the base of the costal 
ciliae. In many specimens there is a small, rather indistinct, brown 
costal streak just before the ciliae ; a small very oblique dark brown costal 
streak, placed about the middle of the costa, is continued along the costa 
towards, and, in many specimens, to the base ; sometimes (in perhaps 
half of my specimens) this streak is absent. In some, the entire costa is 
dark brown or pale brown ; in others, the entire costa is golden yellow ; 
in others it is white. Sometimes the two costal streaks are golden instead 
of brown, and in these specimens there is a very narrow long and oblique 
white costal streak behind the two yellow ones in the apical part of the 
wing. Head and its appendages white, but in some specimens the 
antennae are faintly suffused with brown. Alar- ex. -is inch. Kentucky. 

This is an exceedingly variable species ; the only constant characters 
seem to be that the species is white, with more or less of the apical part 
of the wing golden, with a few dark brown spots at the base of the costal 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 175 

cilise, and with two or three small oblique brown or golden costal streaks. 
In many specimens there is a circular dark brown spot on the dorsal 
margin just before the ciliae. Two or three of the best marked varieties, 
if taken at different times and in the absence of connecting links, would 
undoubtedly be considered distinct species. The larva is unknown, and 
I have met with the imago but once. Then it was swarming in great 
numbers in the grass and around the trunk of an Elm tree. The space 
occupied by them did not exceed twenty yards square, 

G. ohliquistrigella. 

Anarsia ohliquistrigella, ante p. 6§. 

G. apicistrigella. 

Parasia apicistrigella, ante p. 66. 

The neuration of the first of these insects is exactly that oi Anarsia ; 
that of tlie second is exactly that of Parasia. By attaching too much 
importance to the neuration, I was induced to place them in thèse genera 
respectively. The other characters, however, are those of Gelechia, and I 
have accordingly transferred them to that genus. The second joint of 
the palpi is somewhat thickened beneath in both. 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirbys Fauna Boreali- Americana : Insecta. 



(Continued from Page 155.) 
GENUS MACROPS. 

Body oblong, winged. Rostrum shorter than the prothorax, subcylin- 
drical, somewhat arched, having a dorsal longitudinal ridge ; bed of the 
scape of the antennsp oblique reaching from near the apex of the nostrum 
to the middle of the eye ; antennae apical, longer than the head, eleven- 
jointed ; scape as long as the remainder of the antennae, incrassated at 
the apex, reaching the eye ; two next joints longer than the subsequent 
ones, obconical ; the following four very short, top-shaped ; the four last 
forming a subovate knob ; eyes lateral, subimmersed, long, forming, in 
some measure, an isosceles triangle with the base rounded, and the vertex 
downwards : prothorax subglobose ; antepectus emarginate, sides obso- 
letely lobed : scutellum very minute, triangular ; coleoptera oblong : 



176 THE CANADlAK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

thighs unarmed ; tibiae armed with a very minute incurved spine or spur ; 
tarsi not dilated, penultimate joint bipartite. 

At first sight the species of this little group would be set aside as 
belonging to Sitoîia Germer, with which they possess many characters in 
common ; a closer inspection, however, will satisfactorily prove that they 
belong to different genera. In the genus just named, the rostrum is 
shorter, thicker, and channelled ; the knob of the antennse consists only 
of three joints, the bed of the scape turns below the eye ; the eye itself is 
round : the antepectus is not emarginate, or lobed ; the tibiae have no 
incurved spine. 

[200.] 267. Macrops maculicollis Kirby. — Plate viii., fig. 4. — 
Length of body 2 lines. Two specimens taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body black, rather hoary from decumbent hairs and scales. Rostrum 
very minutely punctured ; ridge reaching from the base to the apex ; stalk 
of the antennae a dull-red : prothorax minutely and thickly punctured, 
obsoletely ridged, having the sides, especially at the base, covered with 
little white scales : elytra furrowed, furrows punctured : tibice, tarsi, and 
base of the thighs of a dull obscure red, posterior thighs on the inside 
more distinctly rufous. 

268. Macrops vitticollis Kirby. — Lengtla of body 2j/( lines. A 
single specimen taken. 

Body covered with brownish-black scales. Rostrum ridged at the 
tip, the rest covered with scales, which perhaps conceal the remainder of 
the ridge ; stalk of the antennœ rufous : prothorax with three narrow pale 
stripes, the lateral ones a little waved : scutellum pale ; elytra slightly 
farrowed ; furrows minutely punctured ; mottled with pale : tibise and 
tarsi, the former obscurely, rufous. 

[201.] GENUS LEPIDOPHORUS. 

Body covered with scales. Antennae longer than the head, eleven- 
jointed ; scape as long as the remainder of the antennae, reaching to the 
eye, growing gradually thicker towards the apex ; pedicel as long as the 
two folloAving joints, obconical ; the remaining joints of the stalk rather 
top-shaped ; knob three-jointed, ovate, acute ; rostrum shorter than the 
prothorax, thick, subcylindrical, straight ; bed of the scape of the antennae 
very short, not reaching the eye ; eyes subobtusangular, with the vertex 
downwards : prothorax rather longer than wide, barrel-shaped : elytra 
taken together oblong-oval : scutellum punctiform : thighs clubbed, un- 
armed; tibiae armed at the apex with a short incurved spine; penultimate 
joint of the tarsi bilobed. 



THE CANADÎAX ENTOMOLOGIST. 1/7 



269. Lepidophûrus lineaïicollîs A'/r/'j. — Length of the body 2}-2 
lines. Several specimens taken in Lat 65°. 

"Body black, underneath hairy with little ^shitisli round scales and 
hairs of the same colour intermixed. Head and rostrum behind the 
antennae covered with , similar scales : antennae dusky-red : prothorax 
dusky, confluently punctured with three whitish longitudinal narrow- 
indistinct stripes formed of minute scales : elytra mottled with whitish 
and dusky round scales ; slightly farro^\•ed with punctures in the furrows ; 
at the apex, in the deflexed part, there is a series of white ligid minute 
bristles between each furrow : ,legs hairy, reddish brown, thighs darker. 

[202.] 270. TrachVphlœus iMELAXOTHRix Kivby. — Length of the 
body 2^ lines. A single specimen taken in î.at. 65'^ 

B,ody really black, but quite covered with a brown powdery substance, 
resembling mud or dirt. Head impressed between the eyes ; rostrum 
longer than the head, and nearly as Avide, emarginate and hairy at the 
end ; antennae rufous, scape co\-ered with brown ]jowder : prothorax 
transverse, obsoietely channelled, with several short rigid black bristles 
on each side of the channel arranged nearly in rows : elytra obsoietely 
furrowed with slight punctures in the furrows, and between each furrow is 
a row of longer rigid black truncated bristles ; a ï*i\\ white ones are 
discernible at the apex : legs bristly, with white bristles, rufous, but the 
thighs are covered with pov\"dery scales. 

[203.] 271. Pachyrhvxchus (Rhixaria) Schonherri Kirby. — 
Length of the body 5 — 7 lines. Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. Also 
in Georgia ? by Mr. Abbott. 

Body thickly covered, especially underneath, \\\l\\ hoary pile. Antennae 
shorter than the head ; eyes brown : prothorax with three faint whiter 
stripes : scutellum white ; elytra with nine rows' of punctures, and at the 
base of the lateral margin is a portion of a tenth row, between the second 
and third; in the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth rows the pile is thicker 
than in other parts of the elytrum, so as to form three white stripes, 
on these stripes there are also four rows of distant black dots on each 
elytrum. [.Not uncommon in Canada.] 

[204.] 272. Atteeabus semilis Kirby. — Length of the body 2^4 
lines. Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

This species is nearly the transcript of A: curciuioiioldcs, for which I 
at first mistook it, but a closer inspection convinced me it was distinct. 
They agree in being black, glossy, and naked ; in having a red prothorax 
and elytra, the latter with several rovi'S of punctures ; in having the head 



178 THE CAISADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



and rostrum more or less punctured, with curved impressed lines on each- 
side just above the eyes, in the disk of the front ; the prothorax also in 
both is minutely punctured, and the cubit arched and internally serrulated. 
They differ, however, in several respects. In A. citrculioiioides the head 
is wider in proportion, the occiput black, levigated, with a centraV im- 
pression ; the curved lines of the front not distinctly punctured ; the 
stalk of the antennae rufous ; the prothorax at the base is streaked 
with transverse linear impressions ; the scutellum is nearly black, and the 
interstices of the rows of punctures of the elytra are irregularly punctured. 
In A. similis the hinder part of the head which is punctured and wrinkled, 
and scutellum are rufous, a transverse impression divides the occiput 
from the front ; the curved lines are distinctly punctured ; in the front 
between the eyes is a wide channel ; the antennae are piceous ; the 
prothorax is not streaked at the base : and the elytra between the rows of 
punctures are levigated. [Synonymous widi A. analis Illig. ; taken in 
Canada.] 

273. Attelabus lUPUSTULATUS Fabr. — Length of the body 2 lines. 
Taken in Canada, near Lake St. Clair, by Dr. Bigsby. 

[205.] In sculpture this species for the most part agrees with A. cur- 
uuionoidei, except that there is an impression between the eyes, and a 
pair on the disk of the prothorax. The whole of the body is very black, 
except the shoulders of the elytra, which are covered by a large oblong 
red spot, the anterior thighs are armed with a minute tooth : the disk of 
the coleoptera, or elytra taken together, towards the base is depressed ; 
and the scutellum is obversely triangular, the vertex of the triangle point- 
ing towards the head. [This and the preceding species are both de- 
scribed and figured in Harris' Injurious Insects, pages 65 and 66 ; taken 
in Canada.] 

274. Apotomus ovatus Fabr. — Length of the body \].{ line. Var- 
iety B taken by Dr. Bigsby near Lake St. Clair. 

[206.] Body very short, between pear-shaped and ovate, deep violet, 
naked, minutely punctured. Head black, rostrum levigated : prothorax 
somewhat lozenge-shaped, . emarginate anteriorly, very thickly and con- 
fluently punctured, with a levigated discoidal longitudinal line : elytra 
furrowed, furrows punctured. 

Variety B. Blue-green. [Belongs to Attelabus Fabr., or Pterocolus 
Sch.] 

275. Anthribus fasciatus Olivier. — Length of the body 4 lines. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 179 



Body black, covered more or less with bro-.vn decumbent short hairs. 
Rostrum angular, thickish, dilated at the tip, below the antennae covered 
thickly with snow-white decumbent pile ; antennae almost as long as the 
thorax, rufous, knob dusky-brown ; front marked with two whitish dots, 
one adjoining each e3^e on their upper side : prothorax wrinkled with a 
transverse discoidal impression, and near the base with an elevated 
transverse ridge : elytra wrinkled with a discoidal tubercle near the base, 
near the apex adorned with an irregular angular band composed of snow- 
white decumbent pile : abdomen whitish with a double indistinct series of 
black dots : tibiae with a white ring. 

Variktv B. With the tubercles of the elytra less conspicuous ; the 
abdomen snowy-white ; thighs variegated with white. 

1 have no memorandum whence I received this variet}'. It is smaller, 
and probably American. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Mr. Couper's Labrador Tour. — The following notice lately ap- 
peared in the Montreal Herald : — 

" Great Entomological Loss. — Mr. Couper, the Canadian Entomo- 
logist, who left Montreal on the loth of May last to collect butterflies and 
moths in Labrador, has had his splendid collection of rare specimens 
destroyed by some of the Indians, who took revenge in this way for some 
statement made by him in the Quebec Chroiiide, about seven years ago, 
regarding the destructive practice of the tribe in spearing salmon on the 
then spawning grounds." 

In a recent letter from Mr. Couper, who has returned from Labrador, 
he confirms this statement. He informs us that " a six weeks' collection, 
consisting of 36 specimens of Colias Interior ; 4 species of Argynnidœ 
(100 specimens) ; 5 species of Lycœnidce (200 specimens,) and a quantity 
of other material, amounting to about 400 in all, v>'ere destroyed by 
Indians, who, I suppose, broke open my trunks, &c. during absence from 
camp. At all events the destruction took place between Mingan and 
Seven Islands, on the north shore. The loss was not discovered until I 
examined the cases after leaving the latter place. I was informed by the 
lessee of the salmon fishery at Mingan that my life vras not safe, as I 
helped the fishery guardian to prevent the Indians from spearing salmon 
on the Mingan river, and also wrote as above stated seven years ago. 
Before I left Mingan, I went to the Pcrc who attends to their spiritual 



180 ÏH£ CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. , 

wants, and he was partly aware of my situation, but there being no 
schooner going west from the place at the time, he kindly sent me off in 
a schooner belonging to the Mission, in company with two Indian sailors, 
who brought me to Bersiamits. I was therefore compelled to leave Min- 
gan about the 2ot]i of July, while I was searching for Colias interior, 
Argynnis Boisdnvali and Lyccefia Saidderi. The specimens collected on 
Anticosti were not with the destroyed collection — they are safe — and are 
all I can send my subscribers this year, but, if God spares me, it is my 
intention to return next May to collect the lost species, which can be 
obtained witliout going into the section of country occupied by these 
Indians. 

As soon as 1 send off the material to my subscribers, I will write 
an article on the Entomology of Anticosti." 

We deeply regret to hear of the severe loss Mr. Couper has thus sus- 
tained, and cannot but admire his perseverance, in determining to revisit 
these northern districts next year to endeavor to replace his lost material. 
We sincerely hope he will be eminently successful. We also hope soon 
to be able to furnish our readers with the ])romised paper from Mr. Cou- 
per's pen. — I^d. C. E. 

LiBVTHEA MOTYA. — I Captured on the 2nd of September, near Hobo- 
ken, N, J., a Libythea iiiotya (Bois «S: Lee,) at least I presume it to be' 
that species, that being the only one given to the U. S. in Kirby's new 
Catalogue. I should be glad to learn through the columns of the 
Canadian Entomologist in what portions of North America this butter- 
fly has been found. The specimen captured by me is very close to L. 
MyrrJia (Godt.,) the liabitat of which is the East Indies. It is, however, 
somewhat smaller. W. V. Andrews. 

The insect described by \)x. Kirtland as L. hachmanii is probably a 
\ariety only of L. inotya of B. & L. This has been taken in Ohio, and 
also at Hamilton, in Ontario. It has also been received by us from AV.H. 
Edwards, Esq., ot West A'irginia. — Ed. C. E. 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

Trinity College School, Port Hope, Ont.. — Visitor: — The Lord 
Bishop of Toronto ; Head Master:— ^\\q Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A. 

The course of instruction includes all the usual branches of a sound 
education in Classics, Mathematics, English, German, French, Natural 
Science, Book-keeping, Drawing and Vocal Music. 

Fees: — Board and Tuition, $220 per annum. Michaelmas Term will 
commence on T/iursday, Sept. içt/i. For further information apply to the 
Head Master. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., OCTOBER, 1872. No. 10 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION. 

The twenty-first meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science was held at Dubuque, Iowa, in the month of August last, 
commencing on the 21st and closing on the 27th inst As regards the 
attendance and number of papers read, the meeting ^vas certainly quite 
up to the average, but in scientific interest and value we cannot think it 
comparable to many in previous years. This deficiency was owing very 
largel}^, no doubt, to the change of locality almost at the last moment, 
viz., from San Francisco to Dubuque — the shores of the Pacific to the 
banks of the Mississipi. Several leading scientific men in the eastern 
States, finding the time and expenditure necessarily required for a visit 
to California beyond v/hat they could well afford, had made other arrange- 
ments for the employment of their summer holiday, which the late change 
of place gave them no opportunity of altering. Others again, notably 
Prof Agassiz and his party, were absent from the country, and could not 
in any case have taken part in the proceedings. Hence the meeting was 
shorn of many of its usual attractions, and has fiiiled, we think, to leave 
any very decided m.ark upon the scientific annals of the country. 

While the meeting vras thus defective in one point of viev»^, it certainly 
was a great success in another. SociaUy, it left nothing to be desired. 
The kindness and hospitality of the good people of Dubuque was so 
universal and unvaried, that all must have thoroughly enjoyed their visit, 
even though it was not especially distinguished by gorgeous receptions 
and gay fashionable entertainments, such as have, sometimes rather inter- 
rupted the proper proceedings of the Associa,tion in cities of greater size 
and wealth. , 

We do not propose to give a detailed -history of the' m.eeting, or a 
particular account of the papers read ; the fornler can be obtained by 
those desiring it in the current issues of many leading newspapers, 
especially those of Dubuque, Chicago, and New. York ; and the latter 
will no doubt be furnished, as usual, in the pages of tlie excellent 
American Naturalist, as well as in the Annual Transactions of the Asso- 
ciation. We shall merely regard the meeting from an Entomological 
point of view — the most interesting, probably, to the majority of our 



iS''2 ' THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



readers. Before proceeding to do so, however, we must not omit to draw 
special attention to what was really the grand feature of the meeting — the 
retiring President, Professor Gray's, able and most interesting address, and 
to recommend its perusal to all our readers. 

The only entomological paper read in Section B, '' Natural History,"'' 
was a very interesting one by Mr. C. V. Riley, on " The Fertilization of 
the Yucca Plant by Pronuba Yuccasella;" it was listened to with marked 
attention, and was followed by an animated discussion, in which Prof 
Gray, Mr. ]\Iorse and others took part. It will, we believe, be published 
very shortly by the author, but meanwhile we may give a base outline of 
its leading features. It appears that the American Yuccas possess flowers 
so peculiarly constructed, that it is impossible for fhe pollen to reach the 
.stigma, and consequently they depend upon artificial means for their 
fertilization. Mr. Riley has discovered that the " marriage priest " is a 
small white moth, hitherto unknown to science, which he has named 
Promiba Ynccasella, and considers the type of a new genus. The most 
remarkable feature in the' insect is that the female (not the male) has the 
basal joint of the maxillary palpus developed in a most extraordinary 
manner into a long curved tentacle furnished with spines. With this 
process the insect collects the pollen and conveys it to the tube of the 
stigma, which it could not otherwise reach; she then lays her eggs, the 
larvas from which feed upon the seeds of the Yucca fruit. The larva 
escapes to the ground Avhen full grown, and passes the winter there in a 
silken cocoon. Mr. Riley remarked that in the more northern portions 
of America, Avhere tlie Yucca had been introduced for the sake of its 
ornamental flov\'ers, it never bore seed on account of the absence of this 
insect; by the introduction of this moth, however, the defect might with- 
out difficulty be remedied. 

A matter of much interest to the entomologists present, and which 
will probably prove of importance hereafter, v,-as die formation of an 
Entomological Sub-section. On Saturday, the 24th of August, during the 
general meeting of the Association, a notice was read requesting those 
interested in this department of Natural History to meet together at the 
close of the morning session for the purpose of consulting together 
respecting the organization of a Sub-section. At the time appointed, the 
following members were present : Rev. Dr. ï\Iorris, of Baltimore, Md. ; 
Mr. C. V. Riley, St. Louis, Mo. ; Dr. G. M. Levette, Indianapolis ; Mr. 
■ O. S. Westcott, Chicago ; Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope, Ont. ; Mx. 
W. Saundersj London, Ont, and Miss M. B. Norton, Rockford, 111. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 183 



Dr. Morris was unanimously elected Chairman, and Mr. Saunders 
Secretar}^ It was then moved by Mr. Bethune, and resolved, that '\if it be 
found necessary, the Chairman and Secretary be requested to communi- 
cate with the Standing Committee of the Association, with a view to the 
organization of an Entomological Sub-section." The following gentlemen 
were appointed members of the provisional Committee of the Sub-section : 
Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Messrs. C. V. Riley, and O. S. Westcott. I'he 
meeting then adjourned till 7 o'clock p.m. 

At the evening meeting there were present, in addition to those men- 
tioned above, Messrs. H. H. Babcock, Chicago ; M. S. Bcbb, Fairmont, 
111. ; J. H. Blodgett, Rockford, 111. ; H. C. Warner, Claremont, Iowa, 
and C. M. Weatherby, Dubuque, Iowa. 

The Chairman having announced that it would be necessary to obtain 
thé consent of the Standing Committee before a Sub-section could be 
legally organized, it was resolved that the Secretary be requested to 
inform the Permanent Secretary of the Association that it is deemed 
desirable by the entomological members that a Sub-section of Entomology 
should be formed' in Section B. 

It was then, moved by Mr. Riley, and resolved, that a committee be 
appointed to draft a set of rules for adoption at the next meeting of the 
Association on the subject of entomological nomenclature. The Chair- 
man nominated the following committee : — Messrs. Riley, Bethune, 
Packard (Salem), Saunders and Morris. 

The meeting then proceeded to discuss the " Revision of American 
Butterflies" recently put forth by Mr. S. H. Scudder, in advance of his 
forthcoming \York on the Butterflies of North America. There was a 
unanimous expression of regret and disapprobation on the part of those 
present at' the wholesale and radical changes proposed by this distin- 
guislied author in tlie generic and specific names of the butterflies of this 
Continent. The feeling was manifested by all, that changes so radical 
and so sweeping in the received nomenclature were uncalled for, and 
would prove of great detriment to the study and popularity of this depart- 
ment of entomology. The hope was strongly expressed by all, that Mr. 
Scudder would l'ccousider liis proposed changes before the publication ol" 
his great work, which is looked forward to with so much interest by all 
lepidopterist-j, and not mar to a great extent its usefulness, or injure its 
general acceptance. 

The meeting then adjourned. At the general meeting of the Associ- 
ation on the following Monday, a recommendation was brought forward. 



184 THE CAÎTADÏAK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

by the Standing Committee to the effect that the formation of a Sub- 
section of Entomology in Section B be authorised by the Association, and 
the necessary amendment to the Constitution be brought up for adoption 
at the next annual meeting. This recommendation was unanimously 
adopted by the meeting, and will no doubt be ratified next year; we may, 
therefore, look upon the "Sub-section of Entomology" as an accomplished 
fact. We trust that our readers will now do what in them lies to make it 
a useful and attractive portion of the Association, and not allow so good 
a vantage ground to be lost by apathy and indifference. We would 
venture to suggest to the Committee that they should, at an early date, 
announce some special department of entomology to be taken up by the 
meeting next year, in addition to any subjects that may be brought into 
discussion by the papers of individual members. Such a plan, though 
not perhaps quite in accordance with precedent, would, we think, add 
value and attractiveness to the meeting, and possibly bring together more 
of our " brethren of the net" than usually attend on such occasions. 

The proceedings of Monday brought the actual worlc of the meeting 
pretty well to a close ; few of the mem^bers, however, returned to their 
homes without first going upon one or more of the interesting excursions 
that were made to various localities in the neighbourhood. These, v;e 
feel sure, were heartily enjbyed by all who took part in them, even though 
some — like the 'writer — may not be able to avoid occasional painful 
reminiscences of a crawl through a lead-mine, or a night among the 
Sioux City mosquitoes. 

The ne.tt meeting is to be held on the shores of the Atlantic at Port- 
land, Maine, and will, we trust, prove as agreeable a reunion as the one 
lately brought to a close on the far away banks of the Mississippi. 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOME 

GENERA OF CANADIAN INSECTS. 

BY FRANCIS WALKER, F.L.S., LONDON, ENGLAND. 

The study of the geographical distribution of Insects acquires addi- 
tional interest by its connection v/ith astronomical calculations, and v/ith 
geological researches. From them it is understood that the earth was 
once covered with snow and ice from the poles to the tropics, and that 
the like event may recur in the future, and restore the hemispheres 



THE CANADIAN e:^TOMOLOGTST. 185 

generally to the freshness and newness which they possessed at the close 
of the glacial period. The beginning of the cessation of this period 
corresponds with the origin of the present distribution of insect life, or. 
with the commencement of the ascent of the individuals from the tropics 
towards the poles. This is represented on a small scale every year in the 
change from winter to summer, and the two periods of time agree with 
two aspects of the earth, the transition from, the tropics towards the 
poles, and the upward extent of an alp, the latter being more or less an 
epitome of the former. It may be said by those Avho do not believe in 
the migration and settlement of insects, that the species were created in 
the districts which they now occupy. In this case it would appear that 
tlieir creation was successive, and that they came into existence more 
northward and southward in proportion as the glacial climate receded. 
But, as each district became fitted for the m.aintenance of insect life, 
the inhabitants of the neighbouring district would be ready to occupy the 
vacant ground, and it is vi-eli knov/n that the same species of insect often 
occurs in two or more r^^idely separated regions. One species inhabits 
Europe and Chili, and ma}^ have migrated from the tropics northward and 
southward as the cliro.ate changed. There are indications that the tropic 
land was formerly m.uch larger in extent than it is now, and would have 
afforded space for the multitude of insects which now inhabit the com- 
paratively narrow temperate regions. A third explanation of the distri- 
bution of insects is the supposition of the origin of existing species by 
modifications of previous and now extinct organisms. No kind of insect 
life has been traced back to its beginning, and the blending of species 
which occurs in some genera locally (e.g. the Dipterous genera Laphria 
and Dacus), and which may be interrupted in other genera by the extinc- 
tion of fonner connecting links, is no proof that each species did not 
first appear in the form which it now assumes, and the blending before 
mentioned represents the oneness and harmony of creation, and the 
unity of its Author. 

The word "species" is only conventional, to express a difference, 
and there is no proof as to its beginning in two, in a few, or in many 
individuals, or that the differences were not formerly closed up by the 
links which are nOw extinct. Long periods of time have been described 
in the figures of short and regularly recurring divisions, and thus the 
occurrences therein are more readily comprehended, and in like manner 
the long space of earth and the long extent of time before mentioned arc 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



understood being represented by the corresponding small part of earth 
and the short period of time. 

The aspects from the arctic regions are more impressive than the 
views from the summits of mountains, and the latter renew the remem- 
brance of the former when both have been seen in succession. Visitors 
of mountain-tops may have observed, in a hot, still, misty day, multitudes 
of insects borne to the summit from the plains below, and filling the air, 
\vhich at other times is free from them, and this is like to the sudden 
migration of species, from the south to the north, wliich occurs in Europe 
during some seasons. 

In studying the fauna of a mountain, it is most suitable to begin with 
the top, and to trace it downward, vv^here the agencies or forms of life 
become successively more numerous and complicated in their mutual 
adaptations and limitations, all being as wheels which serve to regulate 
the great living mechanism of which they are the parts. In like manner 
in noticing the faunas of the two primary mountains into which the earth 
is divisible, their summits being the poles, and the equator their comm.on 
base, it is advisable to begin with the arctic species or with those which 
have ascended to the highest latitudes. The differences in soil, in vege- 
tation, and in elevation, facilitate or hinder migration and settlement of 
insects, and help to effect the variety of distribution, which is one of the 
chief attractions in the aspects of Nature. 

Leucospis is a genus of Chacidice, and has several peculiarities of 
structure. None of the species occur in abundance, and the very few 
whose economy has been observed are parasites of aculeate Hymenoptera. 
It is well known that the very general colour of the Chalcid tribe is 
metallic, most often coppery or golden green, but Leucospis seems to 
have almost grovrn out of this hue, though it retains sufficient to indicate 
the transition between it and most of the other Chalcid families. This 
lustre in Leucospis appears chiefly on the face, but in some species it is 
spread more or less oyer the body. In the single species (L. affinis) 
which inhabits Canada, and whose geographical range extends from 
thence to Texas, it is wholly absent, and there is no trace of it in the 
species inhabiting Arabia, North Africa, and Europe. A few species 
occur in the United States, and the genus is more numiCrous in Mexico, 
in the West Indies, and in the Amazon region. On the eastern slopes 
this genus inhabits Japan, China, Hindustan., Arabia, the Mediterranean 
region, and ro-ore rarely the interior of France. Switzevland, and Germany. 



THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST, 18* 



In the latter countries, beginning with Arabia, the arrangement of its 
colours, more or less indicated by the species of other districts, appears 
to be most established, and it therein mimics somxC of the wasp-tribe, 
such as Odynerus. In the other hemisphere, it appears on the west side 
in Chili, and on the eastern side in South Africa and in some of the 
Australian Isles, and in Australia. 



CIRRHOPHANUS TRIANGULIFER, nov. gen. et. sp. 

BY AUG. R. CROTE, DEJIOPOLIS, ALA. 

1 nis genus of North American Nochndce appears allied to the species 
we have described under the genus Gortyiia. The habitus is arctiiform ; 
and in outline and size it resembles Halcsidoia. The wings are long ; 
primaries with blunted apices and rounded external margin ; secondaries 
smaller than usual. The neuration has not been examined. The square 
thorax is crested centrally, and bitufted in front behind the collar. The 
patagia are deflected at extremities away from the body. The abdomen 
is stout, does not exceed the hind wings, tapers rapidly to the anus. The 
antennœ are stout and simple with thickened scape. The caputal scales 
are massed in front. The head is held forward, and the labial palpi are 
free and projected. 

The moth is entirely of a rich soft golden yellovv', with darker linear 
ochreous shades. The usual markings of the family are absent on the 
primaries, although the transverse posterior line may be faintly discerned, 
sinuate and geminate. The most evident markings consist of two trian- 
gulate spaces situate on the middle field of the Vv'ing. The outer and 
upper of these is also the larger, and they are formed by distinct dark 
lines meeting at right angles. The fringes are brilliant. The hind wings 
are paler than primaries, without perceptible markings, nor are any lines 
noticeable on either wing beneath. The body is concolorous with pri- 
maries above : the tegulœ, head and thoracic tufts with ochreous shadings. 
A specimen taken in Missouri was shown me in St. Louis by a gentleman 
whose name and address T have recently unfortunately forgotten and 
mislaid. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAE SOCIETY 

OF ONTARIO. 

The second annual general meeting of the Society was held at the 
Court House, Hamilton, Ontario, on Thursday evening, Sept. 27, 1872, 



188 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The President, the Rev. C. J. S. Bethxme, M.A., in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Secretary then read the Report of the Council : — 

In presenting the Second Annual Report, the Council feel highly 
gratified at the measure of success which has attended the Society during 
the past year. Confined, as its membership naturally is, to a small numer- 
ical portion of the public, yet it is very evident from the increased number 
of new members that the Society's efforts are appreciated, and that the 
science of practical Entomology is being gradually forced upon the notice 
of our most intelligent agriculturists and horticulturists. Fifty-four new 
members have entered our ranks this season, several of them being ento- 
mologists of some reputation. Our total number is now 300, made up as 
belovr : — 

Ontario general, ... 70 
London Branch, ... 51 
Kingston " ... 15 

136 in Ontario. 
Quebec Province, . . 14 
Nova Scotia, .... 3 
British Columbia, ... i 

154 in Canada. 
United States, . . . .138 
Ens-land 8 



Total, . . . 300 Members. 

The Quebec Branch has ceased for the present to exist, but v,-e hope 
shortly to see it reorganized. 

Our maCmbership in the United States is steadily increasing, and from 
this source ne derive much substantial assistance both to our funds and 
cur magazine. The publication of thé Canadian Ektojiologist is still 
continued ; the fourth volume is now nearly completed. The Ento- 
mologist is at present the only regularly-issued periodical on this Conti- 
nent devoted to the science of Entomology. We must not omit to 
return our hearty thanks to those friends who have so kindly sent material 
to the editors, and by whose active assistance the latter have been able to 
keep up the good reputation of our periodical. Especially would we 
make honorable mention of Mr. V. T. Chambers, of Covington, Kentucky, 
whose admirable papers on the Micro^Lepid optera liave attracted much 
attention both here and in England. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 189 

. Some of our members have expressed an opinion that the Entomolo- 
gist is too exclusively scientific, and that its pages liave not been made 
sufficiently interesting to those amongst us who are at present only be- 
ginners in the study of the science. The Council feel that there is 
some justice in this remark, and we would suggest to our successors, that 
perhaps it may be feasible to publish, in the pages of the Entomologist, 
the descriptions of our native Lepidoptera, taken from the original 
sources, as far as practicable, and thus give some assistance to those 
whose v/aht of proper books, or inability to get even a reference to them, 
i^i an insuperable barrier to their Avorking out for themselves the names of 
tiie various species in their collections. 

The great drawback to the Society's efforts is a want of sufficient 
fa lids to procure the requisite Scientific works on Entomology, many of 
whicli are very rare and costly, and also a proper supply of engravings 
;ind electrotypes of the various insects treated of It is very difficult to 
riv^et the latter demand, owing to the want of a good artist who is well 
v-c;rsed in the science, and able to give a correct representation of the 
originals ■ at the present time Vt'e have to send to the United States for 
tlie greater part of our wood-cuts and electrotypes, ' 

The Council appointed a delegation to confer with the Minister of 
jVgriculture on the subject of an increased grant, and there is every reason 
to hope that the result will be successful. In their application they will 
be strongly supported by the Fruit Grov/ers' Association, v.'ho are making 
a similar appeal. 

We have much, pleasure in referring to the very generous donation of 
fifty dollars towards our library fund by the Fruit Growers' Association. 
It becomes indeed more manifest, as each succeeding year rolls on, that 
trie cordial feeling existing between these two sister Societies is a strong 
element in their success, and furnishes fresh proof of the necessity of their 
continuing the work in the same able manner. "We sincerely hope that 
this feeling will always continue. 

The financial statement vvill, we think, be found satisfixctory to the 
members. 

I'he Council have thought it advisable to rent rooms at London for 
three years from July i, 1S72, at $80 per annum; of this the London 
Ivranch pays $30. We vv'ould here suggest and recommend th;it the 
expenses of fitting it iip in a suitable manner l)e borne by the Society. 
The estimated cost is about $100. It must not be forgotten that hitherto 
the Society has had no proper place of keeping the stock of books, 
cabinets, pins, corks, etc. 



190 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The library has been largely augmented during the year, and is now 
the nucleus of a very fair colleetion of entomological books. 

The property of the Society is insured for $850. 

Arrangements have been made for the continuation of our Annual 
Reports, to be published as hitherto under the direction of the Depart; 
rnent of Agriculture. If successful in obtaining the increased grant that 
we are now applying for, it is contemplated to issue with the Reports "a 
c-oloured plate of insects, believing that by this means we shall be able 
to present to the public a much more definite and correct idea of the 
various insects treated of. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

EDMUND BAYNES REED, 

On behalf of the Council, 

Moved by Rev. R. Eurnet, and • duly carried, that the Report of tlie 
Council be received and adopted, and its suggestions carried out. 

The Secretary-Treasurer then read his Financial Statement, which, on 
motion of Mr. Saunders, was received and adopted : — 

RECEIPTS. 

By Balance in Bank of Montreal ,. $233 73 

" Members' Fees, including arrears 250 64 

" Government grant for 1872 , ' 500 00 

" Engraving, from Department for Annual Report, 1 871 ... . 150 00 

" Canadian ENTOiioLociST, sale of. . .• 4° 98 

" Pins, sale of 15 20 

". Cork, " 13 87 

•' Library acct. — Sale of Duplicate Pamphlets 4 75 ( 

" " Donation from Fruit Growers' Ass'n.. ' 50 00.) ^ ' " 

" Expense account, Exchange, &c. -. 22 53 

" Individual accts iS 06 

DISBURSEMENTS. $1299 76 

To Expense acct., including Editor's salary for 1871 $267 01 

" Engraving for Annual Report 152 55 

" Canadian Entomologist, printing Nos. 7—12, 

vol. iii., and Nos. i — 8, vol. iv 428 16 

" Library acct 181 24 

" Individual accts 15 61 

" Balance in Bank of Montreal" 255 19 

$1299 76 $1299 76 

''■This tvill he cxJianslcd in ,:.cctiiuj liriJiUUici due up io Deccmher 31, 1871. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 191 

We certify that the above is a correct statement of accounts for the 
year ending Sept. 19, 1872, as shown by the Treasurer's books, with 
vouchers for all disbursements. 

CHAS. CHAPMAN, | . 

J. H. GRIFFITHS, p^"^^^^"^- 

I'he following ofncers were then elected : — 

President. — Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., Trinity College School, 
Port Hope, Ont. 

Vice-President. — W. Saunders, Esq., London, Ont. 

Sec.-Treas. — E. B. Reed, Esq., London, Ont. 

Council. — Prof J. Macoun, Belleville; R.V. Rogers, Esq., Kingston ; 
J. M. Denton, Esq., London ; J. Pettit, Esq., Grimsby ; A. INIacallum, Esq., 
Hamilton. 

Auditors.' — :J. H. Griffiths and Chas. Chapman, London. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Judge Logic for, his courtesy in 
granting the use of his room for the Annual Meeting. 

We purpose giving the President's Address in our next issue. 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 

nv v. T. chambers, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Contiuued from Page 175. 

Hagno, ante p. ijo. — The account of the neuration of this genus, 
given at page 130, ante, should be amended by inserting in line 13 from 
the top, between the word " vein " and the semicolon, the words " besides 
a long branch from near the base.''' 

There is an apparent discrepancy between the accounts of the neura- 
tion given on pp. 130 and 131, caused by the use of the nomenclature of 
Dr. Clemens on p. 131, while at page 130 it is described as it appears 
to me. 

GELECHIA. 

G.l (iitiiiqueannideUa. N. sp. 

(jcneral hue dark brown, tinged with purple in some lights. Palpi 
with alternate annulations of the general hue, and yellowish-ochreous, 
five of each, the tip being yellowish-ochreous. Vertex and face yellowish- 
ochreous, flecked Avith the general hue. Antennae (which are almost too 



192 THE gANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

short for a true Gelechia) of the general hue, with a narrow and indistinct 
annukis of yellowish-ochreous at the base of each joint, and the terminal 
joint also yellowish-ochreous. Thorax and primaries of the general hue, 
{under the lens minutely sprinkled with whitish). An indistinct pale 
yellowish-ochreous streak on each shoulder, a small patch of the same 
hue about the middle of the wings, and a costal streak of the same at the 
beginning of the cilise, and an opposite dorsal one. Cilice a little paler 
or more purplish than the general hue^ with adiinder marginal line of the 
general hue at the base. Ala)' ex. ^é inch. Kentucky. 

The larva is at first white, afterwards becoming pale green, with the 
head brown. It resides in a web on the imder side of leaves of the black 
Oak ( Qiicrcus tinctoria). Imago in July. 

G.^ hadiojuaculdla. N-. sp. 

(Taken under the gas-light ; the annulations of the palpi, if there are 
any, are obliterated by burning). Head shining, pale yellowish ; antennae 
dark brovvai (under the lens dusted with whitish and pale Ochreous). 
Primaries and thorax dark brown, A short distinct ochreous-yellov>' 
oblique costal streak about the basal quarter, pointing towards a small 
ochreous-yeliow raised tuft just within the middle of the dorsal margin ; 
between this tuft and the costa, but nearest to the costa, is an indistinct 
ochreous-yeliow patch ; on the disc (one at the end of the disc, the other 
before it) are two viimite ochreous yellow tufts. An ochreous-yeliow 
streak at the base of the costal cilice, and another opposite it at the base- 
of the dorsal cilics; nearly meeting in the middle of the Aving. A row of 
minute ochreous-yeliow tufts around the apex at the base. The tufts 
and spots are all pale ochreous yellow. Alar ex. fi inch. Kentucky. 

G. aeqiicpulvella. N. sp. . 

Ochreous and fuscous, mixed in nearly equal quantities, the ochreous 
slightly prevailing : a small fuscous . patch about the middle of the pri- 
maries, and a still smaller one about the end of the disc ; last joint of tlic 
palpi fuscous externally. Alar ex. -h of an inch. Kentucky. 

G. difficiUsclla: 

Evagora difficilisella, ante p. 66. 

This species can only be included in Gelechia by the most indefinite 
extension of the genus. Nevertheless, I am. satisfied that it is more 
properly included in a genus of the vague and indefinite limits of Geleelna 
than in Evagora. The terminal joint of the palpi is little more than halt 
as long as the second, which is clavate, and both joints are clothed with 
loose scales. The disc of the hind wings is wide and undosed. There, 



THE CAKADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 193 

is no discal nervure, but an independent ? discal branch is given off from 
the median? or arises at the median. The median sends off a branch 
before it, and is furcate behind it. The subcostal is furcate, one branch 
going to the costal margin and the other to the tip. In the forewing the 
subcostal sends two branches to the costal margin before the end of the 
cell, one from it, and one behind it, and becomes furcate just before the 
tip, one of the branches going to the tip, and one ■ to the dorsal margin. 
The discal vein is short, and does not emit any branch, and the median 
subdivides into four approximate branches about the end of the ceil. 
The hind wing is not wider than the forewing, and is somewhat emargi- 
nate beneath the apex. 

For "anterior wings hairy'' in the description, read "anterior wings 
hoary." 

G. similiclla. N. sJk 

See description of G. acquc-_puh'cUa, aide, 'ilris species resembles it 
closely, but is smaller, having an alar ex. of only f <j of an inch, and being 
slenderer. In aeqtie-pnlvella, the dusting is almost entirely ochreous, 
v/hilst in this species it is as mucl: v\'hite as ochreous. Kentucky. At 
the light ; in August. 

G. ruhcnscUa. N. sj\ 

'I'his species might be mistaken for G. roseosujfusella, Clem. It is, 
however, a little smaller, the brownish bands are wider, and more distinct, 
and the spaces between them, which in roseosuffnsdla are yellowish-white, 
are, in this species, overlaid with fuscous en a v/hite ground ; and the 
apical portion of the wings in this species is fuscous, whilst in roseosuffu- 
sella the apex is yellowish-white. A more decided difference, however, is 
in the structure of the palpi. In roscosuffusella the terminal joint is 
acurniirate, and is longer than the second. In this species it is scarcely 
so long as tlie second, and much less acuminate. G. roseosnffusella is a 
very variable species, but I am fully satisfied that this is a distinct species, 
and it perhaps resembles G. ruhidcUa, Clem., as closely as it does rosco- 
suffusella. 

The palpi are whitish, with two large brownish spots on the under 
surface of the second joint ; and with two annulations and the tip of the 
third joint of the same hue. Tongue brownish. Head yellowish-white, 
very faintly tinged with roseate. Antennpe bro\i'n, annulate with white. 
Thorax pale ochreous, with brown spots on the anterior margin and 
sides. Wiiigs yellowish-white or pale ochreous, overlaid with fuscous and 
reddish-brown, so as to obscure the ground-colour, and entirely conceal- 



194 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ing it in the apical portion ; dorsal margin pale ochreous, faintly tinged 
with roseate towards the base, deeply so towards the ciliae, and with one 
or two distinct bright roseate spots at the base of the ciliœ. Near the 
base is a narrow oblique brown costal streak or band extending to the 
fold. About the middle, another wider one, the middle portion of which 
is rather reddish-ochreous than brown, and is tinged with roseate ; beyond 
the middle is another, which extends to one of the roseate patches at the 
base of the dorsal cilise. Each of the costal brown streaks is margined 
both before and behind with v/hite, Avhich is distinct on the costa, but is 
only distinct in some lights on the disc. In some lights the entire wing 
appears to be dusted Avith roseate, and with small reddish-brown spots. 
Ciliae pale fuscous? (crisped by the gas-light so that I can not be certain). 
AIa7' ex. Yz of an inch. A single specimen taken at light in Kentucky in 
August. 

G. disco-ocdlclla , N. sp. 

Dark brown, tinged with roseate or purplish ; second joint of the 
palpi dark brown, ochreous-yellow along the inner surface ; third joint 
ochreous yellow except the base, which is dark brown. Head ochreous- 
brown ; antennfe brown. Thorax ochreous, with a narrow rather indistinct 
median brown streak. Primaries brown, tinged with- roseate or purple, 
and faintly streaked with ochreous within the inner margin, ajid with a 
ycuozuisJi-white spot containing a Mack central dot at the end of the disc, a 
small black spot on the fold, and one about the middle of the wing, and 
■\\'ith a few ochreous-yellow small spots around the apex between the 
nervules. Alar ex. 5 3 of an inch. Kentucky, 'i'aken at the lamp in 
September. 

AGNIPPE, gen. /UK'. 

Head and tace sn;iooth, face retreating ; palpi recurved, reaching 
beyond the base of the antennce, the second joint somewhat enlarged 
towards its apex, the third pointed, and more than half as long as the 
second ; maxillary palpi minute ; tongue rather short, scaled ; antenna: 
about half as long as the wings, simple, placed in front of the eyes, which 
are small and scarcely visible from in front or above. 

Anterior AA'ings with a tuft of raised scales within the dorsal margin 
before the middle, lanceolate-ovate, pointed ; the costal attains the margin 
just behind the middle; discal cell long, rather narrow, closed by the 
jj;radual rounding of tl:e subcostal and median into the short discal vein ; 
the subcostal sends three veins from near the end of the cell, two of which 
attain the margin before the apex, whilst the third or apical branch attains 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 195 

the apex after sending two short branches to the margin before it ; the 
discal sends two approximate veins to the dorsal margin behind the apex; 
the median attains the dorsal margin, to which it also emits a single 
branch before the end of the cell ; the submedian is furcate near the base. 
(All the veins are united near the end of the cell). 

Posterior wing trapezoidal, a little wider than the anterior, emarginate 
beneath the apex, and with the costal margin excised from the middle to 
the tip ; the costal vein attains the margin about the middle 3 the discal 
cell is unclosed : the subcostal vein is nearly straight, and attains the 
margin just before the apex ; the median is deeply concave in the mid- 
dle, sweeping up to the dorsal margin behind the apex, sending one 
branch from about its middle, and two other shorter ones from near its 
end. 

Allied by the jjalpi to GcIccJiia, and by the neuration to Ano/ihosia, 
Clem., and CJirysocJiorys, Clem. I do not knowthat Ishould have, sepa- 
rated it from Gclec/tia but for the more pointed and convoluted wings, 
the acute apex ofwhich is presented to the observer as the insect reposes 
standing upon its face with the abdomen projecting. 

A. biscolorclla. N^. sp. 

Tongue and head yellowish-white ; palpi and undersurface brownish, 
mottled with yellowish-ochreous. Vertex slightly dusted with brown ; 
thorax and base of the anterior wings yellowish-ochreous, with a bluish- 
brown patch on the anterior margin of the thorax. Anterior wings, from 
beyond the base, brown with a bluish cast, from the middle to the apex 
thickly intermingled with yeilowish-ochi-eous and some white. (The 
brown is of an indescribable tint, tinged with bluish or purple, according 
to the light). Antennae yellowish-ochreous, annulate with brown. Alar 
ex. Y2, inch. Kentucky in April. 
' A. fuscopulvella. A^. sp. 

Palpi pale yellowish, terminal joint fuscous at the base and near the 
tip. Head white. i\ntennae yellowish-ochreous, annulate with fuscous ; 
thorax and anterior wings whitish, tinged with yellowish-ochreous, densely 
dusted with fuscous : abdomen dark brown, each segment fringed with 
whitish. AJar r.x. iV inch. Kentucky, in April. 



An. interesting paper by Mr. William Couper, of Montreal, with an 
account of his recent collecting tour in Labrador, was received too late 
for publication in the present number, but will appear in our next. 



19G THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BV THE EDITOR. 

Iv'oai Klrbv's J-'d/z/za Borcali-Ajiio'iLtDia-: Imecia. 



(Coiiliiiueil frojii Pat:e 179.) 
[207.] FAMILY CLVTHRrn.i^. 

276. Chlamys plicata Olivier. — Length of i3ody 2 lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Eigsby ; also in INIassachusetts. 

Body ob.çcure, bronzed. ITead impressed posteriorly between the 
eyes ; rhinarium, antennae, and an elevated space adjoining the eyes 
anteriorly, rufous; nose indistinctly punctured : prothorax %ery finely 
and concentrically scored, with some scattered indistinct punctures ; 
posteriorly considerably elevated : elevation bifid ; behind .this elevation 
the prothorax is producted an-d emarginate ; scutellurn obtriangular : 
elytra tuberculated with several acute, compressed tubercles, the anterior 
ones carinated ; interstices v/ith some scattered deep punctures : space 
between the four posterior legs punctured v.'ith large shallow punctures. 

[208.] FA:\1ILY CRYPTOCEPHALID.i:, 

277. Cryptocephalus pubescens Fo.br. — Length of body 2 ^'4' lines. 
Ta'ken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body black, with a very slight brassy tint, a little glossy, grossly and 
thickly punctured; dov/ny more or less with cinerascent down : prothorax 
with a longitudinal levigated line, posteriorly with a double sinus : scu- 
tellurn elevated towards the apex, perfect!}' smooth : elytra with a lateral 
lobe' towards the base, shoulders Avith a tubercle. [Belongs to Suffrian's 
genus Pachybrac/iis.\ 

278. Cryptocephalus kotatu.s Fabr. — Length of body 2?i lines. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body black, naked, gios.sy. Nose with a bilobed- reddish-yellow spot 
at the apex ; front with a yello\y curvilinear spot adjoining the eyes on 
their inner side ; between the eyes behind is a pair of round impressions, 
and a longitudinal intermediate abbreviated channel ; antennae mutilated 
in the specimen, but what rem-ains of them is reddish-yellow : prothorax 
levigated, but sprinkled with very minute and slight punctures, visible 
only under a powerful magnifier; behind with a slight sinus on each side : 
scutellurn levigated and elevated posteriorly : elytra deeply punctured 
with the punctures arranged in rows, the sixth row from the suture is 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 197 

interrupted, and in the interstices on each side of it are some irregular 
•punctures, the intermediate rows do not reach the apex ; a luteous band, 
abbreviated next the suture and growing gradually wider till it reaches 
the lateral margin, and an irregular spot at the apex of the same colour, 
distinguish the elytra. 

Fabricius describes his C. notaiiis in so few words that it admits of 
some doubt whether his insect is synonymous with Dr. Bigsby's here 
characterized. The spots at the apex can scarcely be denominated 
puncta, but as he occasionally designates a large spot by this term, and 
both insects are from North America, for the present it may be allowed 
to stand under the above name. [Haldeman states that " C. notatus 
Fab. is southern. The northern species, described by Kirby under the 
same name, has been called C. scUatus by Suffrian."' Common in Toronto 
and other parts of Ontario.] 

[209.] 279. EuMOLPUS (Adoxus) viTis Fabr. — Length of body 2 3,^ 
lines. Several taken in the journey from New York, in lat. 54° and 65°. 

[2 10. J Body black, a little glossy, hairy with cinerascent hairs, 
minutely punctured. Palpi rufous, last joint black • five first joints of 
the antennae rufous, the rest black : elytra and tibiae rufous. 

Both Geoffroy and Fabricius complain of the ravages committed by 
this little species upon the vine in Europe, and probably it is equally 
destructive to those of America. [A very destructive insect in Europe, 
but of doubtful occurrence in America.] 

FAMILY CHRYSOMELID.-E. 

280. Chrysomela Philadelphia Z;>w. — Length of body 3 J2 — 4 — 
4^^ lines. The type and variety C taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 
Variety B in Nova Scotia by Dr. MacCulloch. 

Body oblong, black-green, naked, gloss}', convex, punctured with 
scattered punctures. Palpi, antennae, rhinarium, and legs rufous ; labrum 
hairy : prothorax with the punctures at the sides more numerous than 
those on the disk : elytra pallid, with a longitudinal stripe at the suture 
with three diverging obsolete branches, and several irregular spots ; one 
at the shoulders larger than the rest and as it were broken, or obtus- 
angular, all of a dark green : the elytra are grossly punctured with scat- 
tered punctures, but next the suture the punctures are disposed in two 
rows, the suturai one [211] extending from the base to near the apex, 
where it becomes confluent with the second, both diverging towards the 
base and surrounding the upper branch of the suturai stripe ; there is a 



198 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

fourth series of punctures at a little distance from the lateral margin, and 
the interstice between them is impunctured ; epipleura dark-green. 

N.B. The two lower branches of the above stripe are surrounded by 
a common scries of punctures. 

A'arif/iv B. Smaller, green-bronzed, green spots of the elytra more 
numerous, epipleura pallid. 
C. Suturai stripe Avith only one branch, the two lower ones 
forming separate spots ; epipleura palHd. 

This var) ing species may be known from the succeding ones by the 
green colour of its body ; all the varieties are distinguished by the obtus- 
angular spot at the shoulders of the elytra : the varying number of green 
spots on these organs is produced by the separation of some of the 
irregular ones into distinct ones, and the lower branches of the suturai 
stripe doing the same. Variety C comes nearest to that figured by De- 
(Jeer and Olivier. [Quite common in Canada]. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

An Error Corrected. — On page 25S of his Guide to the Study of 
Insects, Dr. A. S. Packard describes and figures what purports to be the 
larva of Mclitaca Harrisii. His description, " made from an alcoholic 
specimen in the collection of Mr. Sanborn,'" is as follows : — 

" It (the larva) is cylindrical with six acute, small tubercles in each 
side of each thoracic ring, while on the abdominal rings the four dorsal 
tubercles are large and remarkably boot-shaped, the toe being formed by 
a lateral prolongation of the tubercle, and the heel is also well formed, 
from which arises a short bristle. The specimen is dark, with a lighter 
stripe along the back on each side of the median line of the body. Its 
length is .So of an inch." 

About the middle of last jMay, a larva, agreeing with the above de- 
scription, was handed me. It was found in or upon decaying wood, and, 
in confinement, fed upon that and also upon wild Aster. I supplied it 
with the latter, because Dr. Packard states that " it feeds on Diplopappis 
wnbdlatiis.'' ^Y\Û\ me it fed freely upon Aster diimosiis. June 14, the 
supposed Melitaca spun a slight cocoon, and, on the 29th of the same 
month, emerged. The imago proved to be an Aglossa, and is, I think, 
Aglossa deb His. It is difficult to conceive how the same characteristics, 
-characteristics too, so striking and unusual, can distinguish the larvae of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. l99 

genera so widely separated ; and it would appear that Dr. Packard, usuall}- 
so correct in his statements, has, in this instance, allowed himself to fall 
into error. 

I am indebted to IMr. T. L. jMead, of New York, for determining the 
identity of this larva witli that described in Packard's (kiide. — ^(j. INI. 
Dodge, Ohio, 111. 

Tent Caterpillars. — Apro|)os of the scarcity of the Tent Cater- 
pillars this season : About ten days ago, an acquaintance informed me 
that the fences and sidewalks near the residence of Horace Yeomans,Esq., 
on Bridge Street, West Belleville, were covered by an immense swarm of 
Caterpillars. As I could not well go thither at that time, I sent one of 
my boys, who soon brought me about twenty specimens of the Forest 
Tent Caterpillar ( Clisiocainpa Sylvatica.) 

At my earliest con^-enience, some three days after, I visited the spot, 
and found some of them still clinging to the fence. At the same time, 
I saw a remarkable example of their destructive powers. Near the 
N. E. corner of Mr. Yeoman's grounds stands a remarkably Avell-grown, 
full-branched Oak tree, about two feet diameter at four feet from the 
ground, and rising to a height of some sixty feet ; while its branches, 
extending full fifteen feet from the main stem, overspread a space of over 
seventy square yards. In the spring and early summer, it as usual pre- 
sented to the eye a dense mass of luxuriant foliage — to-day it does not 
boast a single, leaf; they are all eaten off to the midribs, which stili adhere 
to the footstalks, and give the tree a most extraordinary appearance. It 
is evident that the migration of these caterpillars was occasioned by the 
exhaustion of their commissariat, which obliged them to seek "fresh 
fields and pastures new." There must have been several broods to 
effect such an enormous defoliation, and indeed I found specimens of all 
sizes, from two inches down , to half an inch in length. Another Oak 
outside of Mr. Yeoman's fence, near the S. E. corner of his lawn, is 
apparently undergoing the same process of denudation. I shall watch 
with interest the effect of these insect depredations on the health of the 
trees next season, and report the same for the Entomologist. — Prof. 
Bell, Belleville, Ont., Aug. 19. 

Danais Archippus. — I have often seen these tawny butterflies dis- 
porting themselves over the waters of the Kingston Bay some hundreds 
of yards from shore ; still I was quite surprised to see, early in August, 
two specimens flying boldly some seven and eight miles out from the 



200 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Scarborough coast, as if they had fully determined to cross Lake Ontario 
and visit their American relatives. One poor fellow, however, had come 
to grief, and floated with outstretched wings upon the rippling wavelets. 
The time was about eight in the morning, and there vras no wind to blow 
them out to sea. — R. V. Rogers, Kingston, Ont. 

DoRYPHORA lo-LiNEATA, the champion potato-eater, has made his 
way east as far as this city. I sav/ several crawling about in September. 
— R. V. Rogers, Kingston, Ont. 

DiAPHERO.MERA FEMORATA, SûJ', OR SPECTRUM FEMORATUM, Harris. 

Are the ''walking sticks" unusually plentiful this year ? I covmted, and 
could easily have captured, twenty-eight of them within a couple of 
hours in a wood near the village of Vittoria, Co. of Norfolk. . They were 
all upon the trunks of oaks ; not one was to be seen on any other kind of 
tree, although beech and maple were growing in close proximity to the 
oak. On one tree I saw seven, and was delighted thereat, as in the . 
eastern section of Ontario,, though to be found, they are yet far from 
common. It was at the end of August, and the process of copulation 
was still going on, yet I caught two little creatures of a light green colour, 
and the third of an inch long, which I took to be young "sticks." Pack- 
ard says that in this genus " the antennce are rather short ;" my exper- 
ience is that in this species they are over two inches long. Both Harris 
and Packard accuse the Spectre of being very sluggish and inactive ; I 
found that on the slightest touch — even when in the act of coupling — the 
insect made off, marching up the trees on their tall stilt-like legs in a 
manner perfectiy surprising, till quickly they were far beyond the reach 
of pursuit. — R. V". Rogers, Kingston, Ont. 



PERSONAL. 
Ur. a. S. Packard, Jr., has just returned from a four months' visit 
to the entomological collections of Europe, where he compared many of 
our foreign-named species of Lepidoptera to the types. 

• Dr. John L. Leconte is expected home from his long stay in Europe 
this month of October, and will then commence the classification of the 
North American Ciirc7i/io?udœ. an event that all entomologists will re- 
joice in. 

Dr. Geo. H. Horn is preparing a synopsis of the genus Lcl'ia of the 
family Carabidœ. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., NOVEMBER, 1872. No. 11 

REMARKS ON LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED AT FOX BAY, 

ANTICOSTI, AND THE NORTH SHORE OF THE ST. 

LAWRENCE, BETWEEN JUNE i8th AND AUGUST ist. 

BY WILLIAM COUPER, MONTREAL. 

When I decided on an Entomological tour during the past summer to 
the Island of Anticosti and the coast of Labrador, I fully expected to 
bring home sufficient material, not only to satisfy the few subcribers to 
the enterprise, but (after supplying them) enough to remunerate myself 
for the risk of the voyage and loss of time. Your readers are already 
acquainted with my misfortune ; still, I hope that the lost species will be 
replaced, as it is my intention to go over the ground again (if God spares 
me) next summer. Entomologically speaking, the region is totally new. 
A great deal of knowledge can yet be obtained from another research in 
these regions, as the following brief remarks sufficiently show. For years 
past I wished for an opportunity to explore the Island of Anticosti, in order 
to collect its insect fauna and obtain a knowledge of the species occur- 
ring thereon. Before I visited it, I had an idea that it would be found 
deficient in many of the Coleopterous forms which exist on the shores of 
the St. Lawrence, to the north and south of it. So far, therefore, my 
surmises are correct, as I found it meagre, indeed, in Geodephaga. No 
Cicindelidae occurred in my rambles, and but two or three species of 
Carabidae were met with during the time I remained there. The species 
obtained belonging to the latter were evidently brought there by com- 
merce. The island is evidently rich in Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, 
and probably Longicornia and Curculionidae. No doubt its fresh water 
ponds, when carefully examined, will be found to contain nondescript 
species of aquatic Coleoptera. The few species belonging to the latter 
order and Hymenoptera, collected on the Island, also those occasionally 
picked up on the Labrador coast, will, in due time, be described in the 
Can. Ent. 

There is nearly one hundred miles between the West point of 
Anticosti to Fox Bay, near the East, and where I collected. Heretofore, 



202 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



it was almost inacessible to the Naturalist, who could only visit it to 
undergo much privation and hardship. Its forest is dense, and in 
many places almost impenetrable, but a great portion of the flora 
resembles that found in the mountain region north of the city of Quebec, 
and I have no doubt that the bulk of the Lepidoptera to be met with on 
the West Point will be found similar to those occurring in high northern 
latitudes. Mr. Strecker says that " the moths, with a few exceptions, are 
the same as some I took in the mountains of Luzerne Co., Penn. In 
fact, when I opened your box, I was struck with the similarity of its 
contents to a box I brought home from that trip — thirteen species of 
moths like thirteen species out of the twenty-two you sent me. Is not 
this curious ? But, after all, if we consider that Luzerne County is the 
most mountainous part of this State, almost impenetrable and wild, and 
fire feels comfortable there in June, it is not such great matter for 
wonder." 

Papilio polyxenes Fair., var. brevicauda, Saunders. — I took four 
specimens of this species on the Island. It appears to be rare at Fox 
Bay. The specimen sent to Mr. H. K. Morrison, Boston, corresponds 
with the description of brevicauda. Regarding the ^ and Ç which I 
sent as P. asterias to Mr. Herman vStrecker, of Reading, Pa., he writes 
that the Ç of asterias has not got the yellow macular band on the wings 
as the ^ has, or, at least, it is only represented by a few small spots, 
whereas the Ç from Anticosti has the yellow band of unusual size, even 
broader than on the ^ which accompanied the latter, and that the Anticost' 
^ has the band twice as broad as any specimen seen by him from the 
United States, Canada, or Central America. He adds, that it comes as 
near to the South American P. Sadulus as it does to asterias. I am, 
therefore, inclined to believe that there are two Northern black and yellow 
varieties of Papilio, viz. : — one of asterias, occurring along the north 
shore and coast of Labrador to Newfoundland, while P. polyxenes Fabr., 
var. brevicauda, is so far confined to the Island of Anticosti. 

PiERis FRiGiDA Scudder. — This species was quite common in Labrador 
during my visit in 1867, and I met with it on the 20th of last June, at 
Fox Bay, Anticosti, where it was not abundant. In October of the above 
year, a Ç frigida was forwarded to Mr. Scudder, who thought it was 
the above species, but as I did not send the $ , he was not positive. It 
wQuld be well, therefore, to compare it with congeneric species. 

CoLiAS INTERIOR, Scuddcr. — This butterfly occurs on the north coast 
of Labrador, from Sawbill River to Natashquan. It is not frequently seen 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 203 

near the sea ; but generally met with in the woodland and mountain 
regions in the interior. The specimens collected were destroyed, and the 
only one brought home was sent to Mr. Strecker, who writes as follows : — 
"I have strong doubt about the genuineness of this species. I compared 
the female you sent me with five females of Pelidne (from above Rupert's 
House, B. A., and Labrador), and the only difference I can detect is the 
color of the upper surface of the wings. The one you sent me is yellow, 
while my examples of Pelidne are white, which is no distinction at all in 
the Co/iades, as most of them are blessed with two kinds of females, one 
the color of the *male, and the other albino." 

Argynnis chariclea Esp. — One of the earliest and most common 
butterflies in Labrador. In ray opinion, distinct from BoisduvaUi, which 
appears at least a month later in the north. I took fresh specimens of the 
latter at Mingan, six years ago, on the 22nd of July, when chariclea had 
terminated its season. Mr. Morrison pronounces the above as a variety 
of Boisdiivalii, stating that he possesses specimens from the Alps. 

Argynnis Atlantis Edws. — When on my way home, about the^ end 
of July, I took a sfSecimen of the above at Sawbill River. It agrees in 
every particular with specimens taken by my friend, Mr. Strecker, in 
Luzerne County, Pa. He states that the Pennsylvania specimens are 
darker and more reddish than those in his collection from Lake 
Superior. 

Phycorides tharos Cram. — I took a few specimens of this butterfly 
at Sawbill River, Labrador, which I regarded as a Melitaea, but, being in 
doubt regarding the species, I sent an equal share to those who were 
entitled to them. Mr. Morrison named it as above, stating that it occurs 
from Labrador to Texas, and the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. The 

* I h ive notic-d this curious connection witli Pieris Bapœ, which ha^ e extremely 
yellow males, occurring here in the fall. On my return from the North, I captur d near 
this city, last September, a yellow m 1 le in coitu with a white female. I sent the former 
to Mr. Morrison, of Boston, who states that is is " the ^a^. N'ovamjlia Scudd., and that 
it is not uncommon in the spring around Boston." I am of opinion that white and sul- 
phur >ell w varieties of rapae maybe founH constantly wherever t'ley occur. The food 
plants of rapae are cabbage, mignonette, nasturtium, and various cruciferae, therefore 
it may be that the Amt-rican specimens exhibited by Mr. Scudder in Europe, were what 
the late Mr. Walsh termed phytophagic. Tuereisno doubt, in my mind, that the food of 
caterpill rs produces the varieties whii;h Uad to so mnc con'usi n in the determination 
of butterflies. My friend, Mr. F. B. Caulfield, of this city, informs me that he has 
reared caterpillars of rapae, found on migaonette, which produced imagoes of a deep 
sulphur yellow. 



204 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimens sent to Mr. Strecker were identified by him as Melitea Batesii, 
Reakh't, described in Pro. Ent. Soc. of Phil., 1865. 

Vanessa (grapta) progne Cram. — A single specimen taken at Fox 
Bay, Anticosti, on the 20th June. Similar to the same species taken at 
Quebec. 

Vanessa antiopa Linn. — One specimen captured at Fox Bay, Anti- 
costi, on the 19th July. 

Pyrameis cardui Li?tn. — This species occurs early on Anticosti. 
On my arrival at Fox Bay, they were worn and unfit for collection. 

Pyrameis atalanta. — Fox Bay, rare in June. 

Chionobas — ? — At Thunder River, Labrador, in July, I took one 
specimen of a species belonging to the above genus, which I sent to my 
esteemed friend, Mr. Strecker, who writes as follows : — " I have compared 
it with Ch. Semidca, Crambls, jiitta, Balder, also, Uhkrii, Taygete 
{Bootes), the only ones in my collection that could possibly have 
any affinity with it, but am afraid to pronounce it the same as any one of 
them. It is nearer to Jtitta than to any other, but I won't say it is it. 
After it is expanded, I will give it another examination." Probably this 
is another instance in which we see the external change produced on the 
imago through the food plant of the caterpillar, and I have no doubt but it 
will turn out to be a variety oi jutta. 

Lyc^na — ? ( N. S.) — I collected a few specimens of this species at 
Musquaro, Labrador, in July, 1867, a specimen of which was sent to Mr. 
Scudder, of Boston, in September following. Mr. S. wrote to me that it 
was, to the best of his knowledge, Z. Lygdamus Doubl., but he wished me 
to inform him whether the Labradorian specimens " were all marked with a 
single spot on the secondaries, where his Hudson Bay specimens have 
two." Not having a sufficient number to examine, the identification could 
not be determined at that time, but on my arrival at Fox Bay, Anticosti, 
it was the first butterfly that attracted my attention, and I was fortunate in 
obtaining twelve dozen of them. On lately referring to Mr. Scudder's 
letter of Oct. ist, 1867, the remarkable difference pointed out by him was 
discernible in all my specimens, but, not knowing the species, I sent them 
to my subscribers as Z. Lygdamus. Mr. Morrison writes as follows : — 
" Lyccena ?■ (JSf.S.) — You named this species Z. Lygdamus Doubl. I 
have compared your specimens very carefully with my specimens of the 
true Lygdamus from Northern New York, and am satisfied that it is a dis- 
tinct species. The color of the whole underside is different ; also, the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 205 

arrangement of the spots on the underside of secondaries slightly, but 
constandy. The black ocelli to the spots, very conspicuous in the true 
Lygdamiis, are almost wanting in your species." Mr. Strecker has also 
suspicion regarding it. However, I have no doubt but that this Lycœna 
will turn out to be one of a few new species yet to be discovered on the 
dividing line between the Canadian and Arctic Lepidopterous faunas. 

Lyc^na — ? (N. S.) — I sent one specimen of a species of this genus 
to Mr. Morrison, who informs me that it is " closely allied to epixaiithe^ 
but I think different. Congeneric with the castro of California and the 
xanthe of Europe. It is nearer castro than epixanther This butterfly was 
taken at Sawbill' River, Labrador, on 20th of July, and, after all my mistor- 
tune, I was pleased that day. I trust that my talented friend, Mr. M., 
will shortly describe it in the Can. Ent. 

Lyc/ena LUCIA Kirby. — Common in the woods at Fox Bay during the 
month of June. It also occurs abundantly on the south-western coast of 
Labrador. Mr. Morrison appears to notice no difference between the 
Anticosti specimens and those taken in Western Canada, and the middle 
and the Eastern United States, but Mr. Strecker says that they are 
darker underneath than the United States specimens generally are. 

Lycï:na Scudderi. — This is one of the most permanently marked 
species in North America. The Entomologist may occasionally obtain an 
obscure specimen, but upon thorough examination, it will be found 
prototypic of its congeners of the valley. The specimens forwarded to 
my correspondents differ in no particular from United States and 
Canadian examples. 

Hesperia paniscus Fabr. — A single specimen captured at Fox Bay, 
Anticosti, on the 26th June. It was sent to Mr. Morrison, who informs 
me that it does not differ in the slightest from the European specimens of 
paniscus. It is close to Mandan Edw. I feel convinced that the latitude 
of Quebec is the most northern limit of the Hesperidans. Alypia Langtonii 
,Couper. I was astonished when I met this beautiful moth in Fox Bay, 
Anticosti. Mr. Strecker states that " he found it in the mountains of 
Luzerne, Pa." It is curious that since I described this insect, some years 
ago, it appears now in Western Canada and in high latitudes many miles 
south of Quebec. A. octomaculata was also taken at Fox Bay. 

Sesia ruficaudis Kirby. — Fox; Bay, Anticosti; uncommon. This 
species is very common at Quebec. 

Deilephila Gallii Bott. {Gallii Schifif.) — Fox Bay, Anticosti, and 
Sheldrake River, Labrador ; uncommon, but abundant at Quebec. Mr. 



206 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Strecker writes as follows : — ■" In spite of all American Lepidopterists in 
a bunch, this is the D. Chce7?ianerii Harris, but it is identical with the 
Gallii of Europe. I have compared specimens from New York, Pensyl- 
vania, Massachusetts, Canada, Ohio, France, Regensburg, the Hartz and 
various other parts of Europe, and neither I now, nor any other living 
human being can detect any difference." 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 195. 

ADRASTEIA. 

A. qtiercifoliella. 

Depressaria bkostofuacidella, ante p. I2y. 

The former description of this species was made from a single old 
specimen, on which no tufts were visible (having, no doubt, been removed 
in setting the specimen, which was, however, otherwise undenuded.) Since 
the publication of that description, I have bred the species, and the tufts 
in the fresh specimen are distinct, and the insect unquestionably belongs 
to this genus. The following description of the fresh specimen is more 
accurate than the preceding one. I have changed the specific name, 
giving it that of the food-plant. 

Head and its appendages, thorax, and primaries, with a somewhat 
indistinct dark purplish lustre, especially on the darker portions. Second 
joint of the palpi blackish, Avith white and a few ochreous, scales inter- 
mixed ; the third joint blackish, with but few white or ochreous scales, 
with the extreme tip pale ochreous. Head whitish ; face with few blackish 
scales intermixed ; vertex densely dusted with blackish. Antennae dark 
fuscous, with a faint narrow pale ochreous annulus at the base of each 
joint. Thorax and primaries — to the naked eye, dark iron gray with 
blackish irregular spots, some of them large- — under the lens, blackish 
freely dusted with pale blue, white, and some pale ochreous scales, with 
large velvetty blackish spots not dusted. Cilise yellowish white, the basal 
half of the dorsal cilise freely dusted with blackish. The thoracic tuft is 
pale yellowish, those on the wings are small and whitish ; the largest is 
nearest the base and within the dorsal margin ; the other two are just 
behind the middle, one before the other, and both nearer to the costal 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 207 

than to the dorsal margin ; there is a small whitish streak at the beginning 
of the dorsal cilise, and an opposite costal one, and another faintly 
indicated costal one near the base. Alar ex. i^V inch. 

The larva feeds on the under side of leaves of the black oak, in a 
web. It is pale yellowish, with the head and first three segments dark 
brown, the first segment shining brown. 

A. qiierciella. N. sp. 

Depressaria qiiei'ciella, a?ite p. 12"/. 

As before mentioned, this species has the thoracic tuft ; and though I 
cannot detect any raised tufts upon the wings, yet, as in other parts of its 
structure, it is identical with the above described species, as well as in the 
ornamentation, it belongs more properly in this genus than in Depres- 
saria. The statement at p. 127, that " it is a Depressaria in all respects, 
except the tuft," is too broad. It would be more correct to say that it 
closely approaches Depressaria in all respects, &c. The brush on the 
palpi is scarcely long enough for Depressaria, the primaries are too narrow 
and the style of ornamentation is difierent. In the fresh specimens also, 
the abdomen is somewhat convex, as in the other insects which I have 
placed in this genus. In all of these insects the brush is spreading, and 
sometimes appears to be distinctly divided. 

This species and A. qiiercifoliella were bred from Oak leaves, and tht- 
two other species were taken in Oak woods, and probably feed either 
upon Oak or Hickory leaves. 

YEN ILIA, ge?i. nov. 

The insect which I make the type of this genus is related to Anarsia, 
Cleodora, and Ypsolophus, perhaps more nearly to the first named than to 
either of the others. The tuft at the end of the second joint of the 
palpi resembles that of Anarsia, and the neuration is nearer to that of 
A7iarsia than to that of Ypsolophus. I am not acquainted with the 
neuration of Cleodora. It resembles the latter genus in the slender 
antennae ; but the wings are wider and the terminal joint of the palpi too 
long and slender. 

Terminal joint of the labial palpi as long as the second, slender, almost 
acicular. Tuft at the end of the second joint scarcely concealing the 
base of the third joint, and pointing downward rather than forward. 
Antennae very slender, indistinctly pectinated, and microscopically pubes- 
cent, scarcely reaching the apical third of the wings. 

Wings rather \yide. Primaries ovate, lanceolate, faintly falcate beneath 
the tip. The costal attains the margin ; the subcostal sends from before 



208 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the middle a long branch to the costal margin, and two other approximate 
branches from the end of the cell, from the first of which it bends down to 
its union with the discal vein, whence it proceeds towards the apex, before 
which it divides, sending one branch to the costal and one to the dorsal 
margin near the apex. Discal cell wide at the end, closed, the discal vein 
emitting two branches to the dorsal margin ; the median emits two 
branches before the end of the cell, from which it curves to the dorsal 
margin. Submedian furcate at the base. Hind wings with the costal 
margin, nearly straight, a little arched towards the base ; costal vein 
straight, long, attaining the margin before the apex ; subcostal very faint 
from the base to the discal vein, distinct from thence to the apex, straight ; 
cell closed by a distinct discal vein which sends two branches to the 
dorsal margin ; median oblique, nearly straight, furcate at the end of the 
cell, and with a branch to the dorsal margin before the end of the cell. 
Hind margin regularly curved, not emarginate ; narrower than the fore 
wings. 

K albapalpella. N. sp. 

Apical joint of the palpi snowy white, with a narrow brown ring at 
the base ; second joint white at its apex and on the inner surface ; 
grayish-brown on the outer surface. Antennae grayish- brown, annulate 
with white. Head, thorax and primaries grayish-brown, with a row of 
yellowish-ochreous spots around the apex of the wings at the base of the 
ciliae. Alar ex. ts of an in,ch. Captured in June in Kentucky. 

ANARSIA. 

A..? pru7iiclla, Clem. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd., .P//tVa, i860, p. i6ç. , 
In Mr. Stainton's valuable collection of Dr. Clemens' papers (for 
which Mr. S. is entitled to the lasting gratitude of every student of the 
American Tineina), page 36, Dr. Clemens uses this language : " Yesterday 
I found the ^ of Anaisia 1 primieîla. It is the same as the European, 
and the genus is no longer doubtful." The italics are mine. Same as 
the European what ? I suppose Dr. C. means the European A. lineatella 
Zeller. My specimens were taken on Plum trees, and I recognize them 
easily in Dr. Clemens' description of his specimens, which were bred from 
the Plum. But I have received from Mr. Townend Glover a specimen 
which he bred from Peach leaves, and which is identical with mine. 
And Mr. C. V. Riley informs me that specimens which he bred from 
Peach leaves, and sent to Prof Zeller, were recognized by Zeller as his 
species. There can be no reasonable doubt that the species is the same 
as Zeller's, and that his name has priority. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 209 



BEGOE, ge?i. nov. 

The insect described below as the type of this genus I have been 
unable to place in any genus known to me. I do not deem it necessary 
to give any further diagnosis of the genus than to say that it is an 
Ypsolophus, except as to the antenna and palpi. The former are 
minutely pectinated, and are otherwise like those of Ypsolophus. The 
terminal joint of the palpi is, perhaps, a little more robust than in 
Ypsoiop/n/s ; the second joint is clavate, rounded at the apex^ laterally 
compressed, vertically thickest just before the end, forming a thick, rather 
compact, undivided brush. As to the length of the palpi and the relative 
lengths of the joints, it agrees with Ypsolophus. 

B. costolutella. N. sp. 

longue and face brownish-ochreous ; palpi ochreous yellow ; head 
brown on' top, ochreous yellow above the eyes ; thorax dark shining 
brown, except the anterior margin and patagias, which are ochreous 
yellow. A line drawn from the base of the anterior wings, near the 
dorsal margin, to the beginning of the costal cilias, will divide the wing 
into a narrower anterior (or .costal) ochreous yellow portion, and a wider 
posterior (or dorsal) portion, which is shining dark brown. The anterior 
or ochreous yellow portion, however, becomes furcate about the apical 
third of the wing, sending a curved branch mto the dark brown portion ; 
this branch is at first wide, but curved, gradually narrowing towards the 
dorsal cilias, which it does not quite reach. There is a faint, narrow, 
ochreous yellow hinder marginal line at the base of the cilise, which are 
paler than the dark portion of the wing, their basal half being darker than 
the apical half. Posterior wings and their ciliae grayish slate color. Alar 
ex. \\ in. Kentucky. 

If one could believe that the projecting brushes had been removed so 
evenly and smoothly as in this insect, without otherwise injuring them, 
and leaving no trace that they had ever been other than they now are, 
then this insect would be an Ypsolophus, resembling Y. cupatoriella (vid. 
postprox). 



NOTES ON SOME GENERA OF CANADIAN INSECTS. 

BY FRANCIS WALKER, F. L. S., LONDON, ENGLAND. 

The geographical distribution of Smicra differs much from that of 
Leiicospis. Unlike the latter genus, which is spread thinly and somewhat 



210 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

equally over the warm and temperate regions of the earth, Smicra, with 
very few exceptions, is limited to the New World, where there are some 
species in North America, many in Mexico and in the West Indies, and 
great abundance in the tropical parts of South America, and the genus has 
thus much more influence than Lencospis in regulating, by means of 
transfer, the increase of other insect tribes. Its body is ornamented with 
very various patterns of black on a yellow or red ground hue, except a few 
species, which are mostly or entirely black. The family Chalcididœ, to 
which it belongs, is even more free than the Leucospidac from metallic 
lustre, the only exception being the isolated genus, Notaspis, a native of 
St. Vincent's Isle, in the West Indies. The very few species in Asia and 
Africa hardly possess the typical form, but the three or four European 
species are as characteristic of the genus as those of America. The 
American species from Georgia, which I have mentioned as a variety of 
the European S. nlgrifex, may be considered as a distinct species. It was 
not known to Cresson, who has described many new species of the genus, 
but will probably be soon distinguished and named in America. It is a 
little smaller than S. nigrifex ; the forewings are a little narrower; the 
petiole is a little longer ; the hind coxee are a little shorter : the hind 
femora are not black at the tips, and have beneath smaller and more 
numerous teeth ; the tibiae are piceous, red at the base, not wholly black, 
as are those of 6*. nigrifex. The only Canadian species is ^. Canadensis. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS 

OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO, 1872. 

To the Members of the Entomological Society of Ontario: 

Gentlemen, — It is my happy privilege once again to congratulate you 
upon the completion of another year of progress in the annals of our 
Society. As you have already learnt from the very satisfactory Report of 
our excellent Secretary-Treasurer, the list of members of the Society has 
been largely added to during the past twelve months ; the Library has 
, been increased by the purchase of a number of valuable Entomological 
works ; a cabinet and microscope have been bequeathed to us by our late 
lamented member, the Rev. Professor Hubbert, and our collections have 
been much improved ; a comfortable and commodious suite of rooms has 
been procured in a central locality in London. Ont, — the present head- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 211 

quarters of the Society ; the Canadian Entomologist has been regularly 
issued with, we trust, no diminution in the value and interesting character 
of its contents ; our Second Annual Report on Noxious and Beneficial 
Insects, prepared by Messrs. Saunders and Reed, and myself, and 
containing notices of the insects affecting the Apple, Grape, Plum, 
Currant and Gooseberry, Wheat crops, Potato, Cabbage, Cucumber, 
Melon, Pumpkin and Squash, has been duly pubUshed by the Legislature 
of Ontario, and no doubt has long since been in the hands of you all- 
Such, gentlemen, is our record for the year that is now brought to a close, 
and, having in addition, a satisfactory balance-sheet from the Treasurer, 
we feel that mutual congratulations are not out of place, and that we who 
have been honoured with ofïïcial positions in the Society, can look back 
upon our efforts in its behalf with at least the agreeable feeling that they 
have not been altogether in vain. 

If we turn, moreover, from our own especial inteFests to the condition 
and prospects of American Entomology in general, we find much to afford 
us satisfaction and encouragement. No large work, indeed, on any 
particular order of insects has appeared during the past year, but many 
valuable reports of State Entomologists and portions of serial pubUcations 
have been issued from the press, — among the latter, I may be pardoned, I 
am sure, for especially drawing attention to the exquisite illustrations of 
North American Butterflies contained in Mr. W. H. Edwards' invaluable 
work, which has now reached its Tenth Part. It speaks well, too, for the 
growing popularity of this branch of Natural Science, that Dr. Packard's 
useful " Guide to the Study of Insects " has already reached a third 
edition. A pleasing recognition of American Entomological work has 
recently, I may add, been manifested in England by the publication there? 
in a collected form, of the writings of the late Dr. Brackenridge Clemens, 
on the Tineina of North America, under the editorial supervision of Mr. 
H. T. Stainton, the well-known authority in that department of Lepidop- 
terology. 

Apart, however, from the position attained by the growth of our 
Entomological literature, the Science has this year received a recognition 
that cannot fail to be of great and permanent benefit to it. I allude to- 
the formation of a special sub-section of Entomology at the recent 
meeting of the American Association for the advancement of Science. It 
will now be practicable for American Entomologists— to whatever part of 
the Continent they may belong, whether to a Province of the Dominion 



212 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

or a State of the Union, from the Atlantic to the Pacific — to meet together 
for mutual conference on matters Entomological. Questions affecting the 
Science in general can hardly fail to arise from time to time, and demand 
the consideration, and, possibly, the decision of some such united 
council. Certainly, the proceedings of such a gathering will be of great 
interest and value to all who take part in them, if not, indeed, to the whole 
circle of Canadian and American Entomologists. 

At the informal meeting at Dubuque, in August last, one subject was 
specially brought forward for discussion,which I cannot forbear alluding'to 
more particularly here, especially as it may justly be considered the great 
question of the day in the Entomological world. I refer to the subject of 
the Specific and Generic Nomenclature of Insects. For some few years 
past indications have not been wanting of a growing inclination amongst 
the mass of Entomologists to resist the efforts made by some few able and 
distinguished writers to impose, year after year, new sets of names upon 
our common insects. This has been done partly by the revival of the 
long-forgotten names published at the close of the last century, or the 
beginning of the present one ; and partly by the perpetual formation of 
new genera, and the re-distribution of sjDecies. The ability of the writers 
and the good work they have done in other respects, have caused these 
annoying changes to be acquiesced in for the most part, even though the 
object in view appeared to be rather the exhibition of their powers of 
research among antiquated tomes, or the supposed immortalization of 
themselves by the attachment of their own names, to those of our familiar 
insects. I do not say that these men were actuated entirely by such 
motives, but assuredly one can hardly be accused of ill-natured criticism 
in ascribing much of the work to such causes. All must admit, I think, 
that nomenclature is but a means to an end, and that end is surely best 
attained by the preservation of all names that have been in universal 
acceptation for a period of years, and that cannot be set aside without 
disturbing the cabinets of every Entomologist in the land. 

Matters in this respect have been brought to a climax by the recent 
publication of Mr. Scudder's " Systematic Revision of some of the North 
American Butterflies." I esteem Mr. Scudder so highly as a friend,' and 
value so greatly the good scientific work that he has done, that it pains me 
exceedingly to say a single word against anything that he may put forth. 
His projected " revision," however, is so sweeping and so revolutionary 
that I cannot forbear to make some remarks upon it. I know that his 
scientific labours are perfectly unselfish, and that he is entirely destitute of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 213 

any of the conceit that I have just now referred to ; I feel sure, too, that 
he is actuated only by the desire to benefit the science ; yet I do deeply 
deplore the mode that he has adopted, and am convinced that if his views 
are pressed, a very great obstacle will be thrown in the way of the 
advancement and popularization of this department of Natural History. 
We all, I am sure, look forward with eager anticipation to the publication 
of his great work upon North American Butterflies, and have no doubt 
that it will be the most complete, the most scientific, and the most 
conscientious work of the kind in America, but assuredly its value will be 
very greatly marred and its general acceptance impaired, if he continues to 
insist upon all these radical changes. 

To show you what these changes are, I will briefly state that in the 
pamphlet already published, and which is intended as a forerunner of. the 
authors great work on the Butterflies, the following alterations are made 
in the received nomenclature: — The 228 species enumerated are distributed 
among 96 genera — almost a genus for every two species ; of these 96 
genera, 42 are entirely new, and 39 others are obsolete names of 
Hubner and others that have never been generally adopted ; there are thus 
r 5 familiar generic names left, but of these several are transferred from 
their present position to entirely different groups of species ; for instance, 
the name of Papilio is removed from the genus of ' Swallow-tailed Butter- 
flies,' and handed over to the sole use of the insect at present known as 
Vanessa antiopa ! Further, among the 96 genera there are no less than 
45 that include but a single species apiece; and among the 228 species 
there are only 1 6 left with their present names unchanged ! These figures 
are surely quite enough to show that I have not misapplied the terms 
' sweeping,' ' revolutionary,' and ' radical,' as characterizing this work of 
revision. I would, then, most earnestly entreat Mr. Scudder, for the sake 
of the science itself, to re-consider his projected changes, — to discard all 
antiquated names in favor of those that have been for years in general 
■acceptation, andto reduce his list of new genera to as small a, number as 
he conscientiously can. , If he does not, if he persists in his revision, 1 
fear that his great work — most valuable as it will undoubtedly be in all 
other respects — will introduce more confusion, trouble and discord into 
American Entomology than a generation can get rid of If these 
difficulties can be avoided in no other mode, it will remain for us all to 
unite together and agree to ignore all old forgotten names that may be 
brought forward, and retain all remaining of familiar species, until a 
general settlement of the question can be satisfactorily arrived at. 



214 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I fear, gentlemen, that I have noAv completely exhausted your patience 3 
I shall therefore hasten to a close. But before doing so, let me remind 
you that, since our last annual meeting, our Society has lost by death one 
of its most valued members, Mr. B. Billings, of Ottawa, Ont. He was 
one of those devoted lovers of science who do good service by their 
honest, hearty work, but who, from their innate modesty and retiring 
disposition, shrink from all publicity. At times he contributed valuable 
papers to our Httle periodical, but he could never be induced to make any 
display of the knowledge he had acquired by his patient dilligence both 
at home and in the field. 

Permit me now, gentlemen, to resign into your hands the office that 
you have done me the honor of investing me with. I thank you for your 
kindness and courtesy towards myself and my colleagues, and with every 
wish for the continued success and prosperity of your Society, 

I have the honour to be, gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

Charles J. S. Bethune. 
Trinity College School, Port Hope, 
September, 1872. 



ON MR. SC UDDER'S SYSTEMATIC REVISION OF SOME OF 
THE AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES. 

BY AUG. R. GROTE. 

We have here before us a paper by an accomplished scholar, on a 
subject dear to us from our own studies. Mr. Scudder's Revision presents 
two main points for our consideration. The first point affects the sequence 
of the Butterflies in a systematic arrangement ; the second the application 
of the scientific law of priority. As to the first, the considerations which 
have influenced Mr. Scudder to side rather with Ochsenheimer than with 
Boisduval, where the present Revision is not original, are evidently not 
lightly taken. Mr. Scudder's strong perceptions must contrast agreeably 
with the superficiality of those writers who find an excuse for the most 
lieterogeneous linear arrangements on the plea that resemblances are 
diverse (neizartige verîvaruîschaft,) who stay not to discriminate between 
degrees of similarity. On this first point one shall criticize Mr. Scudder, 
who has a large comprehension of the subject, and whose argument shall 
ignore trivialities. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 215 

On the second point, and one which is minor in theory, but in 
practice more important, we have to say : Mr. Scudder restores obsolete 
terms for sub-divisions higher than genera, and disregards the family and 
sub-family terminations lately rendered common in Zoology, chiefly by 
English writers on insects. On occasion, we think the propriety of this 
restoration doubtful, and that the law of priority does not come into 
question. Where the older author meant by his names what Mr. Scudder 
now declares, the older name should stand without doubt. And here we 
owe Mr. Scudder a debt of gratitude for his bibliognostic information. 
But, if such values are recognized, is it not better to give the usual 
terminations in idœ, ince, and ini to the terms for families, sub-families and 
tribes. Two families in the Latreillean sense ( Papilionidœ and Hes- 
periidce,) are represented by the insects Mr. Scudder discusses, and, while 
we cannot doubt that they contain natural assemblages of genera of sub- 
family and tribal value, we are unprepared to support this view against Mr. 
Scudder's divisions, which are not explained by diagnosis. And while we 
cannot contest the value of the most of Mr. Scudder's genera, we may 
more often differ as to the application of the law of priority in the choice 
of generic names. The value of Hubner's Verzeichniss (1816,) and its use 
by Mr. Scudder, is a case in point. Notwithstanding Ochsenheimer's 
repudiation, Guenee's sneers, and Lederer's contemptuous patronage, 
Hubner's genera are now in great part becoming recognized, and his 
names available to science. This quiet, unobtrusive man has written what 
has endured half a century of abuse and intolerance, to be found greatly 
true. We have elsewhere (Cuban Zygae?iidœ) written what we thought of 
Hubner and his generic conceptions. Let us see now how Mr. Scudder 
uses him sometimes. On page 59 Mr. Scudder adopts Zerene for a genus 
of yààdcL Papiiio caesonia is type, and says : "Since the typical species of 
Zerene of Hubner fall into the much older genus, Colias, the name may be 
retained for the last species, Pap. caesonia of Stoll. That this ought to 
be preferred to Meganostoma of Reakirt follows from my suggestion in 
1862, that the former should be retained for the two species here cata 
logued." But Hubner's Zerene is synonymous with Colias; no subsequent 
"suggestion in 1862 " can alter Hubner's meaning in 18 16. Hubner 
does not autoptically know all the species he cites ; hence we must always 
take with himthe first species as his types. If to Zerene we cite Scudder 
(1862,) the name is logical and, in this case, must be discarded at once so 
as not to interfere with the priority of a well established genus of 
Geometridce, of the same name. Meganostoma must be retained. 



216 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



If we apply similar considerations to several others of Mr. Scudder's 
genera, we shall remove in great part what is objectionable, and bizarre 
(e. g., the use of Papilio for Van. antiopa,) remembering that the older 
authors always cited, as a matter of duty, all previously published names, 
even without note of identification, and that therefore they are not to be 
held liable for all the contents of their genera. Without questioning any 
of Mr. Scudder's statements on page 37, with regard to the use of the 
name Papilio, Ave yet know that Linnaeus applied it to his Equités first. 
Schrank's wide ''limitation" can, then, have no priority in reason, nor 
the new restriction by Mr. Scudder against a well established use for a 
genus of which Pupilio machaon is the conceded type. Let us disintegrate 
Papilio quickly ; it must sorely need it that such means should be pre- 
scribed for the end. 

We may differ with Mr. Scudder occasionally on matters of synonomy 
(e. g., Thecla calanus and inorata,) but we follow him admiringly in his 
conscientious generic definitions, and are ever ready to sink the critic in 
the disciple. 



DESCRIPTION OF A REMARKABLE VARIETY OF LIMENITIS 

MISIPPUS. 

BY THEODORE L. MEAD, NEW YORK. 

While in the Catskill Mountains this summer, 1 met with a very curious 
variety of L. Misippus in which the conspicuous black stripe crossing the 
secondaries was altogether absent, and the corresponding mark on the 
primaries only indicated by a dusky cloud extending to the median ner- 
vule and enclosing no white spots. On the underside the differences 
remain the same. In the ordinary type, there is a whitish cloud around 
the cross stripe. In the variety under consideration this is quite distinct. 
The marginal row of greenish lunules is obsolete, but the submarginal 
\Vhite ones are enlarged so as to leave no black between the lunules and 
the bufif ground-color on the secondaries, and but little on the primaries. 
On the upper surface, these lunules are rather large on the fore wings, but 
otherwise as in the usual type. The specimen was a female. 

It is noticeable that this variety is a nearer approach, in general 
appearance, to D. Arc/iippîis, which, as is well known, enjoys almost entire 
immunity from ordinary foes. We may fairly assume that had not the 
Entomological collector intervened as an unexpected factor in the problem 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 217 



of the " Struggle for Existence," our present variety, protected above its 
fellows by a closer resemblance to the distasteful Danais, might have given 
rise to a new species, and that, in less time than is generally assumed to be 
necessary for specific changes ; as this variety would be thought to present 
quite sufficient specific differences, were it brought from a distant 
region. 

In examining a number of butterflies offered /or sale to the American 
Museum of Natural History, I found a curious variety of Limenitis ursula. 
Above, the markings are the same, but with the substitution of fulvous 
for blue, except in the marginal lunules, which are white with a faint 
bluish tinge. Below, the suffusion is very conspicuous and the secondaries 
in color and marking considerably resemble those of Misippiis. It is not 
impossible that the specimen may be a hybrid between these two, as I 
have seen offspring resulting from the union of such dissimilar species, as 
Smerinthus Tilice and Populi of Europe, showing the characteristics of 
both. Should the Ursula be merely a variety, it would furnish an excellent 
illustration of the way in which Misippus probably originated. 



A NEW HESPERIAN. 

BY G. M. DODGE. 

Uesperia Illinois. iV. sp. 

Male expands 1.3 inches. All the wings dark brown above. The 
primaries throughout the middle and basal areas sparingly sprinkled with 
fulvous scales. This color is deepest around the stigma, which consists of 
a velvetty black bar extending obliquely from near the middle of the 
submedian vein to the cell, and is often divided into two equal parts by 
the fourth median veinlet. A large square patch, not sprinkled with 
fulvous, occurs in the middle area at the termination of the cell ; and a 
small detached yellow spot lies immediately below, and outward from the 
anterior termination of the stigma. The base and middle of the 
secondaries are covered with long yellowish hairs. Fringe on all the wings' 
white. Underside fulvous, inclining to ferruginous ; the internal half of 
the primaries smoky, shading into black at the base and inner margin ; 
two small yellowish spots near the centre (very distinct in some specimens, 
in others nearly obsolete) seem reproduced from above. That nearest the 
apex is round, the other is larger and somewhat reniform. On the 



THE CAÎv^ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



secondaries the fold is smoky ; a broad band of fulvous precedes it, 
extending from the base to the outer margin ; on the remainder of the 
wing the color is paler, and all the veins white and conspicuous. Fringe 
of all the wings brown, becoming white at the internal angles. 

Above, head and thorax fulvous ; abdomen black ; its sides partly 
clothed with whitish-yellow hairs ; palpi fulvous, tipped with black. Below, 
abdomen and palpi white ; breast mouse-coloured. Antennse annulated ; 
above, brown ; below, whitish-yellow ; underside of club red. 

The female expands 1.5 inches and is like the male, with the following 
exceptions : The stigma is wanting, and the fulvous on the primaries above 
is very obscure, being most apparent along the costa. Two small, semi- 
transparent yellow spots occur near the middle of the primaries ; the one 
nearest the apex being so small as to be indistinct ; the other is a little 
larger. 

Variety A, ^. Same as above, but the two spots in the centre of the 
primaries are much larger ; the upper is triangular, the lower and largest 
nearly square. Three linear spots of nearly equal size appear between the 
subcostal veinlets, near the apex, and a long rectangular spot surmounts 
the submedian vein about half way between the base and outer edge of 
the wing. All these spots are reproduced below. 

This species was discovered by Mr. E. A. Dodge, in Burcan County, 
Illinois. The first specimen was taken June 20th, 1872. It was quite 
abundant upon grassy slopes on the high rolling prairie that forms the 
divide between the Illinois and Rock rivers. Over forty specimens were 
taken, nine of which were females. Two weeks later Hespej-ia Poioeshdk, 
Parker, appeared abundantly m the same locality. 

The writer will exchange specimens of either of the above-mentioned 
species for most of those North American butterflies not of common 
occurrence in Northern Illinois. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Vanessa Antiopa, or Papilio Antiopa ? — The unusual abundance 
of this insect in many parts of Europe the present year, and its great 
influx into England, have given it unusual prominence in late numbers of 
our trans-Atlantic Entomological periodicals. I have been a little 
interested in watching to see how many of the writers would follow our 
friend Scudder's " Revision," and call the insect " Papilio Antiopa,'' and 
have not yet met with one.- — C. V. R., St. Louis, Mo. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 219 

Vanessa Antiopa. — The present autumn has been remarkable for the 
a]3pearance in scattered locaHties all over thé country of one of our 
rarest and most beautiful butterflies, the Camberwell Beauty,, Va?iessa 
Antiopa, very few British specimens of which exist in our cabinets. The 
Entomologist records the capture of upwards of 200 specimens in all parts 
of the country, from the Channel Islands to Aberdeen. It is very 
remarkable that they nearly all differ in colouring to a perceptible extent 
from the Continental variety, the border being creamy white instead of 
buif-coloured. If they are genuine natives their spasmodic appearance 
in this manner is very singular, and worthy of careful observation. Several 
other rare butterflies, especially Argynnis Lathonia, Pieris Daplidice, and 
Colias Hyale, have also been unusually abundant this season. — Natnre. 

The Radish Bug. — A New Insect. {Nysius raphanus, N. sp.)* 
This insect has never heretofore been described ; the reason, we suppose, 
is that it has not hitherto attracted the notice of farmers and gardeners as 
a destructive insect. We have noticed it this season, for the first, 
attacking radishes, mustards and lettuce ; some have noticed it on 
cabbage, others on grapevines, and in Kansas it is doing' great damage 
to the potato crop, and we are informed that a very similar, if not the 
same species, attacks corn to an alarming extent ; but, as we have not as 
yet seen the species from corn, we cannot say that they are identical, but 



*Nysius raphanus, N. sp. — Body long, with numerous short hairs ; 
head and thorax cinerous ; eyes black ; scutel blackish ; antennae pube- 
scent, four-jointed, chestnut brown, first and third joints about equal 
length, second, long as first and third, last, longer and thicker than third ; 
hemelytra semi-transparent, punctured, with brown nervures, outside at 
base hairy, interior terminal margin bound with a dark band, separated by 
the medial longitudinal nervure, membranous at tip ; rostrum nearly as 
long as the antenngs, four-jointed, extends a Httle beyond the origin of the 
posterior feet, blackish, paler at base ; coxae honey yellow ; legs hirsute ; 
posterior femora blackish ; anterior and middle brown ; tibiae light brown, 
two tibial spurs ; tarsi three-jointed — first as long as second and third, 
third longer than second — tarsal claws black ; abdomen of males black ; 
"females black above, beneath a whitish band near the base, from the 
band to the tip pale ; length to tip of hemelytra one-eighth of an inch ; 
rostrum one twenty-fourth of an inch. — Wm. R. Howard, Forsyth, Mo. 



220 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



suppose that they are. It seems to be almost a general feeder, as it is not 
confined to any particular order of plants for its food, though in this 
locality it seems to confine its ravages mostly to CRUCiFERiB. They will 
congregate on the plant as long as there is room for one of them, and 
continue sucking the life-supporting juices, which soon causes the plant to 
wilt and die. They are very active, and, when disturbed, swarm like so 
many gnats, which they more resemble, when flying, than anything else. 
In the morning, while the due is on the plants, they are found concealed 
in the shriveled up leaves, and are rather sluggish ; and by plucking these 
and putting them into an old tin pail, with live coals of fire at the bottom, 
many of them may be destroyed. Lime has been tried to a sHght extent, 
but seemingly without effect. We have not discovered either the eggs or 
the young, yet like their cousin, the chinch bug, wet weather is unfavor- 
able to their production, and after a heavy rain it will be difficult to find 
many of them for several days. We give herewith the first description of 
this insect, to our knowledge, that has been written. The specific name, 
raphanus, was given it from its food plant, the radish, upon which we first 
noticed it. It belongs to the sub-order Ileteroptera ; and, like most 
insects of that order, is not by any means destitute of that unpleasant 
"bed buggy" smell. We hope by the end of the season to be able to 
procure the eggs and young, and to be able to write a more complete 
history. 

Note on Hesperia communis, Grotc. — This species, which is 
described as Syricthus commu7iis on page 69 of this volume, is identical 
with Mr. Scudder's Ifesperia tessellafa, described in the Fourth Annual 
Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, 1872. 
As I learn from Mr. Edwards and Mr. Scudder, my description was 
written in 187 1 and published in April, 1872. Mr. Scudders paper, in 
which his description of this species occurs, was, according to page i of 
the Report, "read, accepted and ordered to be printed," Jan. 13th, 1872. 
I do not know the exact date of the issue of the Report from the press. 
A similarity of name with that proposed by Mr. Scudder, in an European 
species {H. tessellum) might assist in according a preference to the name I 
have proposed as above for our American species.— A. R. Grote. 

The American Entomologist.— I have a few bound copies of the 
two volumes of this periodical, which I will send post-paid by mail upon 
receipt of $3.50 per volume, or $6.50 for both. Address C. V. Riley, 
Room 29, Insurance Building, St. I^ouis, Mo. 



VOL. IV. LONDON, ONT., DECEMBER, 1872. No. 12 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 209 
YPSOLOPHUS. 

/. y. eupatoriella. N. sp. 

Tongue dark brown ; basal joint of the palpi, and the second joint 
externally, and on the under surface, dark brown ; upper surface pale 
ochreous; tip white; third joint dark ochreous, tipped with dark brown. 
Head pale bronzy brown, with purplish reflections, each scale tipped 
with white. Sides of the thorax and base of the wings ochreous yellow, 
extendifig along the costal portion of the wings, gradually narrowing to about 
the middle of the costa. A median, longitudinal, wide, violaceous, brown 
band extends over the thorax and along the extreme dorsal margin of the. 
wings, gradually becoming lighter in color till about the middle of the 
dorsal margin it unites with a bluish-purple wide band, which crosses the 
wing just behind the middle, gradually passing on the costal margin into 
the ochreous portion. Upon the fold, beginni7ig ?iear the base, is a velvetty 
deep black stripe which extends, gradually widening, to the bluish-purple 
band, and is deeply scalloped next to the ochreous portion of the wing, 
which it separates from the dorsal margin. The bluish-purple band is 
narrowly margined externally by an ochreous line, followed by a narrow 
black line, behind which, to the apex, the wing is dark brown with faint 
ochreous or purplish reflections, the cilise also being of the same hue, with 
a row of eight or nine small ochreous dots or streaks extending around 
their base. Under surface and legs bronzy dark brown ; tarsi annulate 
with pale ochreous. 

The larva is greenish-white, over half an inch long. It feeds upon the 
under side of a folded leaf of Eupatorium ageratoides,{o\d\ng it so as to apply 
one of the large veins to the midrib. It became a pupa under the folded 
edge of the leaf, July 12, and the imago emerged July 20. It is much 
the handsomest species of the genus known to me. 



222 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

2. Y. Reede.Ua. N. sp. 

Palpi yellowish^brown, paler on the internal surface of the second and 
upper surface of the third joint. Tongue brownish. Face grayish-white. 
Antennœ, head and thorax slightly iridescent, pale yellowish-brown, faintly 
suffused with roseate ; there is a large brown spot on the centre of the 
anterior margin of the thorax, which sends a narrow streak to each side 
of the apex, and a brown spot on each side in front of the wings. Anterior 
wings suffused and dusted with brown upon a ground color of yellowish- 
ochreous, especially along the dorsal margin towards the base. Two large 
spots on the disc, and the apical portion of the wing dark brown. (To 
the naked eye the spots appear rather to be irregular, not well defined 
fasciae.) About five minute brown dots around the dorso-apical margin, 
one of which is at the extreme apex. Ciliae fulvous. Posterior wings 
very pale fuscous with a silvery tinge. Abdomen shining ochreous yellow, 
dusted thickly with brown, and with a dark brown, rather wide streak on 
the tergum, extending from the base half way to the apex ; venter pale 
ochreous yellow, with a distinct dark brown spot on each side of each 
segment, and a faint one in the middle. Under surfiice of the thorax 
white, legs brown on their anterior surfaces, tarsi brown, annulate with 
white. Alar ex. Y^ inch. Larva unknown. Captured in September at 
the lamp. 

The vertex is narrow elongate. Wings rather elongate in proportion 
to width. Abdomen conical. 

Named for Mr. E. B. Reed, of the Can. Ent. 

Possibly this may be a variety of Y. pometelhts, Harris, but I think it is 
different. I have other specimens agreeing with some of Dr, Fitch's 
varieties of pometelhcs , but I am by no means sure that he is right in 
regarding them as mere varieties. Harris and Fitch place all these species 
in C/icetochilus, Steph. 

J. Y. quercipominella. N. sp. 

Palpi dark purplish brow^n, sprinkled with white on the under and 
outer sufaces ; upper and inner surflices and tip pale ochreous. Tongue 
and maxillary palpi pale purplish-brown. Antennae dark purplish brown. 
Head, thorax, and costa at the base, ochreous yellow, tinged with pur- 
plish fuscous in some lights. Costal half of the wings, beyond the base, 
pale ochreous, with a row of minute dark brown dots on the costa ; dorsal 
half dark purplish-brown, twice faintly notched in the basal half An 
ochreous streak around the dorso-apical margin, containing about six 
small, dark purplish or brown dots. Costo-apical ciliae ochreous, extreme 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 223 

apical ciliae purplish brown, dorso-apical ciliae ochreous, streaked with 
purplish brown. Posterior wings and ciliae pale slate color. Abdomen 
purplish-brown. 

The vertex and anterior wings are very much elongate and narrow, 
and the abdomen is sub-depressed. Alar ex. S/q inch. 

The larva feeds in the " Oak Apple " (gall of Cynips spongifica^ 
Harris.) Head yellowish, body green, dorsum dusky green, with two 
longitudinal whitish lines (which, under the lens, appear to be made of 
small spots.) Two curved black lines on top of the first segment, and 
two black spots on each side of it ; eight black spots on each of the next 
three segments, and five on each of the remainder, except the penultimate 
and ante-penultimate. It became a pupa June yth, and the imago 
emerged June i6th. Kentucky. 

The wings do not differ from Dr. Clemens' description of Y. flavivit- 
tellus, but he says : " head, antennae and palpi fuscous." 

This resembles, but I think is different from Y. ( Chœtochilus ) 
contubertialellus, Fitch. 

4. Y. querciella. N. sp. 

Tongue yellowish, except the basal part, which is bro^vn. Palpi 
yellowish on the inner surface, brick red, suffused with fuscous on the 
outer surface, especially at the base of the second joint. Antennae pale 
yellowish, the apical half of each joint brown on the upper surface. Face 
pale yellowish, slightly iridescent. Vertex, thorax and anterior wings pale 
brick red, with a pink tinge, the wings sparsely but distinctly dusted with 
dark brown, especially the apical portion, and with nine small dark brown 
dots around the apex. Abdomen ochreous yellow above, brownish 
beneath, with two pale ochreous yellow lines. Aiar ex. over ^ inch. 
Kentucky. 

The mature larva is nearly one inch long ; when nearly mature, the 
first segment and head are grayish ferruginous with a tinge of rufous : 
remaining segments greenish, with the posterior margin of each whitish. 
There are two dorsal longitudinal white lines, and one on each side, and 
six to eight black spots on each segment. Before becoming a pupa it 
became bright brick red on top, and pinkish-yellow on the sides. 
(Another instance of the colors of the imago assumed by the larva.) It 
became a pupa June 2nd, and the imago emerged June nth. 

This 'is, in one respect, a singular insect. It is much larger and more 
robust than the preceding species ( Y. quercipomine/la,) but in all other 



224 THE CANADIAM ENTOMOLOGIST. 

respects the structure of the two insects is identical, except that while the 
forewings of that species are very long and narrow, and almost pointed, 
in this their width at the apex is more than one-fourth of their length, with 
the costo-apicar a?igle rather sharply, and the dorso-apical very obtusely 
rounded, and the apex oblique and a little concave. Yet the neuration does 
not differ. There is a similar difference in the shape of the hind wings, 
but none in the neuration. But for the palpi, it would, in external 
appearance, resemble a Tortrix. 
5. Y. caryœfoliella. N. sp. 

Tongue yellowish, except at the base, where it is brownish. Palpi 
dark purplish-brown, except the inner surface, which is pale yellowish, and 
the apex of the tuft, which is dusky grey. Head, antennae and thorax 
reddish-golden, suffused with fuscous, in some lights appearing dark 
golden, in others reddish-brown. Antennae with pale annulations. 
Anterior wings with a silky lustre, dark yellowish-red suffused with fuscous, 
shining, some portions of the wing appearing almost slate color, whilst 
others are dark purplish-red, changing with the light ; two or three minute 
blackish dots upon the disc ; posterior wings plumbeous. Legs brown 
upon their anterior, yellowish on their interior surfaces. Alar ex. \% inch. 
Kentucky. 

The structure of this insect is identical with that of the preceding 
(K querciella), except that the anterior wings are scarcely so wide in 
proportion to their length. It resembles it closely, but may be dis- 
tinguished by the slightly narrower wings, which have a little wider 
expanse and have more of a deep dull red, and are not of so bright a 
brick red. 

The larva sews together the leaves of Hickory trees {Ca-ryce alba.) 
When taken (June 6th) it was about 54^ of an inch long, green, with six 
narrow, and some of them interrupted, white stripes which did not quite 
reach the anal segment ; head ferruginous ; the following segment brown ; 
true feet black. The next day it became white suffused with pink, and 
the longitudinal stripes became deep pink. On the loth it became a 
pupa, and on the 23rd the imago emerged. 

I should regard this as a variet)^ of Y. querciella but for the decided 
differences in the larva. 

6. Y. Straminiella. N. sp. 

Tongue and second joint of palpi brown, faintly tinged with golden ; 
third joint and apex of the second, pale straw colour. Antennae pale 
straw colour, each joint tipped above with brown. Head, thorax and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 225 

anterior wings pale straw color, thickly dusted with brown. (By artificial 
lighit under the lens the dusting becomes golden brown, or bright reddish- 
golden.) In the apical part of the wing the dusting is dense and assumes 
the form of an indistinct, irregular, transverse line. Four small spots of 
the same hue with the dusting, one above the fold, not far from the base, 
two others opposite each other about the basal fourth, one on the fold, the 
other on the disc ; the other which is, rather, a short streak, about the 
middle of the wing, the four forming an elongate coffin-shaped figure. 
(The spots and dusting are only visible under the lens, and to the naked 
eye, the wings appear of a straw color with a satiny lustre.) Posterior 
wings silvery, their ciliae straw color. Abdomen conical, straw color 
dusted with brown. Legs brownish ; tarsi brown, annulate with white. 
Alar ex. tb inch. Captured June i6th, in Kentucky. Larva unknown.' 

The vertex is not greatly elongate, and the wings are rather wide in 
proportion to their length, and the antennae are microscopically pubes- 
cent. I think it must resemble closely Y. punctiaiscellus , Clem. 

Sagaritis,* ge7i. nov. 

In the absence of any extended means of reference to the works of 
European Entomologists, and being unable to locate the species below 
described in any genus known to me, I have been led to establish for it 
this genus, t'ossibly it may belong to Chœtochilus, Steph. 

Slender, graceful in appearance. Legs rather long ; wings narrow. 
Maxillary palpi minute, tongue moderate ; labial palpi long, recurved, the 
terminal joint acicular, and almost hidden by the tuft of the second joint, 
which projects upwards and forwards, instead of downwards 2Mà. forwards, 
as in Ypsolophiis (which otherwise resembles this genus as to the head and 
palpi.) Vertex narrow elongate. Antennae slender, simple, more than 
half as long as the wings. 

Anterior wings elongate, narrow, faintly falcate beneath the apex. 
Discal cell closed ; the costal attains the margin just behind the middle ; 
subcostal, furcate near the margin, which it attains before the apex, and 
sending off in its course three branches to the costal margin, one from 
about the middle, one before the discal vein, and one at the discal vein. 
Median, furcate beyond the discal vein, both branches attaining the dorsal 
margin at about the apical fifth ; the discal vein sends off three branches, 
all of which attain the posterior margin behind the apex, the upper branch 
being furcate ; sub-median furcate near the base. Posterior wing a little 
*Sagaritig —A wood Nymph. 



226 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

wider than the forewing, falcate beneath the apex ; discal cell short, rather 
wide, closed by a bow-shaped, oblique discal vein ; costal vein and basal 
portion of the subcostal almost coincident with the costal margin, the 
subcostal curving downwards towards the discal vein, and again upwards, 
from the discal vein to the apex, before which it becomes furcate, sending 
a branch to the costal margin above, and another below the apex ; the 
discal vein sends a branch to the dorsal margin from its middle ; the 
median is furcate from the discal vein, and sends a branch to the post- 
erior margin from about the middle of the cell ; submedian and internal, 
simple. 

It therefore approaches Ypsolophns in the neuration, as well as in the 
palpi. It is still more nearly allied to Anorthosia, Clem., but the neuration 
is quite distinct. 

S. gracilella. N. sp. 

Pale ochreous yellow. A small brown spot on the costa near the base, 
another on the fold about midway of the length of the wing, and another 
nearly opposite it near the costa. A row of small brown spots extending 
around the apex. Wing sparsely and faintly dusted with brown. Alar 
ex. not quite ^ inch. Kentucky. Larva unknown. 

The body is slender and the legs rather long. A single specimen was 
taken May yth, resting upon the trunk of a tree. When disturbed it 
fluttered around for a moment, re-alighting always on the same tree. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA, No. 4 

BY E. T. CRESSON, 
Continued from Vol, 4, Page 84. 

Genus Microctonus, Wesm. 

MiCROCTONUS AGiLis. N. Sp. — ^ . Piceous, shining; clypeus and 
mandibles testaceous ; palpi whitish ; antennae, longer than head and 
thorax, slender, fuscous, basal third pale; pleura beneath, rufo-piceous ; 
tegulse whitish ; wings hyaline, iridescent ; nervures and stigma fuscous, 
the latter large, lanceolate ; marginal cell longer than stigma,' lanceolate ; 
legs, including coxse, pale honey-yellow, extreme tips of posterior tibiae 
dusky ; abdomen smooth, shining, depressed, first segment tinged with 
rufo-piceous, gradually dilated to apex. Length .10 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 227 

Genus Euphorus, Nees. 

EuPHORUS scuLPTUS. N. sp. — $ Black ; head shining, pale yellow- 
ferruginous ; spot enclosing ocelli, and occiput black ; palpi fuscous ; 
antenna long, slender, entirely black ; mesothorax finely punctured, 
somewhat shining ; scutellum, metathorax and first abdominal segment 
densely rugose, opaque ; metathorax broad, abruptly truncate behind ; 
tegulae rufo-piceous ; wings faintly dusky, nervures and stigma fuscous, 
the latter broad ; legs dull ferruginous, coxae black, four posterior tro- 
chanters, femora at base, and more or less of their tibiae and tarsi 
blackish ; abdomen beyond first segment sub-ovate, flattened, smooth and 
polished ; first segment broadly dilated at tip ; ovipositor pale, nearly as 
long as abdomen, sheaths black and thickened at tips. Length .15 
inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. 

Euphorus mellipes. N. sp. — ^ . Black, shining ; face with dense 
silvery-white pile ; clypeus and mandibles, except tips, pale ferruginous ; 
palpi pale ; antennae pale ferruginous, more or less dusky toward tips, the 
joints short and distinct ; thorax gibbous, minutely sculptured ; meta- 
thorax rounded, opaque, coarsely granulated ; tegulae pale ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, nervures pale yellowish, stigma fuscous, paler at base ; 
legs, including coxae, honey-yellow, tips of posterior tibiae and more or 
less of their tarsi dusky ; abdomen small, sub-ovate beyond first segment, 
depressed, smooth and polished, rufo-piceous ; first segment gradually 
dilated to apex, longitudinally aciculated, black ; venter pale rufo-piceous. 
Length .13 inch. 

^<z^.— New Jersey; Illinois. Three specimens. 

Euphorus scitulus. N. sp. — % . Head sub-globose, honey-yellow; 
spot covering oceUi and tips of mandibles black ; antennae about as long 
as head and thorax, pale fuscous, honey-yellow at base, the joints short, 
pale sericeous ; thorax honey-yellow, darker than head, mesothorax and 
scutellum fuscous ; tegulae pale ; wings hyaline, iridescent, nervures and 
stigma fuscous, the latter large, sub-triangular, marginal cell very short, 
about one-third the length of stigma ; legs, including coxae, pale honey- 
yellow, posterior femora, tibiae and tarsi more or less dusky ; abdomen 
smooth shining, fuscous, first and base of second segment honey-yellow. 
Length .08 inch. - 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. 



228 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

- Genus Leiophron, Nees. 

Leiophron laevis. N. sp. — ^ . Deep black, shining ; head small, 
face with a large shining prominence ; mandibles dark rufous ; palpi 
dusky ; antennae abcut as long as body, black, scape dull rufo-picecus; 
thorax finely punctured, middle lobe of mesothorax prominent, as also the 
scutellum ; metathorax opaque, coarsely rugose, rather abrupt posteriorly, 
on each side above a rather deep longitudinal groove, curving inwardly 
and meeting on posterior face ; tegulae dull rufous ; wings hyaline, faintly 
dusky towards apex, nervures and stigma pale fuscous ;. legs, including 
coxae, honey-yellow, posterior coxae blackish at base and beneath, tips of 
their tibiae and their tarsi slightly dusky ; abdomen regularly fusiform from 
base to apex, first segment black, broad at apex, minutely and rather 
indistinctly aciculated longitudinally ; remainder of abdomen piceous, 
smooth and polished. Length .20 inch. 

Hab. — Canada. (Pettit.) One specimen. 

Genus Calyptus, Haliday. {Bradiistes, Wesm.) 

Calyptus major. N. sp. — Ç . Deep black, shining ; head trans- 
verse, vertex and face irregular, densely punctured, the latter wide, occiput 
and cheeks smooth ; eyes small ; clypeus tinged with rulous ; mandibles 
ferruginous, black at tips ; palpi whitish ; antennae as long as head and 
thorax, brown black, scape pale brown ; thorax shining, mesothoracic 
lobes prominent, sometimes tinged with brown, central lobe truncate 
anteriorly, sutures coarsely crenulated ; tegulae honey-yellow ; wings 
faintly dusky, nervures and stigma black ; legs honey-yellow, coxae and 
trochanters paler, posterior tibiae fuscous, pale at base, basal joint of 
their tarsi dusky ; abdomen sub-compressed towards apex, smooth and 
polished, more or less tinged with piceous ; first segment longitudinally 
aciculated ; ovipositor as long as body, honey-yellow, sheaths black. 
Length .18 — .22 inch. 

Hab. — Canada ; Virginia; Illinois. P'our specimens. 

Calyptus rotundïceps. N.sp.-^^. Black, smooth and polished; 
head nearly globose ; mouth brown ; palpi whitish ; antennae nearly as; 
long as body, slender, brown-black, basal third luteous beneath ; tegulae, 
basal nervures of wings, and legs, pale luteous ; wings hyaline, sub- 
iridescent, faintly dusky at tips, stigma and nervures piceous ; apical half 
of posterior tibiae blackish behind ; abdomen smooth and polished, 
depressed, basal segment longitudinally aciculated. Length .16 inch. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 229 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. 

Calyptus TiBiAToR. N. sp. — ^. Black, shining ; head transversely 
subquadrate ; clypeus, except base, and mandibles, fulvous ; palpi white ; 
antennae brown-black above, fulvo-testaceous beneath-,; tegulae and basal 
wing nervures honey-yellow ; wings hyaHne, iridescent, stigma and ner- 
vures fuscous ; legs pale luteous, spot on tips of posterior femora above, 
their tibiae except base, and tips of their tarsi, blackish ; abdomen short, 
depressed, shining, two basal segments longitudinally aciculated when 
viewed under a strong lens, the first segment with two longitudinal carinae, 
converging at apex. Length .10 inch. 

Hab. — New Jersey. One specimen. Smaller than rotiindkeps, whiuj 
it closely resembles. 

Calyptus mexicanus. N. sp. — ^ . Deep black, sub-opaque, clothed 
with a very short whitish pile ; head transverse ; mandibles and palpi 
brown ; antennae brown-black ; middle lobe of mesothorax with a central 
longitudinal ridge, the sutures broad and deep, meeting on the disc before 
posterior margin ; two deep square depressions before scutellum ; meta- 
thorax coarsely reticulated ; depressions of pleura and pectus coarsely 
striated ; tegulae piceous ; wings hyaline, iridescent, slightly dusky at 
tips ; legs black, more or less tinged with brownish, the four anterior tarsi 
pale fuscous ; abdomen sub-convex, coarsely and longitudinally aciculated 
or striated, first segment Avith two prominent longitudinal carinae, con- 
verging towards apex, apical margin of second segment narrowly smooth 
and polished. Length .20 inch. 

Hab. — Orizaba, Mexico. (Prof Sumichrast.) One specimen. 

Genus Eubadizon, Nees. 

EuBADizoN MACULivENTRis, Cesson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Nov., 
1872. 

Hab. — Texas. One ^ specimen. 

Eubadizon lateralis. N. sp. — ^. Pale honey-yellow; palpi 
whitish ; spot covering ocelli and occiput fuscous ; antennae nearly as 
long as body, fuscous above, testaceous beneath, pale at base ; mesothorax 
except sides of middle lobe, scutellar region and metathorax above 
blackish ; metathorax rounded above, smooth, without carinae ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, stigma and nervures fuscous ; legs paler than body, 
tips of posterior femora, their tibiae and tarsi blackish, bases of their 



230 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tibiae narrowly whitish ; abdomen sub-opaque, blackish above, apical 
corners of first segment, and spot at sides of remaining segments pale 
honey-yellow ; ovipositor nearly as long as body, sheaths blackish. 
Length .14 inch. 

JTâ^^-.— Illinois. One specimen. Much smaller than maculiventris, 
and differently marked. 

EuBADizoN PLEURALis. N. sp.. — ^ Ç. Black, smooth and shining j 
mandibles dull testaceous ; palpi whitish ; antennae long and slender, 
brown beneath, paler at base ; mesothorax more or less tinged with testa- 
ceous ; scutellum pale testaceous ; pleura honey-yellow ; tegulae and 
basal wing nervures whitish ; wings hyaline, beautifully iridescent, nervures 
dusky, stigma pale, sub-hyaline ; legs, including coxae, pale yellowish- 
white, tarsi more or less and tips of posterior tibiae dusky : abdomen 
entirely black, shining • ovipositor of % rather longer than body, honey- 
yellow, sheaths black. Length .16 — .18 inch. 

Hab. — Missouri. (Riley.) Three specimens. 

EuBADizoN AMERiCANUS. N.sp.- — Ç. Black, shining ; mandibles 
and palpi pale testaceous \ antennae brown-black, as long as head and 
thorax, scape piceous above, testaceous beneath ; metathorax rugose, with 
a deep depression on each side above, behind the middle ; tegulae and 
basal wing nervures pale honey-yellow ; wings faintly dusky, sub- 
iridescent, nervures and stigma fuscous, the latter large and sometimes 
black ; legs, including coxae, honey-yellow, the tarsi and posterior tibiae 
except base, blackish ; the first, and second except apex, longitudinally 
roughened, the remainder smooth and polished, base of first segment with 
two elevated carinae ; ovipositor longer than body. Length .18 — .20 
inch. 

Hab. — New Jersey. Ten specimens. Distinguished from pleuralis 
by the entirely black thorax, dark stigma and wing nervures and roughened 
base of abdomen. 

Genus Ichneutes, Nees. 

ICHNEUTES ABDOMiNALis, Cress. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc:, Nov., 1872. 

Hab. — Texas. (Belfrage.) One % specimen. 

Ichneutes bicolor. N. sp.— % . Black, clothed with a very short 
whitish sericeous pile, very dense on the face ; mandibles and palpi dull 
testaceous ; thorax smooth and shining, metathorax opaque ; tegulae 
honey-yellow ; wings hyaUne, iridescent, costal nerve black, lower margin 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 231 

of stigma and nervures fuscous ; legs, including coxae, honey-yellow, tarsi 
varied with dusky ; abdomen fulvo-ferruginous, base of first segment and 
apical and lateral margins of third and following segments black ; first 
and second segments opaque, roughened, remaining segments smooth and 
shining. Length .20 inch. 

Hab. — Massachusetts. One specimen. 

IcHNEUTES FULVIPËS. N. sp. — -^. Black, shining, face and pleura 
clothed with pale glittering pile, longer and more dense on the face ; 
mandibles and palpi dull testaceous ; antennae dark brown ; tegulae and 
space in front honey-yellow ; metathorax rough, opaque ; wings faintly 
dusky at tips, iridescent,' costal nerve black, lower half of stigma and the 
nervures fuscous ; legs, including coxae, pale honey-yellow, tarsi more or 
less tinged with dusky ; two basal segments roughened, opaque, very 
obscurely tinged with dull rufous, remaining segments black, smooth and 
shining. Length .17 inch. 

Hab. — Illinois. One specimen. This may prove to be the ^ of 
bicolor. 

(To be Continued.) 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR, 

From Kirby's Fauna B or eali- Americana : Inseda. 



(Continued from Page 198.) 

281. Chrysomela confinis Kirby. — Length of body 4^^ lines. A 
single specimen taken in Nova Scotia by Capt. Hall. 

Nearly related to the preceding species. Body oblong, obscurely 
bronzed-green, grossly punctured. Palpi, antennae, legs, and rhinarium 
ferruginous : punctures of the prothorax scattered in masses, with the 
interstices very minutely punctured : scutellum bronzed : elytra reddish 
with a discoidal flexuose irregular pale stripe dilated at the base and 
towards the apex ; there are also two flexuose dark-green discoidal stripes 
in the disk, the exterior one nearly reaching the base and the interior 
approaching nearer to the apex, between these towards the base is a single 
oblong green spot, and outside them are many irregular ones of the same 
colour ; all these spots and stripes are convex and mostly circumscribed 



.'^-32 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

by punctures ; there is a double series of punctures diverging towards the 
base; and an obHque abbreviated one between these and the scutellum, 
as in many Harpalidae, &c. ; the interstice between the double series is 
green at the base. There is a lateral series of punctures also as in C. 
Philadelphica. 

[Synonymous with C. Spiraeae Say. Taken on Lake Superior by 
Agassiz.] 

[212.] 282. Chryscmela Bigsbyana Kirby. — Length of body 4 
lines. A single % specimen taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. [Taken in 
Ontario.] 

Colour and sculpture of the body like those of the preceding species, 
from which C. Bigsbyana differs principally in having the sides and the 
anterior margin of the prothorax reddish-yellow ; the elytra are of the 
same colour, but the suture itself, especially at the base, a stripe parallel 
to it, a large humeral bilobed spot, the interior lobe of which is obtus- 
angular or broken, and several irregular dots and spots on the elytra are 
black-green. 

283. Chrysomela multipunctata Say. — Length of body 4^ lines. 
Taken frequently in the journey from New York to Cumberland House. 
[Taken in Canada.] 

Body, head, antennae, and legs ferruginous. Prothorax pale-yellow, 
with two posterior triangular ferruginous spots with a dot of the same 
colour between them ; the punctures of the prothorax are more numerous 
and smaller than in C. Philadelphica, &c. ; elytra yellowish-white; suture 
and a confluent stripe circumscribed with the double series of punctures, 
diverging towards the base of the elytra, ferruginous ; surface covered 
with irregular greenish dots and short lines, as in the preceding species, a 
row of punctures marks the exterior side of the elytra, the interstice 
between it and the margin is immaculate and impunctured, the rest of the 
elytrum being thickly covered with scattered minute punctures. 

[213.] 284. Chrysomela clivicollis Kirby. — Length of body 4^ 
lines. A single specimen taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body between oblong and hemispherical, violet. Head punctured : 
labrum without punctures : prothorax elevated in the centre to an obtuse 
peak, from the summit of which descend several concentric channels 
which run nearly to the margin, the interstices of which are punctured : 
scutellum violet with a green tint : elytra reddish, punctured, punctures 
scattered with some tendency to arrange into rows ; three large dark 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 233 

violet spots distinguish the elytra, the first upon the shoulders subtri- 
angular with the vertex truncated, the second near the apex bilobed, the 
third at the base forming with that on the other elytrum a large cruciform 
spot ; suture violet : anterior thighs armed with two stout teeth. 

285. Chrysomela rufipes De Geer. — Length of body 2^ lines. A 
single specimen taken in the Expedition. 

[214.] The American differs a little from the British spécimens. In 
the first place it is scarcely half the size, not only the mouth but the space 
before and between the eyes is rufous, only the vertex and occiput being 
black : the black spot of the prothorax, instead of consisting of two 
distinct spots connected only at their base, is only divided at its apex into 
two lobes, and the spots of the elytra though similarly arranged, are less 
distinct : they agree in having the body underneath, except the rufous 
anus, black ; and the legs rufous. 

[Taken on Lake Superior by Agassiz's Expedition.] 

286. Ph^don Adonidis Pallas. — Length of body 3-4 lines. Several 
specimens taken in Lat. 54°. 

[215.] Body black, punctured, sprinkled underneath with cinereous 
hairs. Vertex rufous with an occipital black spot : prothorax reddish- 
yellow, with a large discoidal black spot reaching from base to apex and 
constricted anteriorly; on each side also there is a round black dot; 
scutellum black, impunctured : elytra reddish-yellow, thickly punctured 
with scattered punctures ; suture black except at the base ; a black dis- 
coidal stripe or blotch reaching neither to the base nor the apex,anteriorly 
obliquely truncated and posteriorly acute, also distinguishes these 
organs. 

Variety B. With the discoidal stripe acute at each extremity and 
smaller. 

^ Variety C. With the discoidal stripe evanescent. 

[Taken at Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River, by Mr. Kennicott.] 

287. Ph^don Raphani Fabr. — Length of body 2^-2^ lines. 
Several taken in Lat. 54°. 

Body oblong, punctured, glossy ; underneath black with the disk a 
little bronzed, above green or green-gold. Head and prothorax minutely 
punctured ; five first joints of the antennae bronzed and glossy ; the 
remainder cinereous and obscure : scutellum impunctured, violet : elytra 



234 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



very thickly punctured, punctures not arranged in rows : para pleura con- 
fluently punctured : disk of the postpectus bronzed and transversely 
striated with very slightly impressed striolae. 

In the female the abdomen, as in Ph. Polygoni, is often so distended 
with eggs as to make the elytra appear abbreviated. 

Variety B. With the whole of the upper surface green, without any 
golden lustre. 

[This and the two following species are included in the genus Gastro- 
physa Che v.] 

[216.] 288. Ph^don polygoni Linn.- — Length of body 2 lines. 
Taken in Nova Scotia by Dr. MacCulloch and Capt. Hall. ' [Very com- 
mon in Canada.] 

Body oblong-ovate, punctured, glossy, underneath black. Head deep 
blue, with an abbreviated channel in the vertex between the eyes; antennse 
piceous, with the first five joints rufous : prothorax convex, rufous : elytra 
deep blue, thickly punctured : legs rufous with piceous tarsi ; anus 
rufous. 

289. Phyllodecta Vitelline Linfi. — Length of body 2^ lines. 
[217.] Body oblong, a little inclining to ovate, glossy; underneath 

black-bronzed, scarcely punctured ; above bronzed with a copper tint, 
minutely punctured. First and second joints of the antennae rufous : 
scutellum impunctured : elytra punctured in rows, with the interstices 
indistinctly punctured : tarsi piceous with the first joint rufous. 

[Taken on Lake Superior by Agassiz's Expedition ; in Ontario, also.] 

Family Halticid^e. 

290. Haltica (orchestris) vicina Kirby. — Length of body 3^ 
lines. A single specimen taken. 

Body underneath pale rufous with the disk of the postpectus black. 
Head punctured in the vertex, dirty-white, with a pair of contiguous black 
dots between the eyes and a subtriangular one on the nose ; antennae 
black with the underside of the scape and the two next joints dusky- 
rufous : prothorax very minutely and lightly punctured, white with two 
irregular black spots placed obliquely on each side, and a black longitu- 
dinal streak betM^een them : scutellum black : elytra very minutely and 
thickly punctured, with a suturai stripe common to both, a discoidal one 
rather nearer the lateral margin, and another }ust above it all black ; the 
intermediate stripe falls short of the apex of the elytra : the upper side of 
the tibiae is dusky, and the tarsi are black. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 235 

[218.] 291. Haltica (oRCHESTRis) PUNCTicoLLis ^/r^^j}'.— Plate vii, 
fig. 9. — Length of body 2^-3 lines. A single specimen taken in Lat. 
65°. Taken also by Prof. Peck in New England ? 

Body subovate, very black, underneath glossy. Head irregularly 
punctured behind : antennae underneath pieeous at the base : prothorax 
very minutely and lightly punctured, pale-yellow with two black round 
dots in the disk between which above the scutellum is a less black tri. 
angular impression: elytra very minutely and lightly punctured: forebreast 
•pale-yellow. 

Variety B. Elytra with a blue tint. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGY. 

We are indebted to the kindness of Prof. Townend Glover, Entomolo- 
gist of the Agricultural Department, Washington, for the first part of his 
new illustrated work on our North American insects. This part contains 
thirteen finely colored plates, in which are figured nearly all our described 
Orthoptera. The engravings, which are very beautiful, are from copper 
plates, and are, both in design and execution, the production of the- 
talented author. We deem this work, of which the first number is merely 
introductory, one of very great merit, and sincerely hope that our 
esteemed friend will be enabled to continue it until the whole of his 
valuable material, which has cost him many years of patient labor and 
study, and which includes figures of a large proportion of our insects of 
all orders, may be given to the scientific world. 

We observe that this first edition of the first part, of fifty copies only, 
has been generoiisly published at the author's own expense. It is not to 
be expected that so costly a work could be undertaken by any private 
individual ; we trust, therefore, that the Department of Agriculture, which 
he has so long, ably, and faithfully served, will at once recognize the 
value of his labors, and that upon their recommendation. Congress will, 
with its accustomed liberality in all scientific matters, make such appro- 
priation as may enable the author to give the world the benefit of his 
patient and persevering study ; the more especially as this work will treat 
of the many insects injurious to vegetation, and will therefore be of 
immense practical value to Agriculturists as well as to Entomologists. 



236 THE CANADIAJSI ENTOMOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON SOME GENERA OF CANADIAN INSECTS. 

BY FRANCIS WALKER, LONDON, ENGLAND." 

Genus Chalcis. 

This genus comes next to Stnicra, which has the greatest development 
of the peculiar characters of the family Cha/cididae, such as the compact 
antennae, the robust body, the large quadrate prothorax, and the much 
dilated hind thighs. In all these characters, this family agrees with 
Leucospidae, from which it totally differs in the structure of the abdomen, 
and the two families have a supremacy of structure which is not wholly 
shared by any other in the tribe Chalcididae. Chalcis is followed by 
Haltichella. In the latter, which attains its largest size in Australia, the 
above structure is less prominent, the insertion of the antennas descends 
from the snout towards the mouth, and the flagellum is more whip-like 
and has more active vibration, and resembles that of some species of 
Encyrius, to which genus Haltichella has also a resemblance in the short- 
ness of the ulna vein. Unlike Smicra, which chiefly dwells in S. America, 
Chalcis is spread somewhat equally and extensively over the globe. It 
consists of numerous forms which are generally closely allied to each 
other in structure and colouring, and are not easily distinguishable, and 
suggest the idea that species are now determinate and concise by the 
obliteration of former links, and that in some cases these links are not 
yet extinct. The respective differences of these species require to be 
concisely shown in a synopsis. In a few forms the abdomen of the female 
departs much from the usual structure, the apical part being attenuated 
and nearly cylindrical ; an example of this occurs in the Amazon region 
and another in Arabia. In another case the male has pectinated antennae, 
and has been considered as a distinct genus. C. Healegon, an Australian 
species, has red antennae and a red abdomen, and thus differs remarkably 
from the rest, the colour being almost always black, the legs varied with 
yellow and sometimes parriy red. C. minuta, a Canadian species, occurs 
in England and is more frequent in S. Europe ; it also inhabits the U. S., 
and is probably identical with C. annulipes, so named from West Indian 
specimens, and it may be supposed to have spread northward in both 
continents, and we have but to assume a continuous belt of tropic land 
in former times, round the globe and connecting continents in the Atlantic 
and Pacific, and alternate change of climate, and then the more or less 
extent of insect species becomes a mere question of time. C. Jiavipes 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 237 

inhabits S. Europe, and also occurs in China^ and was probably there and 
in Hindostan before it came into Europe. These two species are thus 
examples of the two affinities of the European insect race, one with North 
America, the other with North Asia, and both increasing northward. 
Many genera of insects may be traced from the tropics northward, and 
their species may be observed in successively smaller circles till they attain 
their highest latitude. The distribution of the insect race by migration, 
and the variety thereby of their kinds in different regions, afford far 
greater proofs of the design, and contrivance, and wisdom of the Creator, 
than would have been manifested by their immediate appearance in the 
spots where they now exist. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Meliï.ea Harrisii. — Mr. W. H. Edwards, of Coalburgh, W. Va. 
has, during the past summer, reared the larva of Melitœa Harrisii. It 
was found feeding on Adinomerus squarrosa, a composite plant allied to 
Helia7ithus. It is probable that this species, so widely distributed, feeds 
on many of these closely allied plants in different localities. — W. 
Saunders. 

Fig. 14, 

OsMiA CANADENSIS CressoH.- — This 
insect, which was described by Mr. E. 
T. Cresson, of Philadelphia in the 
Pro. Ent. Soc, Phila., vol. 3, p. 23, has 
been found destructive to the foliage of 
some strawberry plants, by Mr. J. Pettit, 
of Grimsby, who has kindly furnished 
me with specimens. It was observed 
during the past season in the Township 
of Oxford. For the accompanying figure, which represents the female, I 
am indebted to my esteemed friend, Mr. Cresson, who very kindly made 
the drawing from which the cut was engraved. I am also indebted to him 
for the determination of the species. In the figure the insect is repre- 
sented on an enlarged scale, the hair line at the side showing its natural 
length. In both sexes the. head, thorax, and abdomen are green, and 
more or less densely covered with whitish down or short hairs, those on 




238 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the thorax being longest. The female is larger than the male. The male 
is fully described by Mr. Cresson in the volume above mentioned, to which 
the reader is referred. 

Mr. Pettit says "the insects were taken in East Oxford, July 2nd, on 
a few strawberry plants in my brothers garden. The plants, perhaps 
nearly xoo in number, had been nearly all denuded of their leaves, and a 
search in the evening having failed to reveal the authors of the mischief, I 
examined them again in the heat of the day, and found the Httle culprits 
actively engaged in nibbling away the remaining shreds of the leaves 
They appeared to chew the fragments into a pulp, and carry it away, but 
the little time I spent in observing them was insufficient to determine 
anything further respecting their habits." 

Doubtless the leaves so consumed were used either in the construction 
or hning of their nests. — W. Saunders. 

Notes on Some Butterflies and Their Larva. — We extract the 
following interesting details in reference to the life history of some of 
our butterflies, from a letter received from Mr. W. H. Edwards, of Coal- 
burgh, West Virginia, U. S., under date of October 12th : — W. S. 

" I have in all, probably 200 eggs of Argyimis Cybelf, some deposited 
on violet leaves, and some on the cloth that covered the keg in which 1 
confined the females, with the growing plant, and I suppose half of them 
have given larvae. I also had quite a number of eggs of Aphrvdite, and 
a few larvre from them. I endeavored this time to avoid dryness, as the 
contrary state seemed to be most natural to these lar^as,andI attained this 
end by placing wet sand in the bottom of a glass goblet, in which sand 
were stuck small sprigs, or single leaves of different sorts of wild violets, 
all the species I could find hereabouts at this season ; I also tried the 
pansy. The goblets I covered with damp cloths." 

"The young larvae, as soon as hatched, were transferred to these variou.s 
leaves, and as none have died — although three weeks have elapsed since 
the first were hatched — I think they must be healthy. They are but little 
bigger than when hatched, but must have eaten for some days, as they 
were then pretty lively, but I have been unable to discover on the leaves 
any visible evidence of feeding. I presume they eat the surface of the 
leaf, not the edge. For a week past I have seen no sign of motion, but 
the larvae remain in the same position. In the grooves of the larger 
violet leaves are several, three or four in a row. and I notice that the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 239 

folded edges of leaves are sure to contain seme tenants. These larvss are 
about one-tenth of an inch in length, very hairy ; and they have a v,'ay, 
when touched, of doubling themselves up, and it is easy to handle them 
then by a pin with. a bent point. I find I can lift them off a leaf even 
when they are lethargic, by means of the pin, and transfer them to another 
leaf, when they straighten themselves cut slowly and then resume their 
first position. As it will be impossible for me to carry them through the 
winter on fresh violet leaves, I shall have to place the leaves now occupied 
in t'n boxes or some other suitatjle vessels, and trust to skill or good luck, 
hoping that by one or the other of these some of the larvae may reach 
next spring alive." 

"On looking over the old volumes of the Can. Enï., I see your 
description of Libythca Bachmanii. There is a query about Motya in the 
September number of the magazine. I am sure that Bachmaimii is the 
species found in the Northern States and Canada. L. Mofya I do not 
know. Scudder says it is a West Indian species, and perhaps fourjd in 
our Southern States. Bachmannii varies much, especially in the appear- 
ance of underside of secondaries, some being of a uniform brown, and 
others beautifully shaded with brown and fuscous or ashen. I had the 
good fortune to raise a brood this season from the egg, and found both 
the varieties spoken of, among the butterflies. I will try to find time to 
write a history of these larvae for the Entomologist soon. I have also 
partially raised from the egg a brood of Apafiira celiis,hn\. after the second 
moult they seem to have undertaken their winter's sleep. The ,eggs of 
both these species are very interesting." — W. H. Edwards. 

Sir John Lubbock's Pet Wasp. — From the Daily Telegraph, 
London, England.— One of the most curious attendants this year at the 
gathering of the British Association in Brighton, was a little gentleman in 
brown overcoat, with black and yellow nether garments, wearing a sharp 
sword poisoned at the tip. We are inclined to think that, next to Mr. 
Stanley, this visitor might be called by far the most remarkable and best 
worth attention among all the assembled notorieties. It was Sir John 
Lubbock's pet wasp ; and the respect which would naturally be paid to 
any friend of the benevolent savant Avho has given London its new holi- 
days, was really due to this insect on its own account. Captured in a 
nest of soft grey paper in the Pyrenees, the wasp was the very first of its 
species that had ever received an education. Sir John exhibited it to the 
members of the Association with just pride, as a proof of what kindness 



240 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and patience can effect upon the most unpromising creatures ; and even 
Mr. Forster might have wondered to see it come out of the glass bottle 
where it lives, eat sugar from its master's fingers, allow him to stroke its 
striped back, and fly round and round his head, returning always to its 
home in the bottle. At first, says its distinguished educator, it was 
" rather too ready with its sting," but now it never thinks of unsheathing 
the tiny rapier at its tail ; and nobody who saw the insect could doubt 
that its nature had been greatly changed. 

A Plague of butterflies is a rare occurrence. A short time ago, how- 
ever, the town of Florence was invaded by a prodigious quantity of these 
insects. All the distance of the Long'arno between the Piazza Manin and 
the Barriera and in all the adjacent streets the passage was almost 
obstructed by an extraordinary quantity of butterflies that had swarmed 
in such thick clouds round the gaslights that the streets were compar- 
atively dark. Fires were immediately lighted by order of the 
Municipality and by private citizens, in which the butterflies burnt their 
wings, so that half an hour afterwards one walked on a layer formed by 
the bodies of the butterflies an inch thick 1 ! ! They were of a whitish 
colour, and some of the streets appeared as if covered with snow, at least 
so say the Italian papers. — Nature. 

Our Annual Report. — We expect to be able to mail to each of our 
members a copy of the Annual Report of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario to the Department of Agriculture for 1872, sometime during the 
month of January, 1873. It will treat of insects injurious to the straw- 
berry, grape, potato, hop, and maple. There will also be a chapter on 
l^eneficial insects, and a short history of some of our more common 
innoxious insects, all illustrated as far as possible by suitable figures. 

PiERis VERNALis. — Mr. G. M. Dodge writes us from Illinois that on 
October i6th and 19th, 1872, he captured two male specimens of this 
butterfly, but that the cold weather then coming on, he saw no more. He 
enquires if it is not a little remarkable that this species should occur in 
the fall ? and if the fact does not militate against the idea entertained 
that vernalis is the spring brood of P. pyotodice. — E. B. R. 

The American Entomologist.- — I have a few bound copies of the 
two volumes of this periodical, which I will send post-paid by mail upon 
receipt of $3.50 per volume, or $6.50 for both. Address C V. Riley, 
Room 29, Insurance Building, St. Louis, Mo. 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



Abbott's Notes on Georgian Butterflies, 

73, 84. 
Acanthocinus pusillus, 55. 
Achalerus lycidas, 76, 86. 
Acmaeops longicornis, 116. 
" longiceps, 118. 

•' proteus, 117, 118. 

Acronycta occidentalis, notes on larva of, 

49. 
Acronycta psi, 49, 50 52. 
AcoBN Muth, 18 
Adrasteia gen. nov., 149. 

" alexandriacella, n. sp., 149. 

" fasciella, n. sp., 149. 
" querciella, n. sp., 207. 
" quercifoliella, n. sp., 206. 

Aglossa debilis, 198. 
Aijnippe gen. nov. 

" biscolorella, n. sp., 195. 
" fascopulvella, n. sp , 195. 
Agrilus bivittatus, 35. 
" bilineatus, 35. 
Agriotes mancus, 3. 
'• obscurus, 4. 
Agrotis jaculifera, 137. 
Alypia Laugtonii, 205. 

" octomaculata, 20.5. 
American Association, meeting of, 87, 145, 

181. 
Ameeican Entomologist, 19, 220. 
American Lepidoptera, new illustrated 

works on, 158. 
Anaphora, descriptions of, 137. 
" arcanella, 143. 

agrotipennella, 137, 138, 142. 
" niortipcnnella, n. sp., 137. 

plumifrontella, 137, 138, 143. 
" i'opeanella, 138, 143. 

Anarsia, 65, 66. 

" obliqui-strigella, n. sp , 05, 175. 
" pruniella, 208. 
Ancylocliira fasciata, 37. 
Andkews, W. v., articles by, 78, 140, 180. 
A new Departure, 119. 
Annual Address, 210. 
Annual Repokt, 24, 240. 
Anobium foveatum, 151. 
Anthribus fasciatus, 178. 
Anthocaris genutia, 74. 
Apate bivittata, 152. 
" domestica, 152. 
" limbata, 152. 
" rufitarsis, 152. 
" rufipennis, 152. 
" nigiiceps, 153. 
" brevicorois, 153. 



Apatura celtis, 75. 

" clyton, 75. 
Aphides, GeographicaT Distribution of, 97. 
Apotomus ovatus, 17F. 
Appbopbiations, Entomological in the U. 

States, 58. 
Argynnis, 46. 

" aphrodite, 238. 

" atlantis, 203. 

" bellona, 163. 

" chariclea, 203. 
cybele,238. 

" " notes on, 121. 

" idalia, 75. 
Asemum moestum, 56. 
Attacus polyphemus, 36. 
Attelabus bipiistulatus, 178. 

" '' notes'on, 143. 

" curculionides, 177. 

'' similis, 177. 

B 

Balaninus, 38, 39. ' 

"■ rectus, 19. 

Begoc gen. 7(oi'.,209. 

" costuhUella, n.sp.,2Q0. 
Bell, Pfof. J. J., Articles by, 155, 199. 
Bethune, Rev. C. J. S., Articles by, 1, 31, 

52, 93, 111, 141, 151, 156, 158, 175, 181, 

196, 210, 231. 
Billings, B.. Death of, 70. 
Blistebing Beetles, 139. 
Book Notices, 77, 99, 158, 235. 
Bowles, J. G., Articles by, 102. 
Brachys aeruginosa, 124. 

" ovata, 36. 
Brenthis, 46- 
Buprestis appendiculata, 34. 

" bilineatus, 35. 

" divaricata, 31, 32. 

" Drummondii, 33. 

" proxima, 33. 

" tenebrica, 32. 

" tenebrosa, 31, 32. 

" trinervia, 32. 

" umbellatorum, 34. 
Butterflies American, on Scudder's Re- 
vision of, 214. 
Buttebflies, a Plague of, 240. 

'■ Embryonic Larvae of, 45. 

c 

Calandra pertinax, 1 54. 
Callidium agreste, 55. 

" aulicum, 94. 

" cinnamopterum, 94. 

" collare, 56. 



242 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



Callidium dimidiatum, 93. 
" palliatus, 93. 
" proteus, 53, 93. 
" rusticum, 55, 56. 
" simile, 93. 
" striatum, 56. 
" triste, 94. 
Çallidryas eubiile, 74. ' 
Calosoma scrutator, 120. 
Calyptus, major, n. sp., 228. 

" rotundiceps, n. sp., 228. 
" tibiator, n. sp., 229. 
" onexicanus, n. sp., 229. 
Caterpillabs in Belgium, 64. 
Catocala, List of North American spe- 
cies, 164. 
Caulfield, F. B., Articles by, 98. 
Chalcophora virginiensis, 37. 
Chambers, V. T., Articles by, 7, 25, 41, 
65, 88, 106, 123, 126, 146, 169, 191, 206, 
221. 
Chionobas— ?, 204. 
Chlamys plicata, 196. 
(Jhrj'sebothris, 33. 

" femorata, 37, 124. 

Chrysomela Bigsbyana, 232. 
" clivicollis, 232. 
" confinis, 231. 

" multipunctata, 232. 
" philadelpbica, 197. 
" rufipes, 233. 
" scalaris, 38. 
" spiraeae, 232. 
Chrysophaci, 47. 
Girrha gen. nov., 146. 

" platanella, n. sp., 146. 
Cirrhophanus triangulifer, n. sp. , 187. 
Cis micans, 151. 
Clementi, v.. Articles by, 36. 
Cleonis vittatus, 155. 
Clisiocampa americana, 134. 

sylvatica, 134, li)0. 
Clytus fuscus, 95. 
" longipes. 95. 
" lunulatus, 95. 
" muricatulus, 96. 
" speciosus, 37. 
" undaytus, 94. 
" undulatus, 94. 

COLEOPTEEA, List of, 12. 

" on some leaf mining, 123, 

" taken at Grimsby, 98. 

Colias, 48 

" philodice, 74. 
" interior, 179, 202. 
Collecting Tour in Labrador, 39, 59. 
Conchylis iio6inson«7!œ, n. sp., 101. 

'* 5 maculana, 101. 
Copiophora mucronata, n. sj>. , 16. 
Coriscium, 7. 

" albinatella, 25. 

Corydalis cornutus, 38, 
CouPEB, Wm., Articles by, 39, 59, 201. 
Couper's Labrador Tour, 179. 



Cowcatcher, Ride on a, 14. 

CEAMBIDiE, 157. 

Ckesson, E. t.. Articles by, 21, 61, 81, 

226. 
Criocephalus agrestis, 56. 
Croft, Pbof. H. H., Articles by, 119. 
Cryptocephalus notatus, 196. 

" pubescens. 196. 

" sellatus, 197. 

Cryptolechia, 92. 

D 

Danais archippus, 74, 85, 199. 
Debis portlandia, 75. 
Deilephila galii, 205. 

*' chaemanerii, 206. 

Dendroctonus rufipennis, 153. 
Depressaria, 67, 88, 90, 91, 123, 129, 14G, 
169. 

" albipunctella, 169. 

" albisparseUa,}i. sp., 22, 12S,Tl4:G. 

" _ Aplana, 91. 

" atrodorsella, 91. 

" hicostomacuhlla , n. sp., 127, 

128, 129, 147, 2'6. 

" himacideUa, n. sp., 108, 129,147. 

histrigella, n. sp., 92, 128, 147. 
" cercerisella. n. sp., 108, 129, 

132, 147. 
" cinereocostella, 91. 

" cryptolechiella, n. s})., 90, 91, 

129, 147. 

dubitella, n. sp., 90, 91, 92, 128, 
147. 
" fuscoluf€eUa,n. sp. , 106, 129,147. 
" fusco-ochreUa, n, sp., 106, 147. 

" Lecontella, 146, 

" Ontariella, 91. 

" obscurusella, n. sj)., 106, 128, 

129, 147. 
" pallidochrellu, n. sp., 126,129, 

147. 
" pseudacaciella, n. »p., 9, 107, 

129, 
" pulvipennella, 91. 

quercieUa, n. sp., 127, 147, 207. 
Rileijdla, n. sp., 106, 129, 147. 
" robiniella, 91, 107. 

" umbellana, 91. 

" versicolorella, n. sp., 127, 129, 

147. 
Deemapteea (Orthoptera) List of, 30. 
Desmocerus cyaneus, 120. 
Diabrotica vittata, 37. 
Diapheroma femorata, 200. 
Dicerca, 31, 32. 

lurida, 38. 
Dodge Chas. E., Article by, 14. 
Dodge, G. M.. Articles by, 198, 217. 
Doryphora 10 lineata, 37, 200. 

E 

Editoeial, 1. 

Edwards, W. H., Articles by, 238. 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



243 



Egeria exitiosa, 133. 

Entomology, American Illustrations of, 

235. 
Ektomological Society of Ontario, 141. 

" " Annual Meeting 

of, 187. 
Entomological Loss, 179. 
Epicauta ■vittata, 139. 
Errata, 69, 150. 
Error Corrected, 198. 
Eubadizon amtricanus, n. sp., 230. 
" laterals, 71. sp., 229. 

" maculirentris, n. sp., 229. 

" jtlcuralis, n. sp., 230. 

Eudamus tityrus, 75, 86. 
Eulophus, 28. 

" gracillariae, 28. 
Eumolphus vitis, 197. 
Euphorus meUipcs, n. sp., 227. 
'• scUulus, n. sp., 227. 

" scidptus, n. sp., 227. 

Euphyes metacomet, 150. 
Euptoieta claudia, 75, 85. 
Euptychia areolata, 74. 
Euspilapteryx, 7. 
Evagora difficilisella, n. sp. , 05 192. 

F 

Female decoys, 138. 
Feniseca tarquinius, 76, 85. 



G 

Gelechia, 65, 66, 69, 88, 90, 125, 147, 169. 
'' aderucella, 125. 
" aequepulrella, n. sp., 192, 193. 
" alhistrigella, n. sp., 171. 
'■ apicistrigella, 17.'). 
" anthyllidella, 69. 
" aitrimaculella, n. sp., 172. 
" badiomamdella, n. sp., 192. 
" continuella, 126. 
" curvilineella, n. S}}., 172. 

difficilisella, 192. 
" discomaculella, n. sp., 172. 
" disco-ocella, n. sp., 194. 
" fuscomacidella, n. sp., 170. 

'■ fuscopulvella, ti. sp., 170. 

glandulella, 18, 6.5. 
" grisella, n. sp.,l'J\. 
' " Hermonnella, 67, 148, 169, 173, 

" Labradorica, 125. 
ligulella, 125. 

" longifasciella, 174. 

" mimella, 69. 

" obliquistrigella, 175 

" obscurella, n. sjj., 170. 

" palpiannulella, n. sp., G8. 

" Physaliella, n. sp., 173. 

" quercinigraceUa,n. sp., 170. 

" quercivorella,n. sp.,\Ti. 

*' quinqueanmdeUa, n. sp., 191. 

" ' roseosufîusella, 09, 148, 169, 174, 
193. 



Gelechia, rw66?ise//a, sjin. ., 193. 
" rubidella, 193. 
" similiel! a, n.sp., 193. 
" stiffusella, 71. sp>., 171- 
" tephriasella, n. sp., 68. 
" thoraceochrella, n. sp>., 169, 170. 
" variiella, 174. 
" vorticella, 125. 
Gnorimus maculostis, 119. 
Gooseberry Fruit Worm, 134. 
Gracillaria, 7, 8, 27. 

" alhinatella, n. sp., 25. 

" desmodifoliella, 26. 

" eupatoriella, n. sp>., 9. 

•' gradatella, 26. 

" jv:gla7idiella,n. sp.,23, 88. 

" 'jugla7idisnigrdla,n. sp., 88. 

Kollariella, 26. 
" lespedezaefoliella, 7. 

" ononidis, 11. 

" Fackardella, n. sp. , 27. 

" pavoniella, 9, 11. 

" plantagi7iicella,n. sp., 10. 
" purpîi'Hella, 71. sp., 27, 29. 
" robiniella, 7, 8, 9. 

" salicifoliella, n. sp., 8, 25. 

" \2 li7ieella.n. sp.. II. 

" violacella, 26. 

Graphisurus pusillus, 55. 
Grapta, 46, 47. 
" faunus, 75. 
" progne, 204. 
Geote. Aug. R, Articles by, 69, 101, 125, 
136, 164, 187, 214, 220. 

H. 

Hadrobregmus foveatus, 151. 
Hagno gen. nov., L29, 19L 
" cryptolechiella, 131, 132. 
" faginella, 7i. sp., 131. 
Haltica, 36. 

" puncticellis, 235. 
" vicina, 234. 
Hargium lineatum, 96. 
Hemipthra, 157. 

" Heteroptera, List of, 29. 

Heeibeia, 43. 

" viicertella, 7i. sp., 44. 
Hespeeid^, 48. 

Hesperia, on a new Checkered, 69. 
Hesperian, a new, 217. 
Hesperia acanootus, 150. 

•' bathyllus, 76, 86. 

" communis, 220. 

" delaware, 76. 

" minois, n. sp., 211. 

" mandans, 205. 

" numitor, 77. 

" paniscus, 205. 

" phylfcus, 76. 

Powesheik, 218. 

" sassacuH, 77. 



244 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



Hesperia samoset, 76 86. 


Leptura, gulosa, 115. 


" tessellata, 76, 86. 


" longiceps, 118. 


textor, 76. 


" longicornis. 116. 


" vema, 76. 


" proteus, 116, 


vialis, 76. 


" quadrifasciata, 114 


" vitellius, 76. 


" semivittata, 115 116. 


" zabulon, 76. 


" sexmaculata, 114. 


Hints to Emit Growers. 133. 


" similis, 116. 


HiPPAECHIA, 46. 


" subargentata, 116. 


Hispa inaequalis, 125. 


" Eubpubescens, 112. 


" quadrata, 125, 


" tenuior, 113. 


Holcocera. 38, 65. 


" vagans, 114. 


" chalcofrontella, 65. 


" vittata, 115. 


" glandvlella, n. sp., IS, 65. 


Lephyrus arcticus, 155. 


HoKN, Dr. Geo. H.. 200. 


" colon, 154. . 


Howard, Wm. R., Article by, 219. 


" gemellus, 155. 


Hylobius confusus, 154. 


Lerema accius, 76. 


Hylurgus rufipennis, 153. 


Leucania unipuncta, 23. 


Htmenoptera, Descriptions of N. A., 21, 


Leucanthiza, 124. 


61, 81, 226. 


Libythea bachmannii, 75, 180, 239. 


Hyperchiria varia, 160. 


" _ motya, 180, 239. 


Hypercompa Lecontei, 37. 


Limenitis, 46. 


Hyponomeuta, 44. 


" arthemis, 37, 


" euonymella, n. ^j9.,'42, 43, 


" misippus, 74, 85. 


88. 


" " Description of a Re 


" lengimacuhlla, n. sp., 43, 


markable Variety of, 216. 


multipunctella, 42. 
" orbimaculella, oi. sp. , 88. 


Ursula, -75, 85, 217. 
Limochores bimacula, notes on, 150. 


LithocoUetis 7, 123. 


I 


guttifinitella, 124. 




ornatella, 9, 107. 


Ichneutes abdominalis, 230. 


robiniella, 9, 107. 


" bicolor,n. sp., 230. 


tubiferella, 123, 124. 


" fulvi2yes, n. sp., 231. 


London Branch, Meetings of, 57, 77. 


Insects, Canadian, Geop^raphical Distrlbu- 
of, 184 


Lophonotds. 43. 

LYCiENID.E, 47. 


" " notes on some genera 


Lycena ?, 204, 205. 


of, 209, 236. 


" agriolus, 87. 


Insect Collections, Prizes for, 159. 


" comyntas, 87. 


Insects in Pennsylvania, 140. 


lucia, 205. 




" lygdamus, 204. 


K 


Scudderi, 205. 


Kingston Branch, 78. 


M 


KiRBT's Insects of British North Am- 




erica, 31, 52, 93, 111, 151, 175, 196, 


Ivlacaria liturata, 1 60. 


231. 


Macoun, Prof. , 157. 


L 


Macrobasis Fabricii, 139. 


Macrops, 175. 


Leconte,~Dr. John L., 200.- 


" maculicollis. 176. 


Leiophron laevis, n. sp., 228. 
Lema trilineata, 37. 


" viticollis, 176, 


Melanophila, 34, 


Lepidopteea, Descriptions of, from Ala- 


" longipes, 35, 


bama, 101. 


Melitaea 47. 


Collected at Fox Bay, Anti- 


Harrisii, 198, 237. 


costi, &c., 201. 


" " Notes on the Larva of, 


Lepidephorus, 176. 


161. 


lineaticoris, 177. 


" ismeria, 85. 


Leptura, 111. 


" tharos, 75, 203. 


' argentata, 115. 


Members, Notice to, 58. 


brevis, 114. 


Mesochorus atriventris, n. sp. , 21. 


", canadensis, 113. 


" ag His, n. sp., 22. 


chrysocoma, 112. 


'' americanus,n. sp.,2'3. 


" erythroptera, 113. 


'' hasalis, n. sp., 22. 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



!45 



Mesochorus, luteipes, n. sp.. 22. 
" . melle us, n. ip., 24:. 
" obliquas, n. sp., 24. 

*' scituius,H. •sj3.,23 24,62. 

" totoiiacvs, n. sp.. 23. 

" vitreus, n. cp., 23. 

Metoniu- la^;-' igatas, 124. 
Mexican Honey Ant, 120. 
MiCROGASTitR, 62. 
Micro Lepidoptera, 7, 25, 41, 65, 88, 106, 

126, 146, 169, 191, 206, 221. 
Microct'inus ai/Uis, n. sp., 226. 
MiNOT, C. S , Articles by, 150, 160. 
Miscellaneous Notes, 19, 36, 58, 78, 97, 119, 

138, 159, 179, 198, 218. 237. 
Mouohammus confus, r 54. 

" marmorator, 55, 98. 

" notatus, 54. 

resutor, 54, 
" scutellatus, 54. 

" titillator, 54. 

Moths at Sta, 160. 
MuKTFELDT, Maky E., Article by, 143. 

N 

Nematocampa expunctaria. n. sp., 101. 

" tilanientaria, 101. 

Nisoniades brizo, 76, 86. 

• ' catulms, 76, 86. 

" juvenalis, 76, 86. 

' • martialis, 76, 86. 

Notes and Queries, 119. 
Nysius raphanus, n. sp., 219. 

o 

Obituary 70, 118. 
Odontomus proxima, 33. 

" irii.ervia, 32, 33. 

Ornix, 8. 
Orthoptera, 14, 20, 30. 

" Notes on new, 16. 

Lis of, 30. 
Orthosoma cylindiicum. Stridulations of, 

139. 
Osmia canadensis, 237. 
OsTEN Sacken, Baron, 156. 
Uxypteris appendicular a, 34 



Pachyrhynchus Schonherri, 177. 
Pa^hybrachis pu c tctns, 196. 
Pachyta iturata. 111. 
Packard A. S.. j.^, 200. 
Papiiioiiidae, 47, 48. 
Fapilioaste;ias,37, 74, 83, 202. 
" ajax, 74, 85. 
" bievicituda. 2i'2. 
" glaucus, 74, 85. 
" philenor, 74. 
' iwilyxeiie.-j, L02. 
.- d' i\is, L'(!2. 
u-.iil. t-, 7Î, 85. 
lam, .5., .J. SI, 



Parasia, 65, 88. 

apicistrigella, n. sp., 65,175. 
" griseadla, n. sp., 88. 
Pareetoi a 7 10. 

" lespedezaefoliella, 7, 8, 9. 

" robiuiella 7, 8. 

Peach Borer, 133. 
Pelidnota punctata, 119. 
Personal, 156, 200. 
Pet ''Vasp, Sir John Lubbock's, 239. 
Pe:tit, J., Articles bj', 3, 12, 98. 
Perilitus, 81. 

" , communis, n. sp., 82, 83. 
" dimidiatus, n. sp., 83, 84. 
" humilis,n. sp., 84. 
" intermedins, n. sp., 82, 83. 
" nireitarsis, n. sp., 81, 82. 
■' paUitarsis, n sji., 81, 82. 
" proximus, n. sp..9iZ. 
" vufffct; is, n. sp., 83. 
Pezomachus altematus, «. sp., 64. 

" canadensis, n. sjJ., 62, 63. 

" compactus, n. sp.. 63. 

" dimidiatus n. s/j. , 63, 64, 

" gentilis n. sp., 61. 

" gracilis, n. sp., 63, 64. 

■' macer, n. sp., 64. 

" meabilis, n. sp., 62. 

" minimus, 62. 

" obscurus. n. sp., 62. 

" Pettitii, n. sp., 61, 62. 

" tantilius, n. s]}., 62. 

'■ Texanus, n. sp., 64. 

'' unicolor, n. sp., 64. 

Phaedon Adimidis 233. 
' ' Kaphani , 233. 
" polyL-oni, 234. 
Photinus corrusca, 36. 
Phj'cor.des tharos, 2i .3, 
PhylL'd eta vitellinae, 234. 
Phylloxera vastatrix in Portugal, 167. 
Phymatodes iJroteus,-93. 
Pi.:^ris, 48. 

" f.igida 202. 

" inetra, 104. 

" norangl'U, n. S2X, 79, 103. 

" oleracea, 103 

" protodice 74, 240. 

" rapae, 98, 2.3. 

" Notes on, 102. 
" " on a variety unknown in 

Europe, 79. 
" vernalis, 240. 
Plusia gamma, 1 60. 
Polygraphus rufipennis, 152, 

POLYHISTOE, 38. 

Polyommatus americanus, 37, 75. 
Prionus coriarius, 140. 
" imbricornis, 1-10. 
" obliquicoinia, 14". 
Pronuba Yucca^-ella, 18-'. 
Pyr!>meis, 46. 

" atalanta, 204. 

" cardui, 204. 

" huntera, 75, 85. 



246 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



Pytho americanus, 53. 
dep essus, 53. 
" riiger, 53. 

R 

PwVD.SH Bug, th', 219. 

Reed, E. B., Ar.icles by, 119, 159, 240. 

Eepokt, E'itom Lgual, 59, 92, 105. 

Rhagium Jineatum, 96. 

Rhinaria Schoriheni, 177. 

RiijEY, l-'ROF C. v., 157. 

" Ardclesby, 18, 19, 38, 

139, 218. 
EoBiNSON, Coleman T., Death of, 118. 
" '■ List of Writings 

of, 109. 
KoGERS E,. v.. Articles b\-, 78, 119, 138, 
199. 200. 



Sa/aritus gen. nov., 225. 
gracilelli, 226. 
Satyriis, 45, 46. 
'■ al.^pe, 74. 
" eurytris, 74. 
Saunders, W., Articles by. 36, 49, 57 58. 

77. 121, 133, 139 161, 179, 235. 237, 

240. 
ScoDDEK, S. H., Artie es by, 20, 45, 73, 79, 

84. 
Sesia ruficaudis 205. 
Sex, Determination of, 78. 
Simul'a molesta, 37. 
Smerinthus modestus, 36. 
Spectrum femoratum, 200. 
Sp'enophoras pertiiiax, J54. 
Stenurirf divaricata, 31. 32. 
'■ teuebrosa 31, 32. 
Strangnlia fugax, 114. 

" luteicornis, 119. 

" sex-macuiata, 115. 

Strobisia, 88, 91 

'" aphroditeella, n. sp., 88. 

emblem-.-lla, 88, 89, 90. 

" iridipennella 88, 89. 

'' venusieUa, n.sp.,90. 

Syricthus communis, 69. 

T 

Telphv^a gen. nov., 132. 

curvistrigella. 133. 174. 
Tent Catekpill rs, 134, 199. 
Terias lisa, 74. 

" nicippe 74 85. 
Tetropiun, 93. 

*' cinnamopterum, 94. 



Thecla, 47. 

" ■ cal/niis, 75, 86. 

"■ humuli, 86. 

'■ irus, 80. 

" mopsus, 75. 

'' niphon, 75, 85. 

" strigosa, 75, 86. 
Thomas, Prof. C., Article by, 16. . 
ïhymele proteus, 76. 
Thyreus nessus, 37. 
Tomicus pini, 151. 
Trachypteris Drummondii, 33. 

'* umbellatarum, 34. 

Trachyphloeus melanothrix, 177. 
Traciiys acuducta, 52. 

'* aurulenta, 35. 

" pygmaea, 124. 
Tri .'hius Bigsbii, 119. 
Trogosita americana, 53. 
" caraboides, 54. 
Typocerus fu. ax, 119. 

V 

Vanessa. 46. 

•• antiopa, 37, 75, 85, 204, 218, 219 

" coenia, 75, 85. 

" milberti, 36. 
Venilia gen. nov., 2U7. 

" albapalpella, n. sp., 208. 

w 

Walker, Francis, Articles by, 29, 98, 184, 

209, 236. 
Wheat Wire Worm, 3. 

X 

Xyleutes robiniae, 37. 
XylotirTOS bivittata, 152. 

Y 

Ypsolophus, 207.209. 

" carycefoliella, n. «p., 224. 

coatubtTiialellus, 223. 
" eupatorieHa, n. sp., 221. 

flavivitellus, 223. 
" pom'tellus 222. 

" ptmctiaiscellus, 225. 

quercieUa, 223, 224. 
'' quercipominella, n. sp., 222, 

223. 
" Reedella. n. sp., 222. 

•' StraminieUa, n. sp., 224. 



Zoological parallelism, 155. 



THE CANADIAN 



ENTOMOLOGIST. 



VOLUME V. 



(Ebiteli bg the fv£b. OT. J. S. ^cllume, M. Jl„ 

Head Master of Trinity College School, Port Hope, Ont. 



ASSISTKB JSY 

WM. SAUNDERS, London, Ont. ; | E. B. REED, Barrister-at-Law, London, Ont 

and J. M. DENTON, London, Ont. 



'^'7 d^^ 



O e ^:^^: 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY THE FREE PRESS STEAM PRINTING COMPANY, RICHMOND ST 

1873 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTERS TO THIS VOLUME. 



ANDREWS, W. V New York. 

BASSETT, H. F Waterbury, Conn. 

BELL, PROF. J. J Belleville, Ont. 

BETHUNE, REV. C. J. S., The Editor Port Hope, Ont. 

CAULFIELD, F. B Montreal, P. Q. 

CHAMBERS, V. T Covington, Kv. 

COUPER, WM Montreal, P. Q. 

CRESSON, E. T Philadelphia, Pa. 

DODGE, G. M Ohio, III. 

EDWARDS, W. H Coalburgh, W. Va. 

GENTRY, THOS. G Germantown, Pa. 

GROTE, AUG. R Buffalo, N. Y. 

LINTNER, J. A Albany, N. Y. 

MEAD, THEODORE L New York. 

MOODY, H. L Malden, Mass. 

MORRISON, H. K Cambridge, Mass. 

RILEY, PROF. C. V St. Louis, Mo. 

ROGERS, R. V Kingston, Ont. 

SAUNDERS, W London, Ont. 

SCUDDER,S. H Boston, Mass. 

SUMMERS, S. V New Orleans, La. 

UHLER, P. R Baltimore, Mb. 

WALKER, FRANCIS London, Eng. 

WILLIAMS, J London, Ont. 



VOL. V. LONDON, ONT., JANUARY, 1873. No. 



-1873.- 

It has been our custom at the commencement of a new volume to 
offer our hearty greetings to our friends and correspondents, to all v/ho 
read the Canadian Entomologist, — to all, iiideed, who take a kindly 
interest in the success of our journal and the welfare of our Society. 
This year we do so most cordially, with not a little pardonable pride, 
when we remember that it is for the fifth time. Four years and a half 
have elapsed since we ventured to put forth our diminutive first number 
that consisted merely of eight pages ; with our last December number we 
completed our fourth volume and eight-hundredth page of Entomological 
matter ! 

A complaint has once or twice reached us lately to the effect that our 
publication was gradually becoming too technical, and consequently of 
decreasing interest to a large number of our readers, who, from various 
causes, are unable to become deep students of the science, but who take 
great delight in learning all they can respecting the economy and classifi- 
cation of the insects of the country. We must confess that the complaint 
is not unfounded, and that we have almost unconsciously drifted some- 
what away from the design of the periodical. It has always been our 
intention and desire to meet the requirements, if possible, of two classes 
of readers — those, on the one hand, who are leaders in the pursuit of 
Entomology, and who, therefore wish to have presented to them in 
convenient form all discoveries of new species and other valuable 
scientific information that may from time to time be acquired by their 
fellows, — and those, on the other hand, who collect and study insects to 
some extent, but are not yet far advanced in the pursuit ; or who merely 
regard insects as destructive or beneficial and therefore wish to know 
something about them ; or, again, who take pleasure in learning all they 
can about these creatures without either collecting or specially studying 
them. To meet the particular requirements of all these various 
descriptions of readers would, of course, be a perfect impossibility in a 
periodical of sijch limited size as ours ; at the same time we think that 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



something may be done for all who care for insects, without filling out 
pages too much with technicalities, and without losing sight of all 
additions to our knowledge by becoming simply " popular." To steer a 
suitable course between the Scylla of abstruse science on the one side, 
and the Charybdis of mere "popularity" on the other, is no easy task, 
and we fear has not yet been achieved by us. We hope, however, in the 
forthcoming volume to do a little better in this respect, and we look 
forward to ' a continuance of friendly aid from our correspondents in 
various quarters to enable us to overcome the difficulty. As a first step 
towards improvement we propose to present to our readers a series of 
illustrated papers on the common Butterflies of North America — with 
special reference to those found in Canada. We hope that we shall thus 
be enabled in time to furnish beginners in Entom^ology with a hand book 
that will enable them easily to identify any common butterfly and to 
ascertain where and when it may be found, what its larva feeds upon, and 
such other useful information as may be gathered into a short space. 
Owing to the difficulty there is in obtaining really satisfactory wood cuts of 
insects, and the time that is required for their production, we shall not be 
able to take up the different species of Butterflies in any systematic order, 
but only as we are able to obtain the necessary materials. We shall be 
very thankful, indeed, for assistance from our readers in this department ; 
almost every one can help us with lists of species observed in his own 
neighborhood, or with notes on their time of appearance and disappear- 
ance, number of broods, larval habits, etc., etc. 

The " Hints to Fruit Growers " that have been afforded by one of 
our Editorial Staff — Mr. Saunders — will be continued with greater 
frequency during thé coming year ; we are glad to learn from various 
sources that those already published have proved of much value to our 
horticultural readers. 

As a further improvement, we should be pleased to receive corres- 
pondence from our readers upon general Entomological subjects of the 
day ; for instance, at the present moment, upon the vexed, and we may 
surely say vexatious, question of nomenclature. 

It Avill be a relief, no doubt, to the majority of our readers to learn 
that the reprint of Kirby's Insects of the Northern PiVts of British 
America is now fast approaching completion, and will cease ere long to 
distress them Avith its constant recurrence. The whole will, when finished, 
be made up into a separate volume and be sold at a moderate price. We 
have no doubt that it will prove of much value to those who are unable 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



to obtain the rare and expensive, original. The space thus set free we 
propose to occupy with translations of Guenee's Descriptions of Moths, 
and reprints of Drury and other old authors whose works can seldom be 
obtained by the student of the present day. 

During the past year we have received valued contributions to our 
pages from a larger number of correspondents than ever before ; while we 
beg to offer them, for ourselves and our readers, our very hearty thanks 
for their favors, we venture to express the hope that they will not relax in 
their investigations and contributions, and that many others also will feel 
disposed to join their ranks. Without such assistance the Canadian 
Entomologist would be but a sorry production, and could not long 
protract its existence. 

Another species of support, our v/orthy Treasurer reminds us, is 
equally necessary for the maintenance and well-being of our publication — 
need we say that he refers to the grosser element of dollars and cents ? 
Our rules require the payment of all subscriptions in advance at the 
commencement of each year ; as the amount to each individual is but a 
single dollar, there ought to be no difficulty or delay on his part in 
forwarding it ; the aggregate sum thus provided is, as all must be aware, a 
matter of great importance to us, especially as we do not receive the 
Legislative grant to the Society till about midsummer. The present 
number of the Canadian Entomologist will be sent to all subscribers on 
the list for 1872, v/ho have not signified their desire to withdraw from 
membership with the Society ; no further number, however, will be sent, 
unless the amount of subscription is meanwhile received. Pay your 
honest dues, friendly reader, and then you will not fail to have in one 
respect at least, what we heartily wish you in all respects, A Happy New 
Year ! 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE LONDON BRANCH. 

At the recent annual meeting of the London branch of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario, the following officers were elected : — J. 
Williams, President ; M. L. Morgan, Vice-President ; H. P. Bock, 
Secretary-Treasurer ; F. Osborne, Curator. 

An interesting and satisfactory report was presented by the Secretary- 
Treasurer, showing an increase of membership, and also showing the 
funds of the branch to be in a prosperous condition. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 

PAPER NO. I. 
BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONTARIO. 

This paper is the first of a series in Avhich it is proposed, by members 
of the editorial staff alternately, to describe some of our more common 
insects, to illustrate them with suitable cuts, and to make the descriptions 
of so plain a character that the most unscientific reader may be able 
readily to comprehend their meaning. Since it is one of our aims in 
publishing the Entomologist to popularize our favorite science, we shall 
offer no apology for introducing into our journal these readable papers, 
in which much material may from time to time appear, which, to the 
scientific reader, may look stale and uninviting. In a recent letter from 
a correspondent who takes some interest in " bugs," but is not deeply 
versed in the technichalities of the science, he complains much of the 
depth of the learning which has been displayed in our pages during the 
past, and says that although he has frequently taken a plunge into the 
■ depths of the articles, one after another, that he has rarely been able to 
touch bottom. It will be our aim, then, while still devoting the larger 
portion of our pages to scientific matter, to introduce something into each 
future number in which subscribers of similar scientific calibre to the 
gentleman already referred to, may be able, not only to touch bottom, but 
to wander through the shallows with ease, and we hope with some degree 
of pleasure. 

The first insect of which we propose to treat is one of our commonest 
butterflies, known as the archi;ppus butterfly ( Da?iais at-chippus). This 
insect is said to hybernate during the winter; it is seen on the wing 
usually as early as the middle of May, but it is not very common until later 
in the season. These first few individuals lay their eggs on the leaves of the 
common milkweed (Asdepias cornuti) and other species of Asckpias, also 
on the bitter root (Apocy?ium a7idrosœmifûUii.m), during the latter part of 
May or the beginning of June. The eiggs, when fresh laid, are white, but 
in two or three days they become yellow and then dull gray just before 
the time of hatching. They are ^Vth of an inch long, conical in form, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 




flattened at the base. When viewed with a magnifying glass they appear 
•^''^- ^- very beautiful. See figure i, 

where a represents the egg 
much enlarged, while at c it is 
shown of natural size and in 
its usual position on the un- 
derside of the leaf. On this 
egg there are about twenty- 
five raised longitudinal lines, 
and about the same number 
of cross lines between each, 
so that the whole appears covered with a regular and beautiful net work, 
as shown in thé figure, which has been drawn from nature, as those also 
have which are to follow, by our esteemed friend, Prof C. V. Riley, of 
St. Louis, Mo. 

In about six or seven days the egg matures, producing a minute 
caterpillar one tenth of an inch long, with a large black head, and yellow- 
ish-white body, with a few black hairs on each segment, as shown at <? and/, 
fig. I. This larva grows very rapidly, and soon finds that its skin will 
bear no further stretching, when it conveniently disrobes itself and 
appears in garb gay and new by crawling out of its skin through a rent 
down the back, which takes place just at the proper time, which process 
is repeated three times during its growth. At â, fig. i, the head and 
anterior segments of the larva just before its last moult is figured for the 
purpose of showing how the long fleshy horns with which the mature 
caterpillar is furnished are conveniently coiled up Avhen buried beneath 
the old skin. 

The full grown larva, fig. 2, is about one and three quarter inches long. 
■ Fig. 2. . Its head is yellowish 

with a triangular 
black stripe in front 
below, and another 
of a similar shape 
above. 



The upper surface 
of the body is beau- 
tifully ornamented with transverse stripes of black, yellow and white, the 
white covering the greater part of each segment, and having a wide black 




THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



stripe down its centre, while the yellow occupies the spaces between. On 
the third segment (reckoning the head as first) are two long black fleshy 
horns, and on the twelfth two others of a similar character, but shorter 
and not quite so stout. 

The under side is black with a greenish flesh color between most of 
the segments. 

The next. change which comes over this caterpillar is that which trans- 
forms it to a pupa or chrysalis, a m^ost astonishing transformation, when 
the voracious larva becomes for a time torpid, senseless, and almost 
motionless while preparing for that change when it is to appear in brilliant 
plumage, and gracefully float and flutter through the air, enjoying the 
summer's sunshine and sipping the nectar of flowers. Fig. 3 shows the 

larva as it appears at 
different periods during 
its transition to the 



state of chrysalis.. AXa 
it hangs suspended from 
a silken web, in which 
its hind legs are en- 
tangled and which has 
been previously attached 
by the caterpillar to the 
underside of a leaf, or fence rail or some other secure place of retreat, and' 
here while hanging for about a day the larva contracts its length, and 
increases its bulk, especially on the anterior segments. By and by a rent 
takes place in the skin down the back, and the chrysalis begins to appear, 
and after long and persevering efforts and much wriggling the skin is 
•worked nearly up to the hinder extremitj^, as shown at b. Nov/ a difficulty 
presents itself, and a feat is to be performed to imitate which would 
puzzle the most daring acrobat, for without hands or feet to hold on by it 
has to withdraw itself from the remnants of its larva skin, and hang itself 
up by a black protuberance covered with a bunch of hooks, with which 
the chrysalis is furnished. Perilous as this undertaking seems to be, it is 
very seldom indeed that a failure occurs in its accomplishment. A ready 
explanation of the means by v/hich this is done is given at c, fig. 3. The 
joints of the abdomen being freely movable, are first stretched against a 
portion of the larva skin, when, 'by a sudden jerk backwards, the skin is 
grasped and firmly held while the terminal segments are withdrawn, and 




THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 




the process of suspension completed. Soon after this the chrysalis begins 
a series of wrigghng and jerking movements to dislodge the empty larva 
skin, after the removal of which it remains motionless, unless disturbed, 
and becomes gradually harder and more contracted until it assumes the 
appearance represented by fig. 4. 

^^^•*- The chr3^salis is about an inch long, and of a 

beautiful bright green colour dotted-^vtnth gold, and v,nlh 
a band of golden dots extending more than half way 
round the body above the middle ; this band is shaded 
with black. There is a patch of black also arouud the 
base of the black protuberance by which it is suspended, 
and several dots of the same on other portions of the 
surface. 

The insect seldom remains in chrysalis more than 
ten or twelve days, and towards the latter end of this period, the hand- 
some green and gold colours begin to fade, the chrysalis growing gradually 
darker until the diminutive wings of the future butterfly show plainly 
through the semi-transparent enclosure. The escape of the imprisoned 
insect, now nearly ready for flight, is usually made quite early in the 
morning. We have several times watched for their deliverance, and have 
usually found it to take place soon after daybreak. A sudden crackling 
and slight tearing sound is heard, which ari.ses from a splitting of the 
chrysalis case part way down the back, the fore legs, head and antennae 
are first withdrawn, and in a few moments the entire insect is liberated. 
At first the wings are very small, and the new born butterfly seeks at once 
some suitable spot Avhere the wings may be held so as to hang down and 
thus facilitate the rapid growth which follows. This growth is truly 
amazing ; we have seen the Vv^ings double their size within three mmutes, 
and seldom more than fifteen or twenty minutes pass before they have 
attained their full dimensions, and, ere the sun is high in the heavens, the 
soft, flabby wings have dried and the butterfly is ready for flight. 

The archippiis butterfly, fig. 5, is so v/ell known that it needs but little 
description, especially when so good a figure is given. The ground colour ^ 
'of the wings, when fresh, is a beautifully bright orange red, the veins are 
heavy and black, and the margins are spotted with whits, the latter being 
more or less covered or encroached upon by the general colour. Near the 
middle of the hind wings there appears in the figure on one of the veins 



TPIE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



an enlarged black streak or blotch ; this, when closely examined, is found 

Fier. 5, 




to be a small excrescence ; it is found only in the male, and by this 
peculiarity the sexes may be readily distinguished. 

We have frequently seen this butterfly in great numbers on pine trees 
which have been infested by aphis, attracted there no doubt by the sweet 
exudations which flow from the bodies of the aphis, thus interfering with 
the rights and privileges which have always been accorded to the indus- 
trious ant. They also have the fashion of congregating at times, late in 
the season, in prodigious swarms consisting of tens of thousands or 
hundreds of thousands of individuals. In September, 1S71, we met with 
a swarm of this character on the shore of Lake Erie. They hung in 
clusters everywhere on a group of trees which they completely covered ; as 
many as thirty-two individuals were counted on a space of the size of 
ones' two hands, and their total numbers we thought might safely be 
estimated by millions. No satisfactory reason has yet been assigned for 
such gatherings. 



SOME REMARKS ON CHANGES IN NAMES OF 
CERTAIN BUTTERFLIES. 

BY W. H. EDWARDS, COALBURGH, W. VA. 

Papilio Asterias. Now sought to be changed to Polyxaies, although 
from the time of Fabricius to the publication of Kirby's Catalogue (187 1), 
no other name than asterias has been in use. The species has been 
repeatedly figured as asterias in these hundred years, and under this name 
is well knowPr to çveryone who takes the least interest ip îhesç tilings. 



THE CAN'ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



What is gained by re-naming it, I am unable to see. The first mention of 
potyxenes was in Fab. Syst. Ent., page 444, No. 10, 1775, the male being 
described. Fabricius in 1787, in Mant Ins., gives the same species 
under the name of asterias, referring to Drury, vol. i, plate ii, for the 
type, and quoting his own polyxenes as synonymous. 

Papilio glaucus. . Under this name Linnseus described the black 
female of turrms, and it is only within the last ten years that it has been 
generally known that glaucus was related to turnus. When glaucus is now 
spoken of, it at once brings to mind this striking variety, and iurniis var. 
glaucus is a sufiicient designation and answers every proper requirement. 
It is eminently convenient that this variety should have its own designa- 
tion, and by it, it is treated of in Wallace,- Walsh, Darwin, Harris, and 
other authors. I hope our lepidopterists will not be deluded into 
changing these names by any supposed obligatory rule, for the simple fact 
is, there is no obligatory rule in the case. 

Danais archippus. Mr. Kirby (187 1) gives the name of this 
butterfly as ^;'it)>/z/tj- Cramer. Scudder (1872) gives it as //^.r/^/^^j Linn. 
Scudder in 1863 gave it as erippus Doubleday (But. N. England.) Mr. 
Scudder also read a paper by the late Dr. Harris before the Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist. {1859) showing that these and other names were remarkably 
confounded, for example : " The berejiice of Cramer is the erippus of 
Fabricius, but not of Cramer, and it is the gilippus of Smith, but not of 
Cramer and Fabricius ; the erippus of Cramer is the archippus of Fabri- 
cius and of Smith ; it is also the same as the plexippus of Cramer, but 
not of Linnaius and Fabricius : the misippus of Fabricius is the archippus 
of Cramer, but not of Fabricius and Smith : the erippus of Cramer is not 
the erippus of Fabricius, and the misippus of Fabricius is not the misippus 
of Linnaeus." And he gives a table "by which it will be seen that the 
nomenclature of the three North American species has become confounded 
with five others." In preparing the Synopsis of Butterflies of N. Am., I 
had at hand all the above quoted works, and could make little of this 
tangle ; and as our northern species of Danais has been generally known 
and written of and figured as archippus, I deemed it advisable to adhere 
to that name as one resting place in a foggy sea. It is so figured in 
Abbot & Smith, Boisduval & Leconte, and so called in Llarris' Ins. Mass. 
2nd Edition, which work I believe had the assistance of Mr. Scudder in 
preparing for the press. 



10 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



LiMENiTis URSULA. Changed to astyanax by Butler, 1869, and 
followed by Kirby and Scudder. Fabricius' Syst. Ent., 1775, named the 
species astyanax. In Ent. Syst., 1793, he re-named it Ursula for the 
following reason : It then stood, in the genus Papilio, in which also stood 
another astyanax. He therefore changed the name of the first to ursula, 
and by this latter the species has come down to this day. It is so figured 
by Abbott & Smith, and by Boisduval & Leconte. That Fabricius was 
right in so changing the name to avoid a duplicate in the same genus, is 
undoubted, and although the species which still retains the name astyanax 
has since been found to be the female of something else, and hence loses its 
original name, there seems no good reason for disturbing ursula. Fabri" 
cius was right in making the change, and once right always right in such 
a matter. Of course I do not allow or believe that proserpina is a variety 
of Ursula; it is as near arthemis as ursula in some respects. 



ON THE LARVA OF PLUSIA BALLUCA. 

BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONT. 

In the second volume (1863,) of the Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Philadelphia, I published a paper on some of our Lepidopterous 
larvae, and among other descriptions there appeared one purporting to be 
that of Plusia balluca. By some unfortunate mishap a description of 
the larva of V. inter rogationis was sent in place of the intended one of 
balluca, and the mistake was not discovered until after the number had 
been issued, while all trace of the original description of the larva of 
balluca was lost. I did not again meet with this larva until the summer 
of 187 1, when a fresh description was taken on the 15th of June, as 
follows : — 

Length, 1.20 in. ; body thickest on middle and posterior segments, taper- 
ing towards the tront ; the body is arched or looped along the middle seg- 
ments when in motion. 

Head rather small, bilobed, of a shining green color, with a few whitish 
hairs. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 11 

Body, above, yellowish-green, streaked and spotted with white, inter- 
mixed all through with green, thus dividing the white into a series of 
streaks, dots and broken lines ; there is also a line of greenish-white on 
each side, close to the undersurface. Each segment has a few tubercles of a 
green color, striped with white ; these are small on the Second, third and 
fourth segments, but much larger from fifth to twelfth, inclusive, and 
entirely wanting on the terminal segment. On each of the hinder segments, 
with the exception of the last three, are ten or twelve of these tubercles, 
which almost coyer the whole surface, and from each of the tubercles 
throughout there arises a single whitish hair. 

The under surface is of a deeper green than the upper, with a few- 
short whitish hairs, chiefly on 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, nth and 12th segments. 
Feet green, prolegs, of which there are three pairs, green also., 

This larva became a chrysalis on the i8th of June, and produced the 
moth on the 13th of July. 

In the caterpillar state, the insect feeds on the hop, consuming the 

leaves, but we have never 
known it to occur in 
sufficient numbers to do 
much damage. The moth, 
(see fig. 6,) measures, 
when expanded, about 
i^ inches. A large 
portion of the upper surface 
of the fore-wings is covered 
with brilliant, metallic 
'^' ■ green scales, which are 

darker on the lower portion of the middle and on the tips of the wings, 
and much paler towards the inner angle. The wings are covered by two 
oblique, irregular brown lines, and parts of the upper and outer portions 
are tinged with purplish. The hind wings are of a brownish dusky grey, 
without markings. The anterior portion of the body is pale brown, marked 
with buff and curiously crested above, the hinder portions of the body are 
paler. The under surface of both front and hind wings is dull, varying in 
shade from pale buff to brown, one of the brown lines on the upper surface 
of fore-wings being reproduced and extended across the hind wings. 

This moth has been found in various parts of Canada, but in no instance 
have we heard of its being met with in any considerable numbers. 




12 " THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Vol. 4, Page 226, 

Errata et corrigenda. — Ante vol. 4, p. 148, for Hermonella read 
Hermanella ; p. 149, for Alexandriacella read Alexandriœella ; p. 173, line 
II, for "there" read "then;" p. 195, line 5, for "all the veins are 
united near the end of the cell," which is an unaccountable blunder, read 
' all the veins given off from the cell arise near its end." 

ANESYCHIA. 

A. trifurcella, n. sj>. 

White ; palpi annulate and tipped with dark brown or black ; a 
longitudinal median blackish stripe on the thorax, and a spot of the same 
hue on each side of it ; primaries white with a median wide blackish 
longitudinal streak beginning on the costa at the base, gradually widening 
to the apex, where two small white streaks or spots divide it into three 
short branches. Sometimes these white spots completely separate the 
outer branches from the median one. A row of small dark brown dots 
around the apex ; a small spot near the dorsal margin about the basal 
fourth, and a larger one about the apical third of the wing. Antennae 
dark brown. A/ar ex. \\ inch. Kentucky, in July. 

HYPONOMEUTA. 

H. orbimaculella. Ante p. 88. Vol. 4. 

This was described by me, a7ite p. 42, as H. euofiyniiella, and the name 
changed because of its resemblance to the name of a European species, 
H. evonymella. I had not then seen the European species, nor any figure 
or description of it. Since then, however, I have seen the figure in 
Wood's Index Entomologicus, and think it most probable that this species 
is identical with it. The arrangement of the spots is identical, but in the 
figure of evonymella the fore wing is shaded with a smoky or brownish 
hue, while in all my specimens it is pure snow white ; and the color of the 
hind wings in the figure is darker, and of a different shade from any of 
my specimens, in which the shade varies from snow white to lead color. I 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 13 

incline to think that the maturity of the imago at the time of its death 
has something to do with the color of the hind wings, specimens killed 
very soon after emergence having them more slaty or lead colored than 
older ones. 

ARGiOPE, gen. nov. 

A. dorsimaculella. 

Heribeia ? hicertella ante p. 44. Vol. 4. 

In my former notice of this species I placed it, provisionally and with 
great doubt, in Stephens' genus Heribeia. I find, however, that either 
Heribeia Stephens is very different from the Heribeia of more modern Eng- 
lish authors (which includes such small genera as Phiîocnistis , Lyonetia, &c.,) 
or I have mistaken the characters of Stephens' genus from his brief 
diagnosis. I had supposed it (from the characters given by Stephens and 
its location among his genera) to be allied closely to Yponometita. At any 
rate, as I cannot satisfactorily locate this species in any genus known to 
me, I think it best to erect a new one for it with the diagnosis given at 
p. AZ—Vol. 4. 

It differs from Yponomeuta in the colors and patterns of coloration ; 
in having the terminal joint of the labial palpi a little larger in proportion 
to the others ; in having the head entirely smooth ; in having the primaries 
a little falcate beneath the apex, though the neuration is not materially 
different ; in having the costal margin of the secondaries a little excised 
before the tip, which is pointed, and in having only a single branch (the 
superior furcate one) given off from the discal vein (while Yponometita has 
an inferior simple branch also), and in having the median furcate from the 
end of the cell, whilst in Yponomeuta it is simple. 

GRACILLARIA. 

G. blandella ? Clem. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., i86j, p. ç. 

Although Dr. Clemens' description is not strictly accurate, or rather, i& 
not altogether intelligible, where applied to the insects now before me > 
and I have not seen his specimens, yet notwithstanding the close resem- 
blance which sometimes exists between different species of this genus, I 
have very little doubt that my specimens belong to this species. Should 
it, however, prove otherwise, then I suggest for these specimens the name 
G. juglandivorella and annex the following description : 



14 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Face pale lemon yellow (or yellowish stramineous), palpi of the same 
hue, each joint of the maxillary palpi tipped with dark purple, the labial 
palpi thickly dusted with dark purple and with a wide dark purple annulus 
close to the tip. Vertex dark purple, with pale lemon yellow intermixed ; 
antennae pale lemon yellow, faintly annulate with purple at the base, 
towards the apex purple, faintly annulate with pale lemon yellow. Thorax 
dark purple, with a narrow pale lemon yellow median longitudinal stripe, 
and a wider and more distinct one on each side above the wings, and a 
dark purple spot before the wings. Primaries pale lemon yellow and dark 
purple ; the dorsal margin is dark purple from the base to near the ciliae, 
where the purple widens over the apical portion of the wing, except a small 
lemon yellow spot on the edge of the costal ciliae before the apex ; costal 
margin from the base to the basal fourth dark purple ; from the basal 
fourth of the costa a rather wide fascia passes obliquely backwards from 
the costal purple to the dorsal purple, uniting them, and thus enclosing on 
the base of the disc an oblong pale lemon yellow spot. Immediately 
behind the oblique purple fascia, the dorsal purple is excavated, and the 
wing is pale lemon yellow to the costa and as far back as the ciliae, with a 
little purple dusting or row of small purple spots along the extreme costa 
before the ciliae. Sometimes there is a faint golden or stramineous patch 
in the purple at the extreme apex, and sometimes the apex is a little 
dusted with golden or stramineous, Ciliae golden or stramineous, with 
three wide dark purple hinder marginal lines, one at the base, one in the 
middle, and one at the tip. (Perhaps they might be better described as 
dark purple, with two shining stramineous hinder marginal lines, one before 
their middle and one before their tip.) Posterior wings and ciliae dark 
purplish fuscous. Anterior and middle legs yellowish mixed with purple 
behind, dark purple in front except the tarsi, which are silvery white with 
each joint tipped with purple. Posterior legs yellowish except the apical 
half of the outer surface of the femora, the tips of the tibiae behind, and 
the tip of each tarsal joint. Thorax and upper surface of the abdomen 
dark purple ; venter pale lemon yellow. In some lights what I have 
called dark purple appears violaceous or iridescent, and the stramineous 
portions appear golden or sulphur yellow. Al. ex. l\ in. Kentucky. 

Dr. Clemens received his specimen from Virginia. I have bred it 
from the leaves of the Black Walnut (ytcglans Jiigra). It ïnines the 
upper surface, and, when first taken, was supposed to be the mine of a 
Philocnistis, containing a pupa. It was something more than an inch 
long, a little crooked, very narrow, and resembled a small snail's track. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 15 

Not far from one end the mine was widened a little and the cuticle 
puckered, forming a small nidus like that of a Philocnistis pupa. Within 
this nidus a small larva was visible. It was white, with the head pointed 
before, but widened behind, and with the thoracic segments much swollen 
and tapering rapidly from thence to the tail. (There is a good deal of 
resemblance betweenthe very young larvae of Oracillaj'ia, Philocnistis and 
LithocoUeiis of the cylindrical group.) In a day or two it changed its 
form, becoming cylindrical and pale yellowish white, and it left the mine 
and went to the under side of the leaf, where it turned down the edge over 
it, and, after eating out the parenchyma, turned it down in another place, 
repeating this operation two or three times until it finally became a pupa 
under the edge last turned down. Sometimes (at least in the breeding 
jar) it leaves the leaf and pupates under a sheet or coverlet of white silk 
like G. salicifoliella and many other species. Which mode it follows in a 
state of nature I am unable to say, having never found it in the pupa 
state. G. jîiglandiella mihi mines the under surface of the leaves, 
but the mine is larger and more blotch like, and when it leaves the mine 
it goes to the upper side of the leaf which it curls upwards over itself and 
there passes the pupa state. I do not mean to say that this habit of going 
to the side of the leaf opposite the mine is universal in either species, but 
only so far as I have observed it in some ten specimens of each. G. 
blandella is a very handsome species. 



A BALLOON SPIDER. 

BY WILLIAM COUPER, MONTREAL. 

"The American Naturalist" for May, 187 1, contains an interesting 
article on " Flying Spiders," by J. H. Emerton. The species noticed by 
him are, no doubt, allied to the gossamer of Europe, and the phenomenon 
occurs early in autumn on the Islands of the St. Lawrence. 

During the month of July, 187 1, while trout-fishing on a large lake 
near the Upper Assumption, about one hundred miles north of Montreal, 
my attention was drawn to an inflated transparent substance of 
an oblong cocoon shape, passing about fifty yards over my head. To this 
miniature balloon, a thread was attached, and, on tracing it downward, its 
architect was seen struggling on the surface of the lake. Taking up the 



16 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

paddle and forcing the canoe in order to secure this curious spider, 
imagine my disappointment, just as I was within a yard of it, to see it 
swallowed by a trout. The day was fine, with just sufficient wind to waft 
a delicate body of this nature across the lake. My curiosity being aroused, 
I kept a good look out for another specimen, but no more were seen that 
day. 

On another lake further north, and during similar weather, I was 
pleased to witness a number of these in their aeronautic excursions, and 
on a rock in the centre of the lake was fortunate in capturing a specimen 
of the spider. In size it is as large as the house spider. The body and 
legs are densely covered with stiff hair; its mandibles are long and sharp. 
It was extremely active, and lived about three weeks in a box after its 
capture. I am at a loss to account for the mode in which this spider pro- 
duces the structure with the extraordinary length of attached thread, 
which it manages to send off in the air. The woods near the lakes are 
principally pines, which are moss-covered and rugged, and yet, these 
curious balloons are evidently constructed on trees on the margin of the 
lakes. 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOME GENERA 
OF CANADIAN INSECTS. 

BY FRANCIS WALKER, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

The following communication includes two genera of Chakidiœ^ 
Perilanipîis , and Callinwvie. Perilampus is known in America from 
Canada to Mexico. P. hyalinns Say, inhabits Canada ; P. cyaneus Brulle, 
and P. Entelhis Walk, are synonyms of it. Say has described two 
other species, P. platigaster and P. triangularis ; the latter is distinguished 
from all other species by the dark tips of the wings. P, Alexinus Walk, 
differs from P. platigaster by not having a brassy tinge, by the luteous 
tips of the femora, and by the luteous tibiœ with a black band. The 
specimen of P. Lepreos is too much mutilated to ascertain if it agrees 
with P. platigaster. P. hyalinus, above mentioned, has some resemblance 
to the European P. violaceus, but has an elongated scutellum ; in this 
character it is far exceeded by the Mexican P. gloriosus, which far sur- 
passes all other known species in size and beauty. P. gloriosus is also 
peculiar in the developement of the secondary veins of the forewings 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 17 

and is still more remarkable on account of the long cubitus, that vein 
being very short in all the other species. In Europe this genus is 
represented from Sweden to Italy by a few species which are generally of 
rare occurrence and have been observed to be parasitic on wood-feeding 
insects. There are two species in S. Africa, P. maiirus and P. discolor ; 
the former is wholly black ; the latter is distinguished from all others by 
pectinated antennse, by a bifurcate scutellum, and by a concave abdominal 
dorsum. P. Hcdychroides is a small Ceylonese species, and P. Saleius 
from Australia, ft the smallest species of the genus yet known. 

Philomides, Hahday, is another genus of Perilanipidœ, and is only 
represented by P. paphius Hal.,- a native of Cyprus. The genus 
Psilogasier Brulle, is placed by that author next to Perilampus. 

Callmiome consists of much smaller insects than those of the genera 
of Chalcidiœ, before mentioned, and some species are abundant in 
England. None have been reported in Canada, but the genus is doubt- 
less there, as it occurs both to the north and the south of that region. 
Two species have been found near Hudson's Bay. One of them, C. 
cecidomyce is most allied to the British C. eiichlofus ; it is parasitic on 
Cecidomyia spongivora, which forms galls on the willow. The other, C. 
spiendidiis, should be placed next C. piirpurascius, with which it agrees in 
its stout structure. The species collected by E. Doubleday, in the United 
States, appear to be different from those described by Say, and a few 
more from the same region have been lately pubHshed by Osten Sacken. 
The British species are very numerous, and, as to the female, may be most 
obviously distinguished from each other by the comparative length of the 
oviduct. The chief district of the genus seems to be now N. Europe, the 
known species of Australia and S. America being small and scarce. Some 
are natives of E. Siberia or Amurland, and it is probable that the more 
Southern parts of Asia ,were the earlier habitation of the present European 
species. Their instinct induces them to act so that their young ones may 
live at the expense of gall-making insects, and there is much to observe in 
the mutual adaptation of the size of the gall and the length of the 
oviduct, and as to what species are exclusively reared in one kind of gall 
or are developed in several kinds, and whether differences of habitation 
have any effect on outward appearance. The many-chambered galls are 
more interesting than those with a single cell. Some ten or twelve species 
of Callimo7ne resort to oak apples and effect lodgments for their eggs at 
depths proportioned to the length of their oviducts ; the species which 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



has the longest oviduct obtains possession thereby of the grub in the 
central part of the gall for the maintenance of its young ones, and the 
latter have a longer life in the gall than the young of the short oviduct 
species. The different species thus dwell in different concentric circles of 
the gall, and observations may be made whether there is mutual agreement 
as to the boundary lines between their respective territories, or whether 
complications occur between them when they have removed the earlier 
inhabitants. Many other species of insects dwell in these galls, and there 
is also much yet to be ascertained in the domestic habits of each one, 
whether herbivorous or carnivorous. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Generic Nomenclature. — Can not some method be devised to check 
the recently introduced habit of rehabilitating fossil genera ? 

To borrow a geological simile, these had their little day of life in the 
Eozoic period of entomological science, proved themselves unfitted to 
survive in the struggle for existence, and then disappeared — it was to be 
hoped, forever. Is it not taking a very unfair advantage of the older 
authors to make them responsible for genera of which they had no 
conception, and which certainly would have been indignantly repudiated 
by them ? 

What a change, for example, from Papilio of Linngeus, an overgrown 
aenus, capable of containing whole shoals of its lesser successors to Papilio 
tlwci., teste Scudder, applying solely to one insect^ already well supplied. 

If Mr. Scudder's proposed revolution in our nomenclature should be 
adopted, I fear that also, on the other hand, the laboratories of the " genus 
grinders " will resemble the mills of the gods in one respect, and in one 
only, namely, that of " grinding exceeding small." If every genus has a 
single type, then, as species differ structurally more or less, what can be 
more evident than that each species is in itself the type of some genus, 
and immortality as enduring as that of Eratostratus is within the grasp of 
the man who grinds out his genera with the greatest rapidity ! — Theo. L. 
Mead. 

Attracting Lepidoptera. — At page 194, vol. iii, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, attention is drawn to a new French method of collecting 
Nocturnal Lepidoptera by means of bait. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 19 

Having purchased chemicals, &c., for the purpose of thoroughly 
testing it at Anticosti and Labrador, last summer, I give my experience 
with the hope that it may be of service. Dried apples, such as recom- 
mended, were immersed in Nitric Ether, and hung on branches of trees 
on the second' day after my arrival on Anticosti, and I visited the baits 
that night and each succeeding one during my stay on the Island. Moths 
were laying in the vicinity, and several passed within twelve inches of the 
bait, but only one was noticed to rest on it during the season. The baits 
on Anticosti and Labrador were constantly visited by Diptera and ants, 
and these alone. My want of success discouraged me, and I resolved to 
add sugar to the bait, and it was only with this addition that moths were 
attracted. I think, therefore, that the old mode of sugaring is still the 
best for this country. My friend, Mr. Caulfield, tried it here last summer 
with a like result. 

It occurs to me that a bait might be prepared to attract Diurnal 
Lepidoptera. I passed two months of the summer of 187 1 on the Black 
River, about 140 miles north of Montreal. I resided in a shanty on the 
new Colonization Road, which follows the river through the mountains. 
Water in which salt pork had been par-boiled, was thrown out on the 
sandy loam opposite the door, and I noticed that hundreds of Papilio 
ticrniis frequented this spot during favorable weather, thrusting their 
tongues into the moistened sand when the fluid absorbed, for which they 
seemed to have such an extraordinary liking, rendered them semi- 
intoxicated. 

I have seen them flying from all quarters direct for the shanty. Many 
of them, I believe, came from a distance of two miles at least. The spot 
which these butterflies visited was certainly that on which the pork water 
was thrown, and the effluvia resulting from this was doubtless the great 
source of attraction. In A. R.. Wallace's " Malay Archipelago," page 
124, he says that the rare Charaxes Kadenii, a Java swallow-tail butterfly, 
was caught as it was sitting with wings erect sucking up the liquid from a 
muddy spot by the roadside, and I have seen several of our Canadian 
butterflies sucking the moisture from mud on the margins of ponds made 
for the use of cattle. 

I intend to try a few experiments in suitable places next summer on 
Anticosti, &c., with water in which salt pork has been par-boiled, with various 
other substances added,and the results will be noted for the benefit of those 
concerned. Cyanide of Potassium is a quick destroyer of insect life, 
and I recommend it for night collecting. 



20 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

As it is almost impossible to keep butterflies perfect on pins while 
moving from place to place in wild regions, each specimen of Diurnal 
Lepidoptera of my next collection will be placed in a paper envelope, 
and my subscribers will, no doubt, receive the remainder of their 
specimens in good condition. Moths will be pinned, and collected 
chiefly by sugaring, as I believe it is the cheapest and most prolific 
method of procuring good specimens. I am anxious to obtain three 
additional subscribers for the Northern Diurnal Lepidoptera, to be 
collected during the season of 1873, — William Couper, 38 Bonaventure 
Street, Montreal. 

Queries. — John R. Smith, of South Pownal, Vermont, U. S., wishes 
to ascertain the best locality for P. Luna and Ceratocampa regalis ; also 
if there is any published price list of American insects. 

Will any of our readers kindly give the desired information ? 

A New Society. — We are glad to learn that a new Entomological 
Society has been started in Brooklyn, N. Y. We cordially wish it every 
success. 

Exchange. — -Mr. W. Cole, of London, Eng,, is desirous to enter into 
correspondence with Canadian Entomologists with a view of effecting 
exchange of specimens. For further information address W. Cole, care 
of C. Browne, Esq., 5, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, England. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

The undersigned would like to exchange desirable Lepidoptera from 
North America, Brazil, India, Europe, &c., for species of Lycœnidœ, new 
to him (from any part of the world.) Californian and Arctic species 
especially wanted. Address H. R. Morrison, Old Cambridge, Mass., 
U. S. 

John Akhurst, Taxidermist, No. 19, Prospect Street, Brooklyn, N. 
Y., keeps constantly on hand for sale, Sheet Cork for insect boxes — size, 
i2X3^x^;$i.25 per dozen sheets. Felt or German Insect Paper — 
size, i8x22x^;5oc. per sheet. Insect pins, French make ; No. 2, 4, 
6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 — $1.25 per 1000. Insects for sale or exchange. 
Dealer in Bird Skins. 

N. B. — The above prices do not include the cost of transportation. 



VOL. V. LONDON, ONT., FEBRUARY, 1873. No. 2 

SOME REMAPvKS ON ENTOMOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

BY W. H. EDV/ARDS, COALBURGH, W. VA. 

The papers on Nomenclature, lately published in the Canadian 
Entomologist, have much interested |me, and doubtless many others, 
and as the subject is one that just now, for reasons well known, appeals 
especially to Lepidopterists, I beg to be allov/ed a little of your space 
to give my views thereupon, and to state what I believe is a practicable 
remedy for the evils complained of. 

I am glad that this ma,tter of Nomenclature was brought so prominently 
forward by the Entomologists present at the Meeting of the American 
Association for 1872, and that a Committee was appointed by the 
Entomological section to report a series of Rules for consideration at the 
next Meeting. 

I apprehend that hitherto very Httle attention has been paid to Nomen- 
clature in this country, at any rate in Entomology, and that when start- 
ling innovations are proposed, based upon assumed Codes or systems of 
Rules, very few know v/hat such Codes or Rules are, or hov/ far they are 
applicable or binding, or how they came to be enacted, with many other 
points of like nature. As applied, they seem incomprehensible to most 
persons, and even to the initiated have their difficulties. In the words 
of Alex. Agassiz, " The laws requisite for the correct name of an ammal 
or of a plant have become as difficult to establish as the most intricate 
legal question." How such a discreditable state of things has come 
about, it is worth while to consider. 

From an early period. Entomology, quite as much as its kindred 
Sciences, suffered from a disagreement as to names of species, one set 
prevaihng in England, another in France, another in Germany, and so 
on. The first effort to secure uniformity seems to have been made in 
England by the Rev. Mr. Strickland, who, after consultation with other 
naturalists, drew up a Code of Nomenclature for Zoologists, that was 



22 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

adopted by the British Association, in 1842. (I have been unable to< 
obtain a copy of this Code, and only know its Rules as I have found 
them recited in various authors. On applying to Mr. A. G. Butler,, 
Brit. Mus., I received the following reply: — " I can get no exact informa- 
tion as to when and where these Rules were published. At the time, 
they appeared in the report on the Meeting, and separate copies were 
struck off and distributed. Most of our Entomologists have either made 
copies of them or have seen them, and a few say they have printed copies. 
somewhef'e." 

This Code was not found to work altogether satisfactorily, and never- 
did receive the general assent of Naturalists in their several departments. 
Prof Verrill says, " The success of these Rules was but partial, even in 
England, for a considerable number of English authors have either ignored 
them or adopted them in part, often violating the most obvious and im- 
portant Rules. In Conchology, especially, the violations have been 
lamentably numerous." 

In 1865, a Revised Code was adopted by the British Association, 
which Code is printed at length in the Am. Journal of Arts and Science, 
July 1869, with valuable notes by Prof Verrill. In this Revision some 
important changes were made, with a view to curing the defects of the 
original Code, and of gaining a more general acceptance. It is significant 
that Botany is recommended, by the Committee of Revision, to be 
omitted from the operations of the Code. 

These two Codes may, so far as my purpose is concerned, be treated 
as one and the same, as the Rules that I consider obnoxious are found in 
both of them, and it is of their application to Entomology only that I 
have to speak, and more especially as affects the Lepidoptera. 

The first Rule reads as follows : — " The name originally given by the 
describer of a species should be permanently retained, to the exclusion of 
all subsequent synonyms." 

It is declared by those who are familiar with the facts, that the object 
of this Rule was not to drop out of sight all existing names in favor of a 
rejected or obsolete name, but to give the right to that one of the naines in 
use that should be found to have priority of date. 

For a period of years after 1842, it is asserted that such was the under- 
stood effect of the Rule, until a generation arose who knew nothing of, or 
overlooked the circumstances connected with its original proposal, and 
who took the letter of the Rule as their guide. And gradually there has 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 2iJ 

sprung up a class of authors who have devoted themselves with enthusiasm 
to exploring ancient works and forgotten publications of all sorts, in the 
hunt for the earliest recorded name to every species, by which to replace 
the name or names in use. The old authors had described but a few 
hundred species, and their descriptions were of the briefest. How brief,, 
an average example from Linnaeus will show : — " Papilio Troilus ; wings 
tailed, black • fore-wings with pale marginal spots, hind wings beneath, 
with fulvous spots;" a description applicable, perhaps, to fifty species of 
Papilio. (This description at once misled Drury into giving the name 
Troilus to his figure of Aster-ias, to which it applies equally well.) 

As new species were discovered, each of the earlier described having 
a group of close allies, many of these descriptions were no longer capable 
of identification, applying to numerous species as well as one. Then 
recourse was had to tradition, or to type specimens. The former m.ay, or 
may not be trustworthy, and the latter is utterly untrustworthy unless the 
type agrees with the description. Dr. Staudinger says : — " It is unfortu- 
nately a fact that the acquirer of the Linnaean collection had the deplora- 
ble idea of sometimes replacing damaged specimens by fresh." 

Mr. McLachlan says : — " It (this Linnaean collection,) was so mal- 
treated by additions, destructions and misplacements of labels, as to render- 
it a matter of regret that it now exists at all. Any evidence it now 
furnishes is only trustworthy when confirmed by the descriptions." 
Speaking of quite a modern collection, that of Mr. J. F. Stephens, Mr» 
Janson says : — •" It not unfrequently happens that two, or in difficult 
genera, more species are mixed up under the same specific title." 

And it is my opinion, knowing well the carelessness of collectors in 
the matter of labelling, some even who have described many species using, 
no labels at all, but trusting to memory for identification of all their speci- 
mens, that a type specimen, or what was offered as such, if it disagreed 
essentially with the description, should be wholly rejected. 

Besides the brevity of the old descriptions, many are defective from 
other causes. Often the two sexes received different names ; often 
, varieties were described as species ; often damaged and broken specimens 
were described as if fresh, the defects being cured by imagination ; often 
figures were made by unskilled artists, who omitted the specific charac- 
teristics, or the figures were colored so poorly as to be incapable of 
identification,, or were copies from copies, or copies from memory, (for a 
curious illustration of this last, see Westwood, Trans. Lond. Ent. Soc. 



24 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

1872, on Donovan's Papilios) ; and often descriptions were made from 

unreliable figures, instead of from the insect. 

Now, with these and other disadvantages that might be mentioned, 
the authors who have undertaken to revise our Nomenclature have, each 
for himself, fixed on this or that description as applying to this or that 
insect, and there is frequent and serious disagreement between them. 
This vv'ill suflîiciently appear by comparing the two Catalogues hereinafter 
mentioned, which, as to the names of British butterflies alone, that one 
might suppose had been settled long ago, differ as to the correct specific 
name to the extent of one-seventh of the whole number, as has been stated 
by Mr. W. A. Lev/is, in his paper on Synonymic Lists. Lond. 1872.* 

To complicate the case still further, there is a disagreement as to the 
■date at which names shall be held to have first begun. Specific names 
did not originate vvàth Linnreus, but that naturalist was the author of the 
binomial system of Nomenclature, and enunciated it in 1751. This was 
after his earlier works had been published, and even he did not fully apply 
the system till several years later. He re-described the known species 
of insects, using sometimes the names of his predecessors, but often re- 
naming, and very frequently changed a name given by himself in his 
earlier editions. 

The question of a starting point, therefore, .has very much exercised 
authors exploring for ancient names. And it is a very important one, 
and one above all others on which agreement Avould seem to be necessary, 
for many insects in 1767 bore different names from those given to them in 
175S, and the latter from those of prior date. 

Rule 2nd of the Code says: — "Specific names published before 1766, 
cannot be used to the prejudice of names published since that date;" and 
in the explanatory remarks, it is said : — " We onght not to attempt to carry 
back the principle of priority beyond the date of the 12th edition of the 
Systema Naturas, 1766." (Vol. I., issued 1766; vol. IL, in which are 
the insects, 1767.) 

Mr. Kirby, in his Catalogue of Lepidoptera lately pubhshed (1870), 
follows the Rule, and would ignore all names prior to 1767. Dr. 
Staudinger, in . his Catalogue of European Lepidoptera, also published 



*NoTE. — See also a very able pamphlet by Mr. Lewis, entitled "A Discussion of 
the Laws of Priority in Entomological Nomenclature," Lond. 1872, which I advise 
all persons who care to make themselves better acquainted with the subject, to 
-obtain. It may be had through the Naturalists' Agency, Salem, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 25 

in 187 1, adopts the loth edition oî the same work (1758), and says dis- 
tinctly : — " Every name given before ij^ 8 loses its right." Others go back 
to various earlier dates. If the earliest Linnsean edition comes to be 
claimed as having a prior right over those that followed, as symptoms 
indicate, then there will be a sweeping away of landmarks, that will make 
the lesser floods hitherto experienced seem as nothing. 

The result of all these efforts at stability, for that is the avowed object 
of the advocates of rigid priority of date, is extreme confusion,* instead 
of the agreement hoped for when the Code of the British Association was 
adopted, and students of one branch of Entomology at least are at a loss 
to know where the Nomenclature stands to-day, and are very certain that 
under the present order of things there will no.t be a name familiar to them 
that 20 or 50 years hence will not be supplanted under the claims of 
priority. 

The Code of the British Association not only has not been adopted in 
detail by the British naturalists, who might be supposed to have given 
their assent to it, but it has not been adopted in other countries.t It is 
not the law of France nor of Germany. In the latter country, in 1858, a 
Code of Nomenclature was adopted by the Dresden Congress, in which 
the Rule on the subject of priority more sensibly meets the requirements 



* Prof. Verrill, in his comment on Kule 2, says: — "Disregard of this important 
and essential law (viz. , fixing the 12th edition as the starting j^oint, ) has brought into 
Conchology, and some other branches of Zoology, an almost incredible amount of con- 
fusion." 



t ' ' Notwithstanding the Rules sanctioned by the authority of the Brit. Ass'n, 
it would not seem that any perceptible improvement has taken place." — G. E. Crotch, 
Cist. Ent., 1872 

Mr. Kirbyhas revised, &c., "in accordance with a series of Pailes selected from 
those issued by the Brit. Ass'n for 1865." — Wallace. 

■ Dr. Thorell "refers to the old Brit. Ass'n Rules with general approval, but differs 
from them in some important points." — Ibid. 

Dr. Staudinger lays down eight rules that vary from those of the Brit. Ass'n or 
from Kirby and Thorell in several particulars. And Gemminger and Earold's Cat. 
Coleopt. differs in the Rules applied from all the ethers. See Wallace. As to 
French authors, the following extract of a letter to me from a distinguished English 
Entomologist will show how heterodox is their position : — "The chief - confusion in 
generic Nomenclature is owing to the French, who consistently ignore or alter every 
thing done in other countries, on purpose to force their own names on the world in 
place of others." 



26 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



of the case. " The principle of preserving the oldest of the names given to 
the same insect is nçt absolute ; the choice between them, following the greater 
or less degree of convenience, remains free.'^ 

Until quite lately, although there was a general feeling among Lepi- 
dopterists that the hunt for new names was getting to be a nuisance that 
demanded abatement, there seems to have been no active opposition to 
it, till the publication of the Catalogues of Staudinger and Kirby, and, in 
this country, of Scudder's Revision. The changes announced in these 
works amount to a revolution of much of the existing Nomenclature. 
In the Revision the names of American species have been changed 
largely, and of genera almost altogether. For example : of the Butterflies 
found in New England, out of 28 hitherto recognized genera (omitting 
the Hesperidce) Mr. Scudder has left but three untouched ; of five others 
he has retained the name, but restricted the genus ; but of nineteen he 
has changed the names altogether, displacing well-known names by others 
purporting to have been found in ancient authors, and mostly in 
Hubner. And from the twenty-eight genera Tiave now proceeded fifty- 
one. Whilst of the Hesperidœ he has made forty-five genera for one 
hundred and thirty-eight species, besides giving a horrid array of barbaric 
family ^and tribal names, remnants of systems ages ago deservedly 
exploded. 

Mr. Kirby's " Revision has the effect of abolishing scores of old and 
familiar names (generic) and replacing them by others altogether new to 
the majority of Lepidopterists " Wallace \ 3x16. yh. Crotch,by following out 
his mode of determining typical species, " shows us that Mr. Kirby is 
wrong in the names of twenty-seven genera," defined before Hubner, and 
in a letter he says: "I stopped abruptly at 1816, as the question of 
Hubner's Verzeichness beat me," to which bewilderment we should be 
grateful, for the assimilative powers of that author are fearful. 

The trouble caused by the strict application of Rule i to specific names 
becomes intensified when applied to generic names. It mightbe supposed 
in the hunt for the former, that if the several authors now at variance could 
be got to interpret the ancient descriptions by the same illumination, and 
could agree upon a starting point, the ultimate name of each species would 
some day be reached. It might require a long period, but it would seem 
possible. Not so with genera. Even when the final stage of disinte- 
gration was reached, and each species stood in a genus by itself, there 
would be a never-ending contest as to whether such genus should bear 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 27 

the stamp of Fabricius, or Latreille, or Hubner, and each successive 
"" resurrectionist," as these exhumers of dry bones are irreverently called, 
would but glory in upsetting the platforms of his predecessors, and would 
■prove to a nicety that they and their systems were all wrong. Now, it is 
a matter for admiration that, notwithstanding the imposing names attached 
to these generic creations, every one of them is the result of the labor of 
Brown, Smith or Jones, alive and industriously working, and that the 
.ancient worthies, so honorably preferred, lived and died in happy ignor- 
ance of the progeny after ages would attribute to them. 

Now, it is insisted by those who rigi,dly adhere to the application of 
the priority theory to generic names that the original name given to a 
.genus must never be lost, no matter what changes are made with the genus,- 
although to retain such name may be to attribute to its original author 
•exactly what he did not mean, and perhaps never would have sanctioned. 

Rule 4th says: — " A generic name, when once established, should 
never be cancelled in any subsequent subdivision of the group, but re- 
tained, in a restricted sense, for one of the constituent portions." And 
Rule 5th: — " The generic name should ahvays be retained for that portion 
•of the original genus which was considered typical by its author." 

That is to say, Papilio of Linnreus embraced what is now divided into 
'very many genera, -and the name Papilio must somewhere be retained. 
What particular species Linnaeus would have chosen for the type of the 
.genus, had he foreseen its future disintegration, is not known, and in the 
-absence of such knowledge, authors now would differ in selecting the 
•typical species ; and unless there is agreement on that, it is plain that 
nothing but discord can follow. Mr. Kirby says, following the Rules: — 
" In subdividing a genus, the original name should be restricted to the 
typical sections if this can be ascertained." I have asked of an eminent 
Ornithologist what would be done in such case in his science, and he 
"replied as follows: — " It is our custom to take the fij-st name incntioned\)j 
an author as the type of his genus, unless another be especially claimed ; 
and, if this genus be subsequently subdivided, to insist that the original 
name must be retained for \\\t first species of the original list, unless there 
are very grave reasons to the contrary. I notice, in the loth edition of 
Linnaeus, the first Papilio is Priamus, from Amboyna. I should, there- 
fore, be inclined to maintain that the name Papilio should be retained for 
that first mentioned species, whatever else might befall the group. This 
i)eing premised, the author engaged in overhauling a group has the right 



28 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

to select any other species of the original section as the type of his new- 
genus." Mr. Crotch says (Cist. Ent, 1872) "No genus can be considered 
defined until its type is indicated," but when this is not done by the 
original author, " I am not inclined to cut the knot by taking the first' 
species, but to trace the genus historically until it has a type given to it ; " 
and " Cuvier (1799) gives precision to the old genera by characterizing 
them and indicating their types." 

Let us apply these dicta to Vanessa Antiopaas metamorphosed into Pa- 
pilio Antiopa by Mr. -Scudder. He says: — "The generic name Papilio 
was applied by Linnseus to all the butterflies at the foundation of the 
binomial system of Nomenclature. Fabricius, in his later works, restricted 
it to the Nymphales and Papilionides. Schrank was the next author 
to restrict the name, limiting it, in 1801, to most of the Nymphales." 

By Rule 5, or by Mr. Kirby's Rule, the original name having to be 
restricted to the typical section, Schrank should have left it with some 
part of the Papilionides of Fabricius, for I suppose no one can doubt that 
the swallow-tailed butterflies were the' typical section of Linnaîus 
(Equités), even though his typical species may be in question. Plad he 
bound himself by the ornithologica,l dictum, he would also have restricted 
the name to the Papilionides, Priaimis being the typical species. 

By that of Mr. Crotch he would stiU have been restricted to the 
Papilienidcs, making P. Machaon the type, because Cuvier (in 1799) made 
this species the. type of the genus Papilio (and so it is recognized to-day 
and I hope will be for all future time.) 

But, says Mr. Scudder, " If the laws of priority have any force or 
meaning, I do not see how we can refuse to acknowledge the claims of 
Schrank. I select, accordingly, from among the species grouped under 
Papilio by Linnaeus, Fabricius and Schrank, one oîthe best know7i European 
butterflies as most suitable for the type of the genus." And by this 
curious process, one of the best hnoiun species being selected as the type, 
we get the astonishing creation Papilio Antiopa. — (Scud.) And this is 
equivalent to enunciating another dictum, being the fourth on this head, by 
which the best knoiun species of a genus is to be the typical. Moreover,, 
such exceedingly minute definition is given to the new genus that it would 
appear to be impossible that a second species could ever be embraced 
within it.* 



* I notice that Mr. Scudder speaks of the ' ' insufficiency of their generic descrip- 
tions " being "the reproach of Lepidopterists. " Mr. Wallace, on the other hand„ 



THE CANADIAI^ ENTOMOXOGIST. 29 

Now, here are four modes of determining the typical species of a 
genus, propounded by as many authors, and there may be others for 
aught I know to the contrary, all with the view of simplifying these 
sciences, under the operation of Rule i. Is it strange that "an incredible 
amount of confusion " is the result ? 

Linnaeus placed under Papilio the princes of the order, and no inatter 
what restrictions may have been made hitherto, these hundred years, 
Papilio has always had • a magnificent following, increasing in 
splendor as the years went on. And now we are told, in 1872, that,. 
in order to save the claims of the hitherto imappreciated Schrank, 
who published his speculations in 1801, Papilio is to be ejected from his 
rich possessions, and made to share the rest of his unlucky days with the 
dingy Vanessan to whom hard fate and Mr. Scudder has driven him. No 
more the superb creature we have read of, with " glistering burganet," 
and " shinie wings as silver bright," — " refreshing his sprights," in " gay 
gardins," " pasturing on the pleasures," &c.; but, like Clarion, "reduced 
to lowest wretchedness," his good times all over, he flits about in slums 
and nasty lanes — and there we leave him. 

In the explanatory remarks to Rule 4, it is said: — " It is an act oi 
justice to the original author that his generic name should never be lost 
sight of" By Mr. Scudder's new creation the name Papilio is so nearly 
lost sight of that it might as well disappear altogether. It is certainly 
no compliment to Linnœus to retain it. 

And this brings i;p the whole question of the obligation of naturalists 
to adopt whatever system any one may propose. Clearly enough, the 
right of ignoring changes made in Nomenclature is recognized even by 
the most determined advocates of strict priority, when applied to their 
contemporaries. A genus is set up, and no one tollows it. It happens 
constantly, and it seems to me that in this matter one's contemporaries 
are the proper judges of one's work, and that no reversal of their judg- 
ment may rightfully be looked for from posterity, and therefore the writings 

asserts that the definitions of a Westwood, or of a Doubleday, are ' ' careful and 
elaborate." I was much struck on reading these words in Cope's Origin of Genera, 
page 6: — "The reader will often find introduced into diagnoses of genera characters 
which indicate nothing of this sort ; " and these, "adjacent genera of the same series 
differ from each other hut hij a single character." From which it maybe inferred 
that inordinate length of generic description is not commendable, and is not properly 
attainable. 



30 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

•of authors whose systems were rejected in their own day, and whose 

.generic creations were ignored not only by contemporaries, but for gen- 
erations afterwards, cannot properly be appealed to. If there was injustice 

•done to them it is too late to remedy it, and justice at this late day means 
injustice to those in present possession, and whose title often has the 

.strength of nearly a century's undisputed possession. We cannot judge 
of the circumstances that influenced the contemporaries of such authors, 

.and with the views' prevailing at the time, their judgment was right. 
Therefore, when Schrank, and Hubner and others, are sought to be rein- 
stated, and a host of generic names set aside, the later injustice is worse 
than the first, — if there was any first, and of that we have no knowledge. 
Otherwise, fifty years hence a system or a genus proposed by an author 
of to-day, though rejected by every naturalist living, for defects that appeal 
to the sense of each one of them, may be reinstated in spite of such con- 
4:emporary judgment. ' 

It has become more and more the practice, for twenty years past, to 
ignore all genera created since Hubner, and to replace subser uent names 
by names taken from that author, who published a Catalogue of Lepidop- 
tera, in which nearly every species stands by itself, in a division that, 
whatever it may be called, is not generic. Of course it is easy to apply 
•one of his names to every genus that can be now created. By his con- 
temporaries, and for a generation after his works were published, his fan- 
ciful divisions and fanciful names were rejected, and it is only of late years 
that some authors have discovered that in his works is a mine of wealth. 

But on this head it is sufficient to give the words of an Entomologist 
-whose authority is second to none. I quote from the annual Address 
(187 1) to the Lond. Ent. Soc, by Mr. Alfred R. Wallace, President of 
the Society, and I quote at some length, as it seems to me desirable that 
American Lepidopterists should be made aware that Hubner's claims are 
not yet everywhere acknowledged : — ■ " By far the most important 
■ and most numerous alterations are caused by adopting the names of an 
author who has long been purposely ignored as an authority for genera 
both by English and Continental Lepidopterists. I of course allude to 
Hubner. " 

" Such old names as Chionobas, Agraulis, Eresia, Godartia, Adolias, 
Polyommatus, Leptalis, Terias, Callidryas, Thestias, Anthocaris, with 
many more, are changed for others to be found in no other work than 
JIubner's obsolete and useless Catalogue. Yet this wholesale change 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 31 

•does not seem to be warranted by the Rules of the British Association. 
Rule 1 2th says: — "A name which has never been clearly defined in some 
published work, should be changed for the earliest name by which the 
object shall have been so defined." And in the explanatory remarks it 
is said, " Definition properly implies a distinct exposition of essential 
•characters, and i?i all cases we conceive this to be tiidispensable." 

Now this Rule merely embodied the feeling and practice of naturalists, 
•and it had been acted on for thirty years, before it had been formally 
■enunciated, in this very case of Hubner, whose work had been systemati- 
-cally set aside as an authority by most European Entomologists, because 
it was felt that his so-called genera were mere guesses founded on fades 
alone, — happy guesses, no doubt, sometimes — but as frequently wrong as 
Tight, and wholly without such definition as was held, even in his own 
day, to be required to constitute a new genus. Boisduval expressly states 
this, and his non-recognition of Hubner's genera has been followed in 
.almost all the great systematic works which have since been published. 
If we take Hubner's first four genera and the characters he gives them, 
•we shall be able to judge of the reasons for this course. They are as 
follows: — 

Hyjuenilis, upper wings half banded. 

Ithomia, " " one-banded. 

Oleria " " twice-banded 

Thyj-idia, ' both wings banded. 

' Such a mode of defining genera, though it has the merit of being sim- 
"ple and symmetrical, is undoubtedly superficial, and it can only be by the 
purest accident that a group so characterized can correspond in extent to 
any real genus. * * * In Mr. Kirby's own work, we find Hubner's con- 
demnation in almost every page, in the utter want of agreement between 
his groups and modern genera. The modern restricted genus Helicon- 
ius, for instance, contains species belonging to seven Hubnerian genera ; 
Pieris comprises five, and Thecla twelve of these hap-hazard groups ; 
while, in other cases, the species comprising Hubner's groups are divided 
among several unrelated modern genera. * * * * The names sought 
to be reinstated, rank as mere catalogue names for want of proper defini- 
tion, and should therefore never be quoted. * * * Even as a matter 
■of justice it may be maintained that we should recognize the careful and 
elaborate definitions of a Doubleday or Westwood, rather than the childish 
guesses of a Hubner. * * * The proper course to be taken is to rein- 



32 THE. CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

state every name which of late years has been made to give place to one 
of Hubner's, and further, to treat the VerzeicJmiss bekannier ScJwictterlinge' 
as a mere Catalogue, which can never be quoted as an authority for 
genera." 

Now with regard to the remedy for the evil complained of There- 
have been various suggestions of Rules by foreign authors, many of which 
would meet the assent of most Entomologists, and it is easy to select from, 
these authors both Rules and arguments for their adoption. I will call 
attention to so many of these suggested Rules as seem to me to meet the 
difficulty of the case, and to others, which might properly form part of a. 
code, and will give short extracts illustrating them. 

I mention them for the purpose of exciting discussion as to their 
fitness, for the end in view, and that Lepidopterists may know v/hat is 
the opinion of students in other branches of Entomology besides their- 
own : — 

I There must be intelligible description and publication in case of a 
species, or a recognizable figure. In case of a genus there" must be a 
definition giving the essential characters. — From Dr. Thoi'cWs Etiropeajt 
Spiders, quoted in Wallaces Address, before cited. 

2. In determining the priority of specific names, notice should be 
taken only of those works in which the Linnsean binomial nomenclature is 
exclusively and consistently employed. — Thorell. 

Note — " The binomial system of nomenclature was fully and distinctly 
propounded by Linnaeus in the Philosophia Botanica, published in 1751, 
and there can be no reason whatever why authors who adopted and sys- 
tematically applied it should be set aside, because Linnaeus himself did 
not apply it to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms till 1758." — 
Thorell. 

3. The same date should apply to generic as to specific names, both 
being characteristic of the binomial nomenclature, and it being impossible 
if we go back earlier, to determine what are to be considered as truly 
generic names. — Ibid. 

4. Betvy-een two specific names in use, the prior right shall belong to 
the first named. But 710 name in use shall give way to a?i obsolete or 
rejected name, evcfi though the latter be of prior date. — Wallace's Ad- 
dress, p. ôy. 

Note. — " The idea of justice to the namer or describer of a species is 
sometimes appealed to, but the law of priority is founded on no such 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 33 

■expressed idea, but rather on the universal practice of mankind, which 
always upholds stability of nomenclature, -and requires cogent reasons of 
beauty or convenience to sanction its alteration. ****** 

"The proper Rule to adopt (instead of Rule i ofErit. Ass'n.) would 
have been unchangeability of names in 2ise, rather than priority of date, 
which latter rule ought only to have been brought in to decide on the 
•claims of two or 'more names in use, not to retain obsolete names never 
in use, or long ago rejected. — Ibid. 

"What we want for the sake of knowledge is stability and uniformity 
of nomenclature, not an upsetting of it by the substitution of old, forgotten 
and very doubtful names, published in works without, or with very little 
scientific merit." — Dr. Schauni, on Nonicndatiire of British Carabidœ, Ent. 
Ann., i860. 

"The rule of priority in Nomenclature, I hold to be a good ruleviàthin 
its proper limits ; it is not an unmixed good ; and priority, like every 
other hobby-horse, may be ridden too hard. When the rule is strained 
beyond the reason for the rule, it becomes a nuisance, — nay more, it pro- 
duces intolerable evil; but when reasonably applied, it produces more 
convenience than inconvenience. I accept it, therefore, as a rule for con- 
venience, and nothing more, a rule adopted for the benefit of science, not 
for the glorification of name givers." — y. IV. Dunning, Ent. Mo. Mag., 
vol. 8, 21^. 

" In systematic nomenclature the object is to register titles, not to 
.gratify pride, and the names of authors are appended for convenience, not 
fame ; the question of justice or injustice has no place here." — Scudder, 
Am. yo. Arts aiid Sci., i8'j2. 

" Both sides agree that the accord of Entomologists is the ultimate 
desideratum. I hold that the law of priority is not that the oldest name 
of an insect is invariably the right one, but that in cases of dispute, the 
prior name is to be preferred, and in such cases only ; and that any at- 
tempt to subvert accord cannot be done under the law of priority, but we 
must make a new law — the law of antiquity -^.^.y. * '^ * * In such 
event, every insect capable of identification must henceforth carry the 
name under which it was first called — no matter by whom — no matter 
the language. The American fire-fly must bear its Indian appellation — 
the ' Palmer-worm ' and the 'Canker-worm' must have their ' prior ' names 
restored ; we must carry the law back without limit — even to chaos itself." 
— T: H. Briggs, Ent. Mo. Mag. vol. 8, /. pj. 



34 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

" Nobody but a fool or a madman would try to persuade the moderru 
New Yorkers to call their city New Amsterdam, or the English to have 
their letters addressed to Londinium, because these were the old original, 
names. And yet, what men of the world would never dream of doing,, 
certain scientific men are doing every day." — Walsh, Am. Ent., i8'/2. 

J. The name placed after a genus shall be that of the author who 
established the genus in the sense in which it is actually used. — Dr. Sharpy 
in Nature, Feb., i8y2. 

Note. — " Carabus of Linnœus included all the insects now comprised 
in the family Carabidae, at present divided into several hundreds of gen- 
era. To write, therefore, Carabus, Linn., when we mean something else,, 
may be usual, but is not desirable." — Dr. Sharp, ibid. 

I do not deny to any author the right to establish new genera. Quite 
the contrary. But I would insist on these genera standing on their own 
merits, and claim for the Entomological world the right to accept them or 
not, as they choose. If any one thinks it worth while to break up Papilio, 
for instance, let him do so at his pleasure, but do not let him apply to the 
severed parts names taken from Hubner or other ancient author, in order 
to give these brand-new creations a smack of age, and so get the advan- 
tage of another author who may honestly put his name to his own work 
It is by this species of wrong that Nisoniades, Hubner has supplanted 
Thanaos, Boisduval ; Oeneis, Hub. is trying to supplant Chionobas, Bois.; 
Polygonia, Hub. thrusts itself into the place of Grapta, Kirby, and so in 
cases innumerable. 

Rules ^f and ^, if carried out, ?nust put an effectual stop to the perpetual 
shiftitig of names. 

Other Rules, which might properly form part of a Code, are as 
follows: — 

6. The same specific name may be employed in genera sufficiently^ 
remote from each other. — Staudinger, Cat. 

7. If a species has received different names for its sexes, that first 
given shall be retained. 

8. The names of species should properly be Latin, or Latinized to 
the extent that renders them capable of being used in scientific Latin. 
But names once given are not to be altered or set aside for any defect or 
errors. — Dr. Sharp, before cited. 

" It matters not in the least by what conventional sound we agree to 
designate an individual object, provided the sign to be employed be 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 35' 

stamped with such an authority as will suffice to make it pass current." — 
Explan. Rem. to Rule i. 

" The name originally given, even though it may be inferior in point 
of elegance or expressiveness to those subsequently proposed, ought, as a. 
general principle, to be permanently retained." — Il>id. 

9. The same generic name may be employed in Botany, but not in 
Zoology, ~ / 

I have heard the objection to the application of the above Rules, that 
Entomologists have no right to separate themselves from other naturalists, 
and make a special Code for their own sole guidance. To this I would 
reply, why not ? If it is found impossible to enact a series of Rules that 
will meet the requirements of the several branches of Natural Science, and 
the experience of thirty years shows that the thing is impracticable, why 
should not each branch adopt Rules to suit its own case? If Botany 
may be excluded from the operations of a Code, why not Entomology ? 
It is very certain that in other branches than Entomology there is wide- 
spread dissatisfaction, and I believe an effort for reform in any direction 
will be met by general approval. At all events, as the dissatisfaction felt 
on this side the Atlantic has found expression, and a set of Rules is to be 
prepared as aforesaid, by a Committee of experienced Entomologists, it 
may be left to them to estimate the force of this and any other objection, 
and to report accordingly. 

But Entomology is peculiar in one respect, and if there were no other 
reason, this alone would make it imperative that its votaries should resist 
strenuously unnecessary changes in Nomenclature, even if, by so doing, 
they should separate themselves from other naturalists. This is the only 
branch of Natural History that is becoming thoroughly popular through 
organized effort. Not to speak of Europe, the Governments of the United 
States, and many of the individual States, and Canada, employ professional 
Entomologists, who make frequent Reports that are printed by authority, 
and widely disseminated with the view of rendering the people intelligently 
acquainted with their native inseats. Several Magazines have been pub- 
lished, which are exclusively devoted to the same subject, and the numerous, 
agricultural weeklies or monthlies set apart a portion of their space for En- 
' tomology. Professedly, the object is to give information upon insects injuri- 
ous to vegetation, but that includes, in one relation or other, every 
insect The expensive treatise of Dr. Harris was published by the State 
of Massachusetts, and is everywhere a received authority: Packard's. 



36 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Guide to the Study of Insects, has passed through three large editions, in 
as many years, and is rapidly becoming the text book used in our schools 
and colleges. 

The result is that a vast degree of attention is concentrated upon En- 
tomology, a hundred fold, I venture to say, more than upon Botany or 
Geology,and a thousand-fold more than upon Ornithology or Mamamalogy. 
In these branches, therefore, a disturbance of names would aftect scarcely 
any but special students, and if they do not care to resist innovations, it 
is not our concern. , But, from the nature of the case, in Entom.ology, 
the advantage gained by disseminating information depends wholly upon 
the precision with which the objects treated of can be identified, and pre- 
cision can result only from the use of a common Nomenclature. If one 
Treatise dilates upon the habits of an insect by one name, and the next 
Report under another, and anybody may shift about the names, specific 
and generic, at will, nothing can result- but incomprehensibihty and disgust. 
What man reading the history of Papilio Asterias, figured Avith all its 
preparatory stages, and colored to the life, in Harris, and the larva of 
which species he recognises as one of the pests of his garden, will com- 
prehend what the Annual Report of his State Agricultural Society for 1873 
.shall say upon Amaryssus Polyxenes? or, his old acquaintance, familiar 
from boyhood, that he has been instructed to call Papilio Turnus, when 
he shall read about Euphœades Glaucus ? Mr. Wallace well says, 
" Intelligible language is wholly founded on stability çf Nomenclature, 
and v/e should soon cease to be able to understand each other's speech, 
if the practice of altering all names we thought v/e could improve' upon 
became general." 

I hope, therefore, that the Entomological section of the American As- 
sociation, at its next Meeting, will adopt a new or amended Code, 
having in mind the exigencies of their own science only, and that full dis- 
cussion and interchange of opinion having meantime been had, such Code 
will express the vievvs of the great majority of the Entomologists of this 
continent. If the Rules are sensible, they will recommend themselves 
to the Entomologists of other countries, and in time secure general 
adoption. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 37 



ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 



//. CABBAGE BUTTERFLIES. 



BY THE EDITOR. 

In pursuance of our plan of laying before our readers, from time to 
time, illustrated descriptions of the common insects of this country, we 
propose to begin in this number of our journal some account of the 
Butterflies belonging to the genus Pieris- — familiarly known in their larval 
state as " Cabbage-Worms." As stated by our coadjutor, Mr. Saunders, 
in the first paper of this series (C. E., v., page 4), we do not profess to 
bring out any new facts or information of interest and value to the 
experienced Entomologist, but we wish to afford to our less scientific 
readers plain descriptions, with illustrations, of our more common insects, 
in order that any one beginning to collect and observe may be able to 
identify and learn something about what he meets with. Such being our 
object, we shall not hesitate to make use of all available information, 
whether derived from our own or extraneous sources, and shall not pretend 
to be especially original in our descriptions or remarks. 

The genus Pieris is represented in Canada by but three species 
( Oleracea, Rapœ and Protodice), all of them white butterflies of moderate 
size, with more or less conspicuous black markings. The first-mentioned 
species, the Pot-herb Butterfly {P. Oleracea, Harris), is our native repre- 
sentative of the genus, being found all over the northern portion of this 
continent, from Nova Scotia and Maine in the East to the District of 
Algoma and even Manitoba in the North-West. It has been occasionally 
observed south of Lake Ontario, but very rarely as low down as Pennsyl- 
vania ; at Ottawa, Collingwood, and other northern localities in Ontario, 
it is generally quite abundant every year, but it is seldom observed in any 
great numbers at Toronto or other places in the same latitude. When 
prevalent, it is usually to be seen on the wing from May to September, 
there being at least two broods in the year. 

The Oleracea Butterfly (Fig. 7), may be at once distinguished from all 
other Canadian species by its almost pure white wings, destitute of spots 
or other markings on the upper surface 3 towards the tip and also next the 



38 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 




body the forewings are slightly discoloured with dusky scales. On the 
^'^' '^' under surface the wings are sometimes of 

.a yellowish hue, with the veins broadly 
[marked with black or dark green; some- 
times they are entirely white, with the 
veins merely faintly outlined in black ; 
between these two extremes many grada- 
tions of shade may be observed. The 
pure white specimens found in the North 
West were supposed at one time to be a 
" *^^SS^7~*y''fy^t!!!LL^u^ distinct species, and were described by 
Kirby under the name of the "Chaste Butterfly" {P. Casta) ; there is no 
doubt now, however, that these are merely varieties of the same species. 
The legs and body of the insect are black ; its wings expand to a breadth 
of about two inches, but there is considerable variation in the size of 
individuals. 

The butterfly, about the end of May or beginning of June, and again 
towards the close of summer, may be seen hovering over the food-plants 
of its larvae, preparing to deposit its eggs. These are pear-shaped, or 
oval, of a yellow-green colour, and measure about one-twentieth of an 
inch in length, and a third of this amount in diameter ; they are ribbed 
longitudinally with about fifteen sharp-edged lines. The parent deposits 
them singly, and rarely more than one on a leaf, on the underside of the 
leaves Qi the cabbage, turnip, radish, mustard and other plants of the 
order Cruciferœ. They are hatched in about a week or ten days. 

The young larva is pale green, cylindrical in shape, and covered with 
short, whitish hairs. In order to escape from the egg it makes an opening 
with its jaws and then eats the shell until the aperture is large enough to 
admit of its easy egress ; it subsequently devours the greater part of the 
shell that remains. At first the new-born caterpillar is less than one- 
twelfth of an inch in length, but it grows rapidly, until it attains its full 
size, about an inch and a quarter, in the brief space of a fortnight. The 
mature larva (Fig. 1,a) is pale green in colour, with numerous darker dots 
and a dark line along the back ; it closely resembles the ribs of the leaf 
upon which it feeds. 

When mature, the caterpillar forsakes its food plant and crawls away 
to some secluded spot, such as the under side of a stone or board, or a 
crevice in a fence or wall \ there it spins a knot of silk to which it fastens 
its hindermost pair of feet ; then it proceeds to form a loop of silk which 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 39 

it dexterously fashions into a girth around the middle, and thus supported 
finally turns into a chrysalis. This is pale green or whitish, finely and 
regularly speckled with black, and in shape much resembles that of P. 
rapcE, of which an illustration will be hereafter given. In summer the 
chrysalis state lasts only a week or ten days, but in the case of the 
autumn brood the insect remains in this condition all winter and only 
'comes forth as a Butterfly in the April or May following. 



REVIEWS. 

Contributions to Entomology from the State of New York. 
— Two works of value on the life history of various insects taken in the 
neighbouring State of New York, are before us ; both of them ema^ate 
from official sources, and singularly enough, both appeared but a few 
months ago, though the Reports to which they belong have reference to 
the year 1869. The first to which we would draw attention is entitled 
" Entomological Contributions," by Mr. J. A. Lintner.* It contains 
a remarkably elaborate description of the metamorphoses and whole life 
history of the handsome but rare moth Hemileiica Maia, Drury, occupying 
nearly twenty pages, accompanied by a lithographed plate of egg, chry- 
salis and imago, and constituting an excellent monograph of the species. 
This is followed by interesting observations upon various stages in the life 
of the butterflies Mclitœa Phœton, Fab., M. Nycteis, Doubl, and Pieris 
Oleracea, Harris. The author then describes, with illustrations, three new 
species of Nisoniades, named Iceliis, Lucilius and Aiisonhcs ; and a new 
Sphinx, Ellema pineîim, which will probably be found in Canada, if it be 
not already in some of our collections under the name of E. Harrisii — a 
closely allied species. A list of forty species of Sphingidse, another of 
over a hundred butterflies, and calendars of butterflies and moths, com- 
plete the author's observations. To these he has appended a very useful 
iist, with references to volume and page, of all the North American moths, 
some 600 in number, described in Guenee's Species Gefieral des Lépidop- 
tères. The volume is concluded by a translation from the German of a 
paper by Dr. Speyer on Cucullia intermedia, Spey., and C. lucifuga, W. V., 
to which Mr. Lintner has prefixed some notes on the larvse. We have 
given a full account of the contents of this volume in order that the 
student may know where to look for very valuable contributions to our 

* Entomological Contrihdions, by J. A. Lintner. From the twenty-third Annual 
Report of the New York State Cabinet of Natural History, for the year 1869. 8vo., 
pp, 90. 



40 ' THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

knowledge of the species referred to. We trust that Mr. Lintner will not 
relax in his efforts, but will continue to afford us year by year a complete 
record of his most pains-taking and accurate observations. 

The other work, to which we have alluded above, is Dr. Fitch's 
Thirteenth Report as Entomologist of the State Agricultural Society 
of New York.t It opens with a long account of the synonymy and 
natural history of the Bean Aphis {A. rumzcis, Linn.,) followed by 
descriptive notices of the Black-lined Plant-bug {Phytocoris lineatus, Fab.,) 
the Lilac Measure-worm {Priocycla armataria, H. Sch.,) and a new species 
of the latter genus, P. Johnsonaria, Fitch. The remainder of the 
Report is occupied by a very long and minute account of the two Cab- 
bage Butterflies {Pier is oleracca and P. rapcè), covering some six and thirty 
pages. The diffuseness of these notices leads one to wish that the talented 
author would extend his observations to some other department of 
economic Entomology, and afford us, as he is so well able, concise and 
accurate accounts of species that are not yet familiarly known. While 
upon this subject we cannot forbear complaining of the excessive difficulty 
there appears to be in obtaining Dr. Fitch's Reports; we have tried in 
vain to obtain his loth, nth and 12th, and only succeeded as a special 
favour in getting the one we have just noticed. We are sure that 
Entomologists would esteem it as a great boon were they permitted to 
purchase these Reports separate from the volumes of Agricultural Tran- 
sactions, at some reasonable price. The Naturalist's iVgency at Salem 
would, we should think, be an excellent and convenient depository for 
them. 

The volume of ' Transactions ' coritains also an admirable account of 
"■ The Grasses and their Culture," by the Hon. J. Stanton Gould, illus- 
trated by upwards of 70 beautiful lithographed plates. 



For Sale. — A fine collection of named Shells, mostly marine — com- 
prising about 1800 species, with numerous varieties and many rare shells. 
Also about 200 species of Corals and Radiates. The specimens are all 
in the finest order, having been selected with a view to their perfection 
and beauty. The collection embraces about 6000 specimens. For 
further information address D. W. Ferguson, Corner of Flester and 
Elizabeth Streets, New York. 

f Thirteenth Report on the Noxious, Beneficial and other Insects of the State 
of New York. By Asa Fitch, M. D. Transactions of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society for the year 1869. Albany. 



%\t €mÉm ^ntomolnpt. 



VOL. V. 



LONDON, ONT., MARCH, 1873. 



No, 3 



ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 



///. CABBAGE BUTTERFLIES. 



BY THE EDITOR. 

The next species of Pieris on our list — the Rape Butterfly [P. rapŒy 
Linn.,) though an European insect, is rapidly becoming one of our com- 
monest and most destructive species, especially in the Eastern portion of 
the Dominion. The history of its arrival near Quebec in some ocean 
steamship, its discovery by Mr. Couper in 1859, its capture in abundance 
at Quebec by Mr. Bowles, in 1863, and its subsequent rapid spread in all 
directions is probably well known to all our readers. It is needless, then, 
for us to dwell upon it here ; we may merely state further that it had 
reached the city of New York in 1869, Halifax, N. S., in 187 1, and last 
year it had come as far west as Belleville and Trenton, Ont. We fully 
expect to see it at Port Hope this year ! 

The Rape Butterfly, like the preceding species, is white, with a black 
dash at the tip of the forewings, a black spot on the front margin of the 
^'s:- 8. hind wings, and in the male (Fig. 8) 

one black spot in the middle of the 
forewings, but in the female (Fig. 9) 
two. The under surface of the 
forewings, in both sexes, is marked 
by two spots, corresponding to 
those on the upper surface in the 
female ; in other respects the wings 
are much alike on both sides, except that beneath there is a tint of yellow 
at base and tip. Occasionally male specimens are found of a bright yellow 
colour, like our common Sulphur-yellow Butterfly {Colias philodice) ; to 





42 , THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

this variety, which does not occur at all in Europe, Mr. Scudder has given 
^'^- ^- the name of Novangliae, trom the first 

observed specimens having been found 
in the New England States. Dr. Fitch 
gives it as his opinion that this colour 
is produced by seclusion from light 
(13th Report, p. 559), but we should 
think it much more probably caused 
by peculiarity of food. Mr. Caulfield, 
of Montreal, (C. E., iv., p. 203,) is stated indeed to have found theyellow 
colour displayed when the larvae had been fed upon mignonette. We 
must await fuller observations, however, before we can feel justified in 
adopting any particular theory upon the subject. 

The larva (Fig. to, a) of this Butterfly is, when full grown, of a pale 
green colour, finely dotted with black, with a yellowish dorsal stripe, and 
a series of small yellow spots forming a stripe along each side ; its length 
is about an inch and a quarter. It feeds, like P. oleracea, upon various 
species of cruciferous plants,, especially upon the cabbage, to which it is 
most destructive. In this case it bores down, when feeding, into the very 
heart of the plant and thus renders the vegetable quite unfit for food. It 
forms its chrysalis (Fig. 10, b) in the same kinds of situations and in. a 
similar manner to the preceding species. In this state it remains, in 
summer, for from a week to a fortnight, but in the autumn it continues as 
a pupa until the following spring. There are at least two, *'^=- ^*^- 

perhaps three, broods in the year. 

The ravages of this insect in Northern America ate 
beginning to be somewhat checked by a parasite 
{Ptcroniahts puparuDi, Linn.) ; it belongs to the ichneu- 
mon family, and is a four-winged fly, about one-eighth 
of an inch long, with a golden-hued body and a bright 
green head. 

The remaining species of Pieris found in Canada — 
the Southern Cabbage Butterfly {Pieris protodice, Boisd.) 
— is quite a rarity with us, though oftentimes very " 
abundant in the western and more southern States. Last August we found 
it to be the commonest butterfly about Chicago and through the States of 
Illinois and Iowa. Like the other two species, it is white with black 
markings ; the accompanying illustrations so well represent the butterfly 




THE CANADIAIs" ENTOMOLOGIST. 



43 



that we need not occupy our space with any special description. (Fig. 
^'&- ^^- II, with the comparatively few 

black spots, represents the male. 
Fig. 12, the female, with its much 
more numerous and conspicuous 
spots and markings.) 

The chrysalis (Fig. 13, b) is over 
half an inch in length, of a light 
bluish-gray color, more or less pro- 
fusely speckled with black, with the projecting portions tinted with pale 
yellow or flesh color, and marked with large black dots. The caterpillar 




(Fig. 13, a) varies in colour from 
•deep to pale bluish and green ; it 
has four longitudinal yellow stripes, 
and is thickly covered with black 
dots. As in the other species 
there are two broods in the year, 
and the winter is passed in the pupa 
:state. In the Southern States it is 
a very injurious insect, but here it 

Fig. 13. 



Fig. 12. 





is too rare to be more than 
an interesting curiosity. 

Another species of Pieris 
{P. fj'igida, Scudder) has 
been taken in Labrador and 
on the Island of Anticosti, 
but it is not likely ever to 
spread much, or to be ranked 
amongst ' common insects.' 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOME GENERA 
OF CANADIAN INSECTS. 



BY FRANCIS WALKER, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

IsosoMA. — So much has been lately written about this genus that it 
may be dismissed with a few words. The Eîirytomidae, to which it 
belongs, were considered by Nees to be in a debatable state between the 



44 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

C/ialddiae a.nd the CymJ>s tribe, and though they are now fixed with the- 
Chalcidiae, there is still matter for argument as to their maintenance by 
animal life, or by vegetable life, or as to how they are divided between 
these two means of existence. Nees mentions his discovery of a gall- 
making Eurytomay and Girand announces his ascertaining the vegetable 
food of Isosoma, a fact afterwards observed by Moncreaff, but this genus 
has more importance in the U. States, where Harris, Fitch and others have 
been witnesses of its ravages on corn. But the most interesting part of ^ 
its history is in Canada where a species occurs in grape seeds, and is 
remarkable not only on account of the singularity of its abode, but also by 
the contrariety of the sexes, one of them representing the carnivorous 
Eîirytoma, and the other the herbivorous Isosoma, and thus one species 
figuratively combines the diminishers of vegetation and the controllers of 
such diminution. Isosoma is destitute of the metallic hue which is the 
especial ornament of its tribe, but possesses a compact and elegant form, 
a finely sculptured thorax, and a highly polished abdomen. It occurs in . 
Australia, in Amurland, and probably in all the chief parts of the- 
earth. 

Pteromalus. — This geniis is the last of the Canadian Chalcidiae, and. 
thereby indicates what a multitude of discoveries in this tribe are yet to ■ 
be made in Canada. It inhabits all parts of the earth, and the British, 
species are exceedingly numerous. P. puparum is the type of the genus 
and has been long known in Europe. The chrysalis of a butterfly affords 
food and lodging for its young ; it was found formerly near Hudson's Bay, 
and its appearance in the U. States has been lately a source of gratifica- 
tion, and it can hardly fail of being shortly recognized in Canada, having; 
now the means of making itself known. 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY y. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Vol. 5, Pagelo. 

G. eupatoriella. Ante p. ç. Vol. 4. 

The former notice of this species was very brief and imperfect, having,, 
as there stated, been made from a single specimen which had been untimely 
nipped from its pupa case. Since then I have bred and captured other 
specimens. It may be G. Venustella Clem., Proc. Acad. Nat. Set., 186a.. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 45 

J>. Ç2, and re-described by Dr. Clemens, Froc. Ent. Soc. Phila., i86j, p. 
216: It does not agree accurately with either of Dr. Clemens' 
■descriptions, but it seems to be a somewhat variable species, though some 
of the most striking marks in my three specimens are not mentioned by 
Dr. Clemens. I therefore retain the above name for the present, at least, 
. as Dr. Clemens gives no measurement for his species, and was unacquainted 
with its food plant. In the following description I have noted the points 
in which my specimens differ among themselves and from Dr. Clemens 
description. 

Maxillary palpi and basal joint of the labial palpi dark brown ; ter- 
minal joint white, with a dark brown annulus before the middle. (In one 
^specimen, the labial palpi are entirely white, except the annulus. Dr. 
Clemens' first description says : " white, with a blackish spot near the 
middle and one near the tip." His second says : "Second joint fuscous 
at its end, third with a broad fuscous ring.") Antennae brown; head 
white ; thorax white, narrowly margined near the apex with dark brown, 
.and a dark brown line beginning on the head and extending to the apex 
of the thorax. (Dr. Clemens does not mention this line nor the dark 
margins.) Primaries dark grayish brown. A white streak along the 
dorsal margin from the base to about the middle, Avhere it is confluent 
with the first dorsal oblique streak. (In one specimen it does not attain 
the oblique streak. This oblique streak is not mentioned by Clemens, 
who simply says " the basal portion of the inner margin is white.") A 
.small white dorsal streak at the beginning of the ciliae (not mentioned by 
Clemens.) A short white costal streak in the basal portion of the wing ; 
another about the middle, extending to or crossing the fold and pointing 
towards the second dorsal streak. (Dr. Clemens calls this second costal 
streak a fascia extending obliquely across the wings and sometimes con- 
stricted or partially interrupted near the dorsal margin. If sufficiently 
interrupted, this would make my second dorsal streak.) Two narrow 
white fasciae in the apical part of the wing, the last one not oblique. (Dr. 
Clemens calls these costal streaks extended to the middle.) All these 
..streaks are dark margined internally, and the two last named are continued 
into the dorsal ciliae (a mark not mentioned by Clemens.) A fifth white 
;.short costal streak at the apex (not mentioned by Clemens, unless this is 
Tvhat he means by " Ciliae — at the tip of the wings white, touched with 
black at the ends.") Ciliae of the general hue, with a dark brown hinder 
marginal line beyond their middle. Anterior legs dark brown, with yel- 



46 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLQGIST. 

lowish-white tarsi ; middle pair like the anterior, except that there is a. 
white annulation near the middle of the femora; another at its articulation 
with the. tibiae, and another near the base of the tibiae ; posterior legs- 
whitish, annulate with dark brown. (Dr. Clemens says nothing about the: 
markings of the legs and tarsi, but in his classification of his species by 
the color of the tibiae, he places Vemistella in the section " without white 
tibiae.") Al. ex. ^ inch. 

The larva may be found in the leaves of Eupator'min ageratoides 
from July to October, but is rather rare. The mine is at first a 
short narrow white line, but ends in a large tentiform mine. It. 
is on the vmder surface, and the larva frequently leaves one mine 
to form another. The maxillary palpi are a little larger in this insect, 
than in Parectopa robiniella Clem. ; and I have not examined th^euration 
of this species, but I think it is evident at a glance that they are congen- 
eric. And I do not see how, with a species like this before him. Dr. 
Clemens could have placed robiniella in a separate genus. In fresh speci- 
mens 0Ï robiniella the head is not roughened. At p. 7, vol. 4, a7ite, I have 
suggested that Parectopa Clem, is simply Zeller's section of Gracillaria 
with eight marginal veinlets in the primaries. Zeller's section agrees nearly 
with Herrick-Schaffer's genus, Eiispilapteryx. And a glance at a figure of 
Gracillaria (Euspilapteryx) amogattella, or G. (Etipilapteryx) phasian-- 
ipinella, as figured by Stainton, Nat. Hist. Tin., or the former in Woods' 
Index Entomologicus, settles the position of Parectopa so far as the pattern 
of coloration can affect it. 

Many of the species of this genus, when very young, make linear- 
mines. The mines of G. plantaginisella and G. eiipatoriella are short, 
crooked lines, ending in the large tentiform blotches heretofore described. 
That of G. salicifolieda is a narrow white line, sometimes nearly straight- 
and with lateral branches on the underside of WilloAv leaves ; when it: 
leaves this mine it again enters the underside, but passes immediately 
through to the upper surface, where it makes the large blotch mine. The 
statement at p. 20 ante, that it makes but a single mine, is incorrect, as it; 
commonly makes two or three. The young larva is flattened, resembling 
somewhat a flat Lithocolletis larva. G. purpuriella sometimes pupates, 
under a web, as stated ante p. 28, but usually in its cone. The complete- 
cone sometimes occupies an entire leaf; the apex of the leaf is bent over,, 
so that the left edge touches the right one, to which it is fastened ; then 
the leaf is rolled spirally to the base, and the tip is used to close one end 
and the base the other, so that the whole leaf is utilized. Many of the- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 47 

mines, however, are by no means so perfect. Possibly the form of the 
mine may be useful as indicating the affinities of the species. G. desmodi- 
foUella Clem, at first makes a narrow linear short mine on the underside of 
the leaf, ending in a small tent mine, which is indistingiiishable from that 
of LithoceUetis desmodiella Clem., in the same leaves ; afterwards it leaves 
the mine and rolls the leaf downwards from the tip. The mines of G. 
(Paredopa) robiniella and G. (Paredopa) lespedesœfoUella Clem, resemble 
somewhat the mines of the older larvae of G. saUcifoliella. The larval 
habits of the other American species are unknown, except G. juglandisni- 
gracella, which makes at first a short linear mine ending in a white blotch 
on the under surface ; at this stage it is indistinguishable from the young 
mines of some species of Lithocolktis ; when it leaves the mine it feeds, 
and then pupates under the edge of the leaf turned up. I have seen no 
account of the European G. jiiglandiella. The Black Walnut (J^uglans 
nigra) is naturalized in Europe. If it is the food plant oi juglandiella, 
then jiiglandisnigracella or blandella may be the same insect. 

ORNIX. 

The species of this genus may be distinguished from those of Gracil- 
laria by the roughened head, the somewhat broader primaries and the 
duller colors. 

Many of the species resemble each other very closely, so that, as Mr. 
Stainton says, the specific characters are to be sought for in the ciliae. 

" In early life the larvae are leaf miners and make mines on the under 
surface of leaves, difficult to distinguish from those of the genus Lithocol- 
letis. Towards maturity, however, they abandon their mines and feed 
under a portion of a leaf turned down from its edge, which is bound 
closely with silk. When they are full fed a small portion of the edge of 
the leaf is turned over, and the larva weaves its cocoon within the cone 
thus made." — Clemens' /'r^r. Ent. Soc. Phila., 1861. p. The italics in 
this quotation are mine. Mr. Stainton gives substantially the same 
account of their habits. And I believe the species described below as 
O. inusitatiimeUa is the only known species which has a different habit. 

O. inusitatumella. N. sp. ? 

Dark iron gray, almost brown. Labial palpi whitish, with a dark 
brownish gray annulus on the third joint before the tip. Head dirty 
grayish mixed with brown. Antennae gray brown, faintly annulate with 



48 THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. 

white. Thorax and primaries dark iron gray, or brownish ; primaries pale 
whitish gray along the dorsal margin, dusted with brown. A narrow, 
brown streak from the fold, which widens into three small spots, once near 
the base, once towards the middle, and once behind the middle. Seven 
(or eight ?) indistinct pale costal streaks, the first before the middle, the 
last close to the apex ; those in the apical part of the wing are longer than 
those about the middle, and extend nearly across the wing, and all are 
internally dark margined. A white spot at the extreme apex, very small, 
and followed by a minute dark brown dot, behind which is an indistinct 
brown hinder marginal line. Ciliae of the general hue. Alar ex. nearly 
yi inch. 

At the bottom of p. ii6, v. j, ante, I have mentioned a mine on the 
upper surface of the leaves of Haw trees, which resembles that of Litho- 
colletis Virginiella on the upper surface of Ostrya leaves ; and which I 
then supposed to be the mine of an undescribed LithocoUeiis. (As will be 
hereafter explained, there is no such species as Z. Virginiella, and the 
supposed mine of that species proved to be the mine of L. tritenœanella. 
(But of that hereafter.) The mine on the upper surface of the Haw leaves 
proves to be that of the Ornix above described. This mine is white, 
with the frass scattered, and much of it attached to the upper cuticle. It 
is large and nearly circular, and when completed the leaf is folded 
upwards. The larva never leaves the mine, but pupates in it, in a brownish- 
red COC0071 attached to tJie upper cuticle. I have never seen it on any leaves 
except those of Crataegus tomentosa, and never on those, except in one 
small piece of woodland containing about ten acres, near Covington, 
Kentucky. There they are very abundant, and I have found multitudes 
of them containing larvae and pupae, and empty ones with the pupa case 
projecting through the upper cuticle, from May to November. / have 
never met with any other Ornix on the leaves of C. tomentosa. It is a very 
difficult species to rear, as out of at least one hundred mines that I have 
gathered containing the larvae and pupae, I have succeeded in rearing 
but two specimens of the imago. 

Dr. Clemens states that his O. crataegifoliella has the labial palpi 
whitish ; and does not mention the annulus ; and he says that the fore- 
wings have a few whitish streaks i7i the apical part of the wing. His 
description is scarcely sufficient to enable one to determine a species 
among those which resemble each other so closely as do many species of 
this genus. But if he had mentioned the annulus on the palpi, and had 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 49 

:iiot confined the whitish streaks exclusively to the apical part of the 
"Aving, I should have considered captured specimens of this species as 
specimens of his species, which he says also feeds on C. tomentosa. But 
"then the habits of his species are those of the genys generally — that is, 
"it leaves the mine and pupates under the turned down edge of the 
;Ieaf. 

Nor can there be any suspicion that my first surmise about the mine 
was correct, viz., that it is a. LithocoHefis mine, from which I have failed to 
'rear the imago ; whilst I have bred an Ornix, which was unobserved in 
another mine on the same leaves. For in one of the instances in which I 
ibred it, I placed, one evening, a single Haw leaf in a wide-mouthed vial, 
'Containing nothing else. The leaf was carefully examined, and contained 
nothing but the mine and pupa of this species. The next morning the 
.Orjiix had emerged, and its pupa skin was projecting from the mine. 

I have, therefore, described it as a new species, notwithstanding its 
*close resemblance to O. Crataegifoliella, which Dr. Clemens says feeds 
■upon the same leaves, but which I have never found on or in them. 

For the purpose of comparison with the preceding species, and with 
the one described afterwards {O. prunivorelld), I here quote Dr. Clemens' 
■description of his species. 

O. CrataegifoHeUa, Cltm., Pt'oc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Nov., 1861, (p. 94 of 
Mr. Stainton's edition.) 

" Labial palpi whitish. Head dark brown and gray intermixed. 
-Antennae dark brown, faintly annulate with whitish. Forewings dark 
brown, with a purplish hue. Along the inner margin, from the base to 
the anal angle, whitish dusted with dark brownish. In the fold at the 
base is a dark brown streak, and a small blotch of the same hue beyond 
the middle, nearly reaching to the inner margin. Toward the tip are a 
few whitish costal streaks, and at the apex a small round dark brown spot 
in a whitish patch, with a circular dark brown apical line behind it ; ciliae 
.blackish gray. Hind wings blackish gray ; ciliae rather paler. Abdomen 
blackish, tipped with dull yellow." 

" The larva mines the leaves of Crataegus torneîitosa (black thorn) in 
:September, and becomes a pupa early in October, weaving a reddish- 
brown cocoon in a turned down edge of the leaf The pupa case is thrust 
from the end of the cocoon at maturity, the imago appearing early in 
May. There is doubtless a summer brood, but I have not sought for it. 
The head of the larva is brown ; the body greenish-white, with the dorsum 



50 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

reddish-brown." This description of the larva suits the .larvae of a great 
many species. 

0. primivorella. N. sp. 

Dark steel gray, almost brown. Labial palpi white, each joint tipped 
externally with dark steel gray. Antennae of the general hue, faintly- 
annulate with whitish. Thorax and primaries dark steel gray, the primaries 
with about nine faint whitish costal streaks, the first near the base and the- 
last at the apex, becoming gradually longer from the base to the apex, all 
faintly dark margined internally, the last three or four nearly perpendicular- 
to the costal margin, crossing the wing and uniting near the dorsal margin, 
where they are very narrow and indistinct. A small black apical spot,, 
behind which are three dark hinder marginal lines in the ciliae, the first: 
of which is at their base, and' becomes furcate in the dorsal ciliae, the- 
second is at the middle, and the third at the apex of the ciliae. Al. ex., 
yi inch. Kentucky. 

The larva mines the leaves of Apple trees {Mains) and Wild Cherry 
trees {Prmius serotina), making a large tentiform mine on the under" 
surface, which can only be distinguished from that oi Lithocolletis crataegella- 
Clem., in the same leaves, by its larger size. It is at first a short crooked 
line, which ends in the large tentiform mine. It leaves the mine to pupate- 
under the edge of the leaf turned down. 

Lithocolletis crataegella, Tischeria 7nalifoliella, Aspadisca splendoriferella,. 
and so many larvae of larger moths feed indifferently on the leaves of ■ 
Crataegus, Prunus and Malus, that I at first, when I bred this insect from 
Apple and Wild Cherry leaves, was inclined to suppose it to be (9- 
crataegifolietla Clem., but a slight inspection shows it to be different, and 
I have never found it feeding on Haw leaves. Among other things which 
distinguish it from O. crataegifolicUa and O. inusitatumella the posterior- 
margin of the wings is not whitish, and it has three hinder marginal lines - 
in the ciliae. It may be found in all stages through the summer and fall. 



Personal. — We are pleased to learn that Mr. Aug. R. Grote, one of 
our esteemed contributors, well known for his many valuable papers on 
Lepidoptera, has removed from Demopolis, Alabama, to Buffalo, N. Y., 
where he has undertaken active work in connection with the Society of/ 
Natural Science. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 51 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA, No. 5: 

BY E. T. CRESSON, 
Continued from Vol. 4, Pago 231. 



Genus Microdus, Nees. 

MiCRODUS IMITATUS. N. Sp. 

%. — Sanguineous, shining; head, antennae, prothorax, surroundings- 
of scutellum, pleura beneath, four anterior legs, including their coxae^ 
posterior trochanters and their tibiae and tarsi, black ; sides of mesothorax 
tinged with blackish ; metathorax coarsely punctured above with four 
longitudinal carinœ, the two central ones approximate, flanks less coarsely 
punctured ; wings uniformly fuliginous, with the usual hyaline angular 
streak beneath stigma ; abdomen long, narrow, polished, with a purplish 
reflection; ovipositor longer than body. Length .37 inch. 

Massachusetts. More slender than sanctus, with the mesothorax, 
scutellum and sides of pleura sanguineous ; the metathorax is differently- 
sculptured and the posterior tibiae are black, 

Microdus simillimus. N. sp. 

^ Ç . — Pale sanguineous or fulvo-ferruginous ; head, antennae, the 
thorax, except metathorax and four anterior legs including coxse, black : 
metathorax opaque, scabrous ; wings fuliginous ; tips of posterior tibiae 
and tarsi more or less fuscous ; abdomen shining, suture between first and 
second segments very deeply impressed. Length .22-27 inch. 

New Jersey ; Pennsylvania ; Illinois. Much smaller than sancfus,. 
which it closely resembles, and from which it is at once distinguished by 
the posterior trochanters not being black. 

Microdus calcaratus. iV. sp. 

Ç — Sanguineous ; head, antennae, the thorax, except metathorax, 
four anterior legs, posterior trochanters and their tibiae and tarsi, black ;, 
four anterior knees, anterior tarsi except claws, intermediate tarsi except 
tips of joints, all the tibial spurs and apical joint of posterior tarsi, white 
or whitish ; metathorax shining above, with carinae forming an elongate 
central area; wings fuliginous as usual; abdomen shining, second 



52 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

.•segment with two finely crenulated, transverse lines ; ovipositor as long as 
body. Length .25 inch. 

Delaware. Allied to sajutus, but much smaller, with the tibial spurs 
and four anterior tarsi white. ' 

MiCRODUS DIVISUS. N. sp. . 

^ . — Sanguineous; head, antennae, pleura, metathorax,post-scutellum, 
four anterior legs, including coxae, posterior coxae beneath, their tro- 
chanters, tips of their femora, their tibiae and tarsi, black ; metathorax 
roughly scabrous ; wings fuliginous ; abdomen depressed, smooth and 
polished, a broad, rather deep fovea on each side at base of second seg- 
ment. Length .34 inch. . 

Illinois. Differs from médius, to which it is closely allied, by the color 
•of the legs ; the metathorax is more roughly sculptured, and the clear 
blotch beneath the stigma more obscure, while in médius it is very con- 
:spicuous. 

MiCRODUS AGILIS. N. Sp. 

Ç . — Small, slender, black ; tip of clypeus, labrum, mandibles and 
palpi yellowish ; thorax shining, metathorax opaque, scabrous ; wings 
hyaline, faintly dusky, iridescent ; legs pale sanguineous, posterior tibiae 
yellowish, their tips, a narrow annulus near base, and their tarsi, blackish; 
three basal segments of abdomen pale sanguineous, remainder black, 
shining ; ovipositor as long as body. Length .25 inch. 

Massachusetts. 

MiCRODUS DISCOLOR. N. Sp. 

^ $. — Small, yellow-ferruginous; antennae entirely black; space 
between summit of eyes and two large spots on occiput, fuscous ; most of 
prothorax, sutures of mesothorax, space around scutellum, sides of pleura 
and metathorax above, all more or less fuscous ; metathorax trans s^ersely 
rugulose above ; scutellum sometimes blackish, and the spots on occiput 
sometimes indistinct ; wings pale fuscous, areolet very minute ; legs honey 
yellow, most of tarsi, tips of four posterior tibise, tips of posterior femora 
and an annulus near base of their tibiae, blackish ; abdomen opaque, 
shining beyond third segment, which is more or less fuscous ; one speci 
men has the vertex, occiput and thorax entirely, the posterior tibiae except 
iiroad median annulus, and the first, apex of the second, and the third 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 53 

segments of abdomen black. The $ varies from entirely ferruginous, 
except antennae and posterior tibiae, to almost entirely black. Length 
.14 inch. 

IlHnois. A very variable species. 

MlCRODUS FALLENS. JV. Sp. 

Ç . — Honey-yellow, shining ; tips of mandibles and antennae black, 
scape reddish beneath ; metathorax roughened, opaque, pubescent ; wings 
pale fuscous, areolet sub-triangular ; intermediate tarsi dusky, tips of 
posterior tibiae and their tarsi black ; abdomen polished. Length .22 
inch. 

Illinois. Allied to fulvescens, Cress., with clear spot beneath stigma 
much less distinct. 

MlCRODUS LATICINCTUS. N. Sp. 

^ . — Small, black, shining ; mandibles and palpi pale ; metathorax 
scabrous ; tegulae pale honey-yellow ; wings hyaline, iridescent : stigma 
blackish; legs honey-yellow, posterior coxae dusky at base beneath, their 
tibiae yellow, broadly black at tips, their tarsi fuscous; abdomen shining 
black, first segment longitudinally striated, second yellowish, remainder 
polished. Length .20 inch. 
Missouri. (C. V. Riley.) 

MlCRODUS CINCTUS. N. Sfi. 

^ Ç . — Small, black, shining ; tip of clypeus, mandibles and palpi 
pale-yellowish ; antennae pale testaceous, more or less dusky toward tips, 
scape piceous ; metathorax opaque, finely scabrous ; tegulae pale ; wings 
hyaline, iridescent, faintly dusky ; legs honey-yellow, tips of posterior 
femora above black, their tibiae yellow, black at tips, with a narrow black 
annulus near base, their tarsi fuscous ; coxae of Ç generally entirely black, 
of ^ entirely honey-yellow; abdomen black, polished, first segment 
opaque, second segment pale honey-yellow. Length .17 inch. 

Illinois. Smaller than laticindiis , from which it is at once distinguished 
by the first abdominal segment not being striated. 

MlCRODUS ANNULIPES. N. Sp. 

% . — Small, black, shining ; clypeus, mandibles and palpi more or less 
pale-yellowish ; metathorax rugose, somewhat shining ; tegulae honey- 
yellow ; wings hyaline, iridescent, stigma and nervures pale brown; legs 



54 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

honey-yellow, anterior pair pale, posterior tibiae white, tips and a spot 
near base black, their tarsi black, white at base ; abdomen polished 
black, second and sometimes base of third segment honey-yellow. Length ■ 
-.16-18 inch. 

Massachusetts ; Pennsylvania ; Illinois. Easily recognized by the 
white posterior tibiae annulated with black. It is closely allied to the two 
preceding species. 

MiCRODUS EARINOIDES. N. Sp. 

$ . — Small, slender, shining black ; mouth pale piceous, palpi whitish ; 
metathorax rugose, sub-opaque ; tegulae honey-yellow ; wings hyaline, iri- 
descent; legs honey-yellow, posterior tarsi whitish, apex and spot near 
base black, their tarsi black, whitish at extreme base : abdomen black, 
depressed, polished, basal sutures of second and third segments sometimes 
pale. Length .15 inch. 

Massachusetts ; Illinois. Resembles Earvius limitaris in miniature. 
Genus Earinus, Wesm, 

Earinus limitaris. 

Bassus limitarsis, Say, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist.,i., p. 250. 

^ Ç . — Black, shining, with a short pale silky pile on face, pleura and 
metathorax ; mesothorax not trilobate, feebly punctured ; metathorax 
rounded, shining, disk with a narrow longitudinal groove ; tegulae whitish ; 
wings hyaline, iridescent, costal nerve and stigma black, nervures fuscous, 
areolet quadrate ; legs honey-yellow, posterior tibiae pale, apex broadly 
and a narrow annulus near base black, their tarsi entirely black ; abdomen 
narrow, depressed, polished, second segment with an oblique groove on 
each side behind which is a round swelling ; sheaths of ovipositor thick, 
fringed with short dense black pubescence. Length .25-.35 inch. 

Canada; Mass.; Penn. ; Virginia; Illinois. Common. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 55 



CANONS OF SYSTEMATIC NOMENCLATURE FOR THE 
HIGHER GROUPS. 

BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. 



[From the American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. Ill, May, 1872.] 

Several years ago, the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science appointed a committee to reconsider the canons of biological 
nomenclature, and to report whether, with the growth of science, they 
Tequired any additions or alterations. No report has yet been made, nor, 
so far as we are aware, is any likely to be presented, until the subject is 
■again brought prominently forward and new instructions given. Professor 
A. E. Verrill has since republished * the Revised Rules of Zoological 
Nomenclature adopted by the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science in 1865, and has accompanied them by a few apt comments ; in 
England, Mr. W. F. Kirby, in a paper read before the Linnean Society of 
London, has called attention to the extensive changes which a strict 
adherence to the laws of priority would cause in the generic nomenclature 
of butterflies ; and quite recently has put the same into practice in his 
■catalogue of these insects. 

But hitherto very little has been said concerning the special application 
of definite rules to groups higher than genera, and it is to this division of 
the subject that we desire to call attention. 

In attempting to legislate upon this branch of zoological nomenclature, 
two principles must be kept in view : first, so far as possible, the canons 
already in general acceptance for generic nomenclature should be applied 
to all "the monomial groups. Unity of principle lies at the foundation of 
acceptable legislation ; second, retrospective laws should be avoided. 

One difficulty meets us at the outset, — what some are pleased to term 
the unstable nature of the higher groups, but which we should prefer to 
call the disagreement of naturalists as to the limits and value of these 
groups ; yet as this diversity of view is a nearly equal hindrance to any 
code of rules, it needs only to be mentioned in passing. 

Endeavoring to keep in mind the principles above enunciated, and as 
the simplest means of presenting our views, the following outline of a 
code is suggested for the consideration of zoologists. 



This Journal, July, 1869. 



56 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Cano7is. — 1. The name originally given by the founder of a group- 
should be permanently retained, to the exclusion of all subsequent syn- 
onyms. 

This rule, recognizing the law of priority, which lies at the foundation 
of all systematic nomenclature, is the same as the first and prime rule oï 
the code accepted by the British- Association, with the exception of certain 
references made exclusively to species ; and, since this canon meets 
universal acceptance, there is no need of discussing it, aside from the 
following limitations. 

I. This law of priority should not extend to works published before 

1758. 

The same reasons for such a limitation do not exist in the present; 
instance as in the case of specific nomenclature ; but similar objections 
can be made to an earlier limitation. Only three reasonable courses are 
open to the naturalist : to accept {a) no limitation whatever, in which case 
" our zoological studies would be frittered away amid the refinements of 
classical learning ; " {p') the limitation here formulated, in which case all 
our systematic nomenclature takes its common origin in the tenth edition 
of Linne's Systema Naturae ; * or {c) to apply the laws of nomenclature to 
each kind of group (sub-family, family, class, etc.), from the time when 
such group was first brought into use — which would engender such con- 
fusion as speedily to bring all nomenclature into deserved disrepute. 

2. Plural or collective substantives (or adjectives used as substantives) 
are alone admissible. 

As the higher groups are all collective — in idea, if not in fact — it is 
essential that the names applied to them should be at least capable of a. 
collective sense ; and names which are not so formed should be dropped. 
The retrospective action of such a law would be very slight. 

3. A name which has been previously proposed for some genus or 
higher group in zoology should be expunged. 

This accords too well with accepted rules to require any discussion. 

4. When two authors define and name (differently) the same group,, 
both making it of the same or very nearly the same extent, the later name 
(or if synchronous, the least known name) should be cancelled, and never 
again brought into use. 



* The English — the strongest upholders of the plan of dating from the twelfth, 
edition of the Systema Naturse — are now, by degrees, accepting the earlier date of 
1758 as the starting point for zoological nomenclature, and we may assume that, in. 
this view, the whole scientific world wiU sooner or later concur. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 57 

With the exception of certain verbal modifications, this law is identical 
with the sixth section of the British Association rules, where it is applied 
to genera only. 

5. In any subsequent alterations of the limits of a group, its name 
should never be cancelled ; but should be retained either in a restricted or 
an enlarged sense. 

The necessity for such a limitation is obvious ; otherwise a different 
name would (or, could) be given by every author who differed from pre- 
ceding ones in his ideas of the precise limitation of any group in question. 
This indeed has already been done, and, if continued, will create lament- 
able confusion; but this limitation should itself be subject to one 
exception, which may be formulated thus : 

6. But any assemblage so defined by an author as harshly to violate 
the groupings of nature (as known to naturalists of his time), should be 
cancelled. 

Such a rule would prevent the injury which might accrue to science by 
too close an application of the preceding law. The parenthetical limita- 
tion seems, however, to be necessary. 

II. Changes in the name of one group should not affect the names of 
other groups. 

This follows as a corollary of the first canon, but it has been not 
infrequently violated, and it is easy to perceive the cause. The nomen- 
clature of higher groups, notably of families and 'subfamilies, has, to a 
considerable degree, been founded upon generic names, with the addition 
of special collective endings to the root (see recommendation i). Now, 
when a generic name which has formed the basis of a family designation 
has been found to be pre-occupied, it has been thought necessary by some 
to recast the nomenclature of the higher group. But why ? After a name 
has been long applied to a group, it ceases to have any intrinsic meaning 
and is simply associated with the group itself, recalling it without reference 
to any particular member of the same. It certainly would be agreeable if 
we had a nomenclature in which each group should by the very association 
of ideas recall its members ; but since that is utterly impossible, and we 
have to deal with a mass of synonyms already tangled and intricate, our 
problem is — how best to make our way out of the difficulty without a con- 
tinual wrangling over names and entailing endless disputes upon future 
generations. 



58 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

,To this canon no exception whatever should be made ; for it would be 
difficult to draw the line anywhere and gain general consent. Anyone 
who considers the subject, will see that one apparently reasonable excep- 
tion will lead to another scarcely less desirable, until the whole value and 
force of the proposed canon is destroyed. 

III. The mere enumeration of its members, when known, is a suffi- 
cient definition of tlie limits of a- group, and gives it an unquestionable 
claim to recognition. 

Although it is certainly most desirable that every name proposed for a 
group should, when first propounded (or shortly after), be accompanied by 
a full description of its essential characters, it is evident that no one 
acquainted with the subject of which an author treats can fail to under- 
stand his meaning if he defines his groups by mere enumeration of their 
members. If, for instance, he designates the known genera to be embraced 
in a proposed family, he actually defines his group much better than he 
could do by a specification of its characters, since we have probably not 
yet been favored with any description of a natural family which gives 
everything which is characteristic and omits all that is not. 

Recommendations. — i. " That assemblages of genera, termed families, 
should be uniformly named by adding the termination -idae to the name 
of the earliest knov/n or most typically characterized genus in them ; and 
that their subdivision, termed subfamilies, should be similarly constructed 
with the termination -inae." 

This recommendation, formulated by the committee of the British 
Association, is deprived of a great part of its value by the disagreement 
of naturalists as to the nature of family and subfamily groups, — assem. 
blages of very diverse natures having received this designation at the 
hands of different writers ; indeed, up to the issue of Professor Agassiz's 
Essay on Classification, no one had ever attempted to give definite shape 
to current opinions upon the subject ; and it will be long before we shall 
see a general concurrence in either the views put forward in that work, or 
in any modification of them. Such being the case, it is evident that this 
recommendation cannot have the force of a law, nor be allowed any 
retrospective action. Otherwise these rules, or any other reasonable ones 
{however generally they may be accepted), are powerless to assign to any 
higher natural group a fixed and unalterable name ; but the group in ques- 
tion would receive a different name from different authors, according as 
they considered it a subfamily or an assemblage of still another nature. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 59 

2. All monomial collective names should be derived from the Greek, 
■and have a plural form. 

3. Only the surname of the author who first proposed a group need 
follow its name, whether the group be used in its original or in a modified 
:sense ; but when it is desirable to indicate at the same time its recognized 
altered limits, the surname of the writer who first proposed the accepted 
circumscription may follow in a parenthesis. 

In systematic nomenclature, the object is to register titles, not to 
gratify pride, and the names of authors are appended for convenience, not 
fame ; the question of justice or injustice has no place here ; and yet the 
above recommendation ought to be satisfactory to those who view this 
matter in a different light. 



NOTES FROM THE EAST, 

PiERis RAP^. — The yellow variety of this butterfly occurs here every 
summer, from the commencement until the end of the season ; what I 
have seen of them were of a delicate sulphur yellow. I netted all that I 
met with, but never found a yellow female on the wing. In July, 1870, I 
had a pot of mignonette growing on my window-sill, and observed a 7a/iite 
female Rapœ laying eggs on it. I reared seven or eight of the caterpillars, 
feeding them on mignonette, and they all assumed the pupa state ; after 
the butterflies had emerged, a friend unfortunately opened the box and 
some of them escaped before I had seen them. When I examined the 
box there were five yellow females remaining in it. They had the dark 
markings very strongly produced, as the later broods generally have ; not 
knowing at the time the scarceness of the yellow females, I did not preserve 
them, and I have not seen one since. I believe, with the exception of 
one reared by Mr. Bowles at Quebec, it is the only instance on record. 
Last spring I found some chrysalids of rapœ containing parasites, but did 
not succeed in breeding them, as the change from the cold of the open 
air to the warmth of the house killed them. Last summer rapœ was very 
abundant here, and now the chrysalids may be seen in great numbers sus- 
pended to the fences about the city. The parasite has increased 
wonderfully during last season, for nearly all the chrysalids that I have 
seen this year are infested with them. I do not think that more than one 
in fifty has escaped their attacks. — F. B. Caulfield, Montreal, P. Q. 

Macrobasis Fabricii. — This beetle was very numerous here last 
season, and did a considerable amount of damage to the potatoe vines ; in 



60 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

one field of potatoes that I examined I found on nearly every plant from 
two to seven of them, busily employed on the leaves ; their blue-gray dress 
contrasted well with the green of the leaves, and gave them quite a 
picturesque appearance. When disturbed, they did not attempt to fly, but 
let themselves fall from the leaves ; however, when on the ground they 
were active enough, and soon hid themselves under stones or lumps of 
earth. While on the plants they appeared to be very peaceable, keeping 
together in small groups, but on some occasions they are sad cannibals. 
A friend of mine brought me some of these insects in a paper, and when 
I opened it there was only one alive ; the rest of them were rather badly 
mutilated, some had lost their legs and some were minus their heads. I 
put them together again and the survivor immediately commenced a fierce 
attack on one of his slaughtered relatives, and did not seem one bit the 
worse after his strange repast. 

DiAPHEROMERA FEMORATA. — I found this inscct quite common here 
last summer ; they do not seem to be particular in their choice of trees in 
this locality. I found them on Maple, Linden, Oak and Butternut, and 
early in the season I found a young one making a tour of discovery on an 
Elm that I had sugared for moths. I found the males much more active 
than the females, stalking up the tree when disturbed, while the females 
either remained quiet or dropped to the ground, rarely going up the tree. 
— F. B. Caulfield, Montreal, P. Q. 



HESPERIA ILLINOIS identical with HESP. ACANOOTUS, Scudd. 

I am informed by the best authorities that under the name of Hesp- 
" Illinois," I have merely re-described Mr. Scudder's Hesp. Acanooiiis, and 
I therefore hasten to make the necessary correction. 

In comparing my supposed new species with specimens and 
descriptions of N. A. Hesperidae, I was misled in regard to Acanootus, 
(which I had never seen,) by Mr. C. S. Minot's description of that species 
on page 150, vol. iv, of the Canadian Entomologist, which will be seen 
to differ in several important particulars from my description of what now 
appears to be the same species. 

The majority of the females taken here also differ in the spots on the 
primaries from the female of Acanootus, as first described by Mr. Scudder. 

The few extenuating circumstances mentioned above, do not, however,, 
relieve me of the blame of having, with injudicious haste, re-described an 
old established species. — G. M. Dodge, Ohio, 111. 



VOL. V. LONDON, ONT., APRIL, 1873. No. 4 

NOTES ON CASNONL\ LUDOVICIANA, salle. 

BY S. V. SUMMERS, M. D., NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Long, .30-33 inch. Body elongated, glabrous, sanguineous, pilose. 
Head, disk of prothorax, and under surface black ; head rhomboidal, 
middle wider than thorax, thence gradually constricted into a narrow 
rufous neck; eyes large and prominent; mouth parts, three basal joints, 
antennag and legs rufous ; eighth and ninth joints of antennae white, 
remaining joints black ; prothorax elongate, cylindrical, piceous; humeral 
base and apex rufous, widest just behind middle, when viewed vertically 
two fine long yellowish erect hairs will be observed to arise laterally just 
before the middle, much longer than on elytra. Elytra faintly striate 
striae with fine distant punctures, from each arise a single yellowish erect 
hair ; intervals smooth, flat, elytral constriction at humeri narrower than 
middle of thorax, humerus slightly elevated, angles rounded, a wide black 
band on middle of elytra, sinuated above, arcuate below, apex truncate 
^id tipped with black ; knees darker than femora, posterior thigh with 
outer two-thirds black. 

I am unable to detect any sexual dissimilarity. 

Its larger size and finer punctured striae before band on elytra, and 
the white eighth and ninth antennal joints, easily distinguishes it from 
pennsylvanica. The Californian pida is unknown to me. 

Habitat New Orleans, La. Mexico. Rare. 
This charming addition to our North American fauna appears first due 
to M. Salle, of Paris, France, who (if I am correctly informed) about 
forty years ago took a unique near an old SaAV Mill, in N. O. 
Subsequently, .none others were known to occur until 1861, when an indi- 
vidual was attracted by the lamp of a Mr. Speck, which ultimately became 
the property of Mr. Salle, making the second specimen in all Europe. 
Mr. Trabranelt, a diligent collector who has resided here some eighteen 



62 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

vears, took the next three specimens, one of which he has lately exchanged 
to Mr. Salle. Again, on Dec. 31st, '72, under some board traps in dry- 
grass, near water, my first specimen occurred, and for three succeeding 
days a unique was taken. Their habits are probably gregarious, living on 
the ground, and as the collecting grounds in the vicinity of New Orleans 
are limited, owing to swamps, they may be found to occur more plentifully 
in Northern La. They are very active and graceful, taking alarm at the 
least noise, and run with great rapidity, keeping the antennae in constant 
vibration ; when placed in a collecting bottle containing Cyanide of Potas- 
sium, they would seize hold of some other insect and proceed to drag it 
off, imitating certain species of ants. The drug, however, quickly quiets 
them. 



ON MR. SCUDDER'S SYSTEMATIC REVISION OF SOME OF 
THE AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES. 

BY AUG. R. GROTE., BUFFALO, N. Y. 
[paper no. 2.] 

Since it is conceded that the law of priority is invariable in its applica- 
tion to zoological nomenclature, it remains for us to apply it to the 
determination of our Butterflies. That some inconveniences may arise 
from the correction of errors, does not militate against our desire to be 
right. The question is, are Mr. Scudder's genera well founded, or, are his 
names entitled to precedence, not is it convenient for us to use them. 
Without as yet entering an extended discussion upon the structural 
characters of our Butterflies, we will briefly notice Mr. Scudder's genera. 

I. Oeneis, Hichner (18 16.) The type and first species mentioned 
under this name by LIubner is Noma. While five species are cited under 
this genus, Hubner refers two more to Eumenis, viz. : aello and tarpeja. 
But the type of Eumenis is E. autonoe. It is difficult to avoid the con- 
clusion that we must retain Oeneis to be correct, while regretting the 
necessary abandonment of Chionobas, so sonorous and accustomed a name. 
In our North American fauna we have, besides the species cited by Mr. 
Scudder, Oen. chryxus and Ocn. Uhhri, described under Chionobas by 
Doubleday and Reakirt. Chionobas Stretchii. Edw., does not belong to 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 63 

this genus, and is a synonym of Satyrus Ridingsii, I have been informed. 
Oai. nevadciisis has been described by Behr. 

2. Enodia, Hubner (1816). No one can possibly object to this desig- 
nation for our E. portlandla on any score. 

3. Minois, Huhicr (1816.) This generic name has priority, and Mr. 
Scudder shows that it represents a distinct type. It cannot be objected 
to on any score. Besides Jiephde and alopc, it inchides M. pegala, M. 
ariaiie and M. boopis. The former is a Southern species, the Papilio 
pegala of Fabr., and thought to be a possible form of M. a lope ; the two 
latter are described by Behr under Satyrus. 

4. Argus, Scopoli (1777). Mr. Scudder restricts Scopoli's term to our 
species, the Hip>parchia Boisduvalii of Harris, enumerated under another 
name by Scopoli. To this procedure there is no objection, provided that 
Boisduval's types of Argus were not of those referred to the genus by 
Scopoli, which we cannot determine at the moment, v/hen Boisduval's 
restriction would have priority. Hubner has, however, a Satyrid genus 
Arge^ the type of which is A. psyche. 

5. Megisto, I-Iubner (18 16.) Hubner's type is M. cymelia, to which he 
refers Eurytus as a synonym. Ele includes in his genus Megisto Mr. 
Scudder's type of Argus. There can be objection to the use of the term 
if we do not folloAV Mr. Butler's Enlargement of Euptychia. 

(To be Continued.) 



NOTES ON THE HABITS OF THE ANT LION. 

BY H. L. MOODY, MALDEN, MASS. 

It was in April of 1872, while at Plymouth, Mass., with a party of 
friends in search of the Mayflower Epigœa repe/is, that I was so fortunate 
as to capture a specimen of the larva of this insect. It was quite by 
accident that it came to my hands. A friend and myself v\^ere lounging 
by the roadside, for want of better employment thrusting our fingers into 
the light sand, when with a jerk and exclamation my friend withdrew his 
hand to find this larva clinging with a most determined nip to a finger ; it 
immediately dropped to the ground, however, and so quickly buried itself 
backward as to almost escape us, but a moment's lively digging revealed 



64 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

it again, and I secured it in a pill box. On my arrival at home I provided 
a jar with a few inches of dry sand in the bottom, and placed the larva in 
it ; it at once buried itself, and though I waited several hours, hoping to 
witness the commence»ment of its pitfall, there was no movement in that 
direction • there was now and then a slight stir of the sand, and once or 
twice the head was thrust above the surface, but quickly withdrawn at the 
slightest movement on my part. I grew tired of watching and retired for 
the night, returning in the morning to find a completed pit. It was in the 
form of an inverted cone, about one and one-half inches in diameter and 
three-quarters deep, a,nd as smooth as sand could be made. At the first 
glance I discovered no sign of the builder, but a closer inspection revealed 
a pair of mandibles and at the base of them a pair of eyes ; the bearer 
of these was snugly ensconced in the sand. The mandibles were 
stretched to their widest capacity and resting against opposite sides of the 
pit, so harmonizing in color with the sand as not to be readily noticed. 
In this position the larva would rest for hours unless disturbed, Avhen it 
would withdraw from sight, but soon reappear and resume its watch. 

My great interest, hov/ever, was in its method of taking its prey, and 
to witness this operation I provided a dozen or more ants of a small 
species, dropping them all into the pit at once; the larva with one sweep 
of its jaws secured three or four, and in a very short time killed or dis- 
abled them, but it soon dropped them and proceeded to kill most of the 
others before commencing its repast. Owing to their sluggish habit but 
very few succeeded in escaping. I was curious to see if the larva would 
attack as readily larger and more savage species, and the next day secured 
the largest specimens I could find of the Red Ant, Formica sangîmiea ? — 
noted for its courage and ferocity. I dropped the largest of these on 
the sand in the jar, leaving it to find its way into the pit, which it soon 
did, hesitating a nioment at the brink and then walking to the bottom. 
At the instant that the ant came within reach the larva closed its jaws 
upon one of its legs, and for a few moments I witnessed quite an exciting 
contest, the ant turning and twisting to find its adversary and biting 
savagely at everything within its reach, the larva endeavoring to draw far 
back into the sand, thereby protecting itself and pressing the ant so close 
to the surface as to allow but very little room for movement. The ant 
finally freed itself from the jaws of the larva, but did not at once succeed 
in leaving the pit ; the larva instantly almost entirely uncovered itself and 
slashed right and left with its mandibles, seeming to be in a perfect fury at 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 65 

the loss of its pre)^ It also threw sand rapidly, but I could not see that 
the sand struck the ant except when it tried to escape up the side of the 
pit back of the larva; then the sand invariably struck it and brought it to 
the bottom. The ant finally escaped, but the next day was again caught 
and its juices sucked dry. 

In no instance did I see so much resistance offered as in this case ; 
usually the ants seemed to realize that their adversary was one with which 
they could not cope. From my observations I concluded that the larva 
trusted rather to its long mandibles and the inabihty of its prey to readily 
-climb the walls of the pit, than to sand throwing where it did not capture 
them in the first attempt, for I saw it throw sand in but kw instances. I 
did not see it in the act of digging its pitfall but once ; it was then mid- 
night and I did not stay to witness the completion. I noticed only that 
it threw the sand out v/ith its head, working very rapidly. I have some- 
times left the room to return in less than an hour to find a completed pit 
where before there v/as no sign of it. From the day of capture to May 
nth I kept it supplied with ants, of which it destroyed numbers every 
day, but on the latter date, either by design or accident, its pit was filled 
level with the surface, and from this time to the time of pupating it dug 
none, remaining hidden most of the time and but once taking any food, 
then capturing an ant v/aile concealed by a fev/ grains of sand. On June 
4th it constructed a round cocoon of silk, covered v/ith grains of sand, 
and about one-half an inch in diameter. I presume it immediately pu- 
pated, but did not open the cocoon to ascertain. On July 8th the imago 
appeared and proved to be Myrmeleon iinmaculaius. 

In the larva state it is certainly in some respects the most interesting 
insect I have ever seen, its vary activity and pugnacity exciting admiration ; 
its mandibles were always ready to close upon any intruding object. When 
I first obtained it I wished to preserve a description and in order to 
accurately observe the colors I was obliged to remove the fine grains of 
sand that v/ere entangled in the short hairs on the body ; this I did with 
a camel's hairbrush, an operation to which the larva decidedly objected, 
but it stood its ground and fought it out, constantly seizing the brush 
between its mandibles, often in its attempts to reach it springing quite 
clear of the table. 



66 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA, No. 6 

BY E. T. CRESSON, 
Coiitiinied from Page Si. 



Genus Toxoneuron, Say. 

The characters of this genus are given at length under the name of 
Tcnthredoidcs (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iv., p. 290), which appears to be 
synonymous. It may be easily recognized by the short robust body, 
rather large transverse head, stout legs, broad ample wings {which are 
generally fuliginous), and especially by the form of the marginal cell, 
which is rather suddenly constricted (or somewhat reclivate) at tip of 
second sub-marginal cell, and thence narrov/ed to the apex, which is some- 
what incurved, and reaches the extreme apex of the wing ; this, as well 
as the second and third submarginal cells, are indistinctly defined, the- 
nervures being sub-obsolete. 

The species, tlius far known, may be distinguished by the characters 
given in the following table: — 

Body entirely black. 

Wings entirely fuliginous. 

Legs black, anterior knees honey-yellcw-. 

Tibial spurs black L .«thiofs. 

Tibia,! spurs white 2. mixutum. 

Legs black, anterior femora and tibire, and intermediate 

knees lioney-yellow 3. oeizab.s,. 

Legs lioney-yellow, coxœ, trochanters, tips of posterior 

tibia3 and their tarsi black 4. exploratoe. 

Vrings hyaline, apex fuliginous. 

Legs entirely black 5. mextcanum. 

Legs black, anterior pair except base honey-yellow G. apicale. 

Legs black, anterior tibiœ and tarsi, base of intermediate 
tilnœ, their tarsi and band at 1 lase of pos- 
terior tilnie white or yellow 7. tibiatoe. 

Body black ; head, pro and mesothorax and anterior legs ilavo- 

ferruginous 8. thoracicum. 

Body black ; abdomen and legs Ûavo-ferruginous 9. abdominale. 

Body ferruginous ; head, antenna:^, metathorax and pleura black... 10. semixigeum.. 
Body fulvo -ferruginous ; mouth, antemife, pleura beneath and 

metathorax black IL viator. 

Body yellow ; three spots on mesothorax, spots on pleura, and ab- 
domen, except base, black 12. oexatum. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. . 67 



1. TOXONEURON ^THIOPS. M. Sj>. 

Ç . — Black, shining, clothed rather thickly with a short whitish pubes- 
cence ; wings fuliginous, a sub-hyaline spot beneath base of stigma, 
posterior wings except tips and costa, hyaline ; legs black, anterior knees 
bright honey-yellow, their tarsi palish. Length .25 inch. 

Cordova, Mexico. (Sumichrast.) 

2. ToXONEURON MINUTUM. JV. Sp. 

Ç. — Very small, black, shining, slightly pubescent ; wings uniformly 
pale fuliginous, iridescent ; legs black, tibial spurs white, anterior knees, 
their tibiae, four anterior tarsi except tips, and intermediate knees pale 
yellowish. Length .to inch. 

Illinois. 

3. ToXONEURON ORIZAB/E. N. Sp. 

^. — -Black, shining, slightly pubescent; mandibles, anterior femora 
except base, their tibiae and intennediate knees, honey-yellow, tibial spurs 
black ; wings fuliginous, iridescent, posterior pair sub-hyaline ; abdomen 
flat, base tinged with piceous. Length .16 inch. 

Orizaba, Mexico. (Sumichrast.) 

4. ToXONEURON EXPLORATOR. 

Bracon (Toxoiieuron) explorator, Say, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., i, p. 259. 

"Indiana" (Say); Illinois; Texas. The femora except base, and the 
tibiae except apex of posterior pair, are bright honey-yellow; tibial spurs 
pale ; in one specimen the posterior femora and tibire are dusky. Length 
.20 inch. 

5. ToXONEURON MEXICANUiM. N. Sp. 

^ Ç . — Black, shining, rather thickly clothed with a short, white, 
sericeous pubescence ; tips of mandibles brown ; impressed lines on meso- 
thorax and excavation at base of scutellum, crenulated ; wings hyaline, 
apex beyond first cubital cell fuliginous, nervures black ; spurs of anterior 
tibice pale. Length .25-30 inch. 

Cordova, Mexico. (Sumichrast.) Sometimes the posterior orbits are 
tinged with honey-yellow, and the pubescence on anterior tibiae tinged 
with yellow. 



68 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

6. TOXONEURON APICALE. N. Sp. 

^. — Black, shining, clothed with a very short dull pubescence; 
sutures of mesothorax not crenulated : metathorax with strongly developed 
elevated lines ; wings hyaline, apex fuliginous, leaving base of marginal 
and of second cubital cells hyaline ; nervures and stigma black ; legs 
black, anterior femora except base and their tibiae entirely, bright orange- 
yellow, intermediate knees slightly tinged with testaceous. Length .20 
inch. 

Illinois. 

7. ToXONEURON TIBIATOR. 

Bracon tibiafor, Say, Long's 2nd Exped., ii, p. 322 ; ( Toxonturon) 
Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., i, p, 259. 

" Pennsylvania " (Say) ; Illinois. A very pretty species, easily recog- 
nized by the white annulus at base of posterior tibiœ. Length .25 inch. 

8. TOXONEURON THORACÏCUM. N. Sp. 

^ Ç .■ — Black, shining ; head, prothorax, mesothorax, spot beneath 
tegulae and anterior legs except coxae, trochanters and base of femora 
pale ferruginous ; spot on cheeks beneath, mouth, more or less of clypeus 
and a spot between ocelli and eyes in ^ , black ; wings uniformly blackish- 
fuliginous, nervures and stigma black ; metathorax with strongly developed 
elevated lines, forming an ovate central area. Length .20 inch. 

Cordova, Mexico. (Sumichrast.) 

9. ToXONEURON ABDOMINALE. A^. Sp. 

^ . — Black, clothed with a short dull pubescence ; posterior orbits, 
legs except coxae and trochanters, and the abdomen entirely pale san- 
guineous ; base of first abdominal segment tinged with yellow ; wings 
dark fuliginous, nervures and stigma black ; posterior tarsi dusky. Length 
.28 inch. 

Illinois. Bracon popiilator (Say, Long's 2nd Exped., ii, p. 323), which 
is also refeiTed to this genus by Say, and which, he says, is " a very com- 
mon insect in many parts of the United States, does not appear to be a 
Toxoneuron, as the ovipositor is described as being longer than the 
abdomen." It is probably a true Bracon. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 69 

10. TOXONEURON SEMINIGRUM. 

Tenthredoides seminiger, Cress., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iv, p. 291, ^ Ç. 

Colorado. Colored much like Microdus divisiis, described in the pre- 
ceding paper (page 52) ; the form is, however, much more robust, and the 
neuration of the wings entirely different. 

11. ToXONEURON VIATOR. 

Br aeon {Toxoneu?'0!i) viator, 'ih^.y. Post. Jour. Nat. Hist, i, p. 258. 

'' Indiana" (Say) ; Arizona. The specimen from Arizona has all the 
■coxre, except spot on two anterior pair beneath, concolorous with remainder 
of legs. Length .30 inch, 

12. ToXONEURON ORNAÏUM. N. Sp. 

$ . — Lemon-yellow, shining ; spot behind antennae covering ocelli, 
extending to summit of eyes and from- thence in a narrov/ line to occiput 
which it margins, three stripes on mesothorax, the central one broad and 
•abbreviated behind, spot on scutellum, short line beneath tegulse, furcate 
line on pleura, large spot on underside, posterior coxee beneath and a spot 
above at base, their femora and tibiae v/itliin, spot on each side of first 
.abdominal segment, and the remaining segments except very narrow apical 
margins, black ; flagellum brown ; wings yellow-hyaline, apex fuscous, 
nervures and stigma reddish-brown ; ■ apex of abdomen compressed. 
Length .25 inch. 

Cordova. Mexico. (Sumichrast.) A beautiful species. 

Genus Proterops, Wesm. 

Proterops californicus. m sp. 

^ , — Plack ; abdomen entirely ferruginons ; wings uniformly blackish- 
fuliginous ; antennae as long as body; legs entirely black, slender. Length 
.30 inch. 

California. (Behrens.) This is allied in general form to Toxonei/ron, 
from which it is at once separated by the anterior ocellus being situated 
between the insertion of the antennae. The neuration is also quite 
different. 



70 THE (J.WÀDIiVN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



SPECJl'iC NOMENCLATURE. 

BY H. K. MORRISOX, OLD CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

The publication of ^w. S<:iidi.:ler's Revision has caused much dismay 
among amateurs, on account of the numerous specific changes and minute 
generic sub-divisions which it proposes. 

To students of Lepidoincra the novel, and in many cases, original 
views advanced afford a fertile field for discussion. Mr. Scudder has 
attempted to study the order ]yy the same methods, and to correct its 
tangled specific nomencljiure hy the same principles which govern all 
other departirients of Zoology. 

This work is rendered very difficult from the fact that their beauty and 
the readiness with whicii they can be captured and preserved, has made 
them from the tiiire of Linn re us ;; favorite order with collectors. Thus it 
was that many of the species have been described not by naturalists, but 
by amateurs ; and genera foujided on the most casual and unimportant 
characters. The confusion ciuised by the publication of superficial and 
carelessly written works, or of i.vorks in which the labors of preceding- 
Entomologists have been neglected, it will take years to undo. Mr. 
Kirby, in his invaluable cafrlognc, has combined the results of the labors 
of European students in tliis direction, and adopted, although he did not 
fully carry out, the principles wliich Mr. Scudder followed strictly in his 
Revision. 

Unless some definite hiw is laid down and universally observed,in regard 
to Entomologicalnomenckuure.tJie Science will always remain in the chaotic 
condition in which it now is. 1'ime will only increase the confusion; and 
now that a good remedy ii;is been proposed, it would be folly to reject it, 
because of the temporary inc.^jivenience it would occasion. The con- 
demnation v.'ith which Mr. Scudder's book has been received seems to be 
founded, not on an intelligent rejection of his deductions, but simply on 
account of the trouble wlficli m partial change of names would cause the 
present generation of stiideiu.s. 

But is it not better to eiidin/e a slight and constantly diminishing evil 
for the sake of a future aiv.l permanent good ? 

There are two laws b\- ^shicSi the nomenclature of a science may be 
governed, that of priorit}- and the so-called law of convenience. The 



THE CANADIAI^ ENTOMOLOGIST. 71 

former is fixed. Immutable, and to it every possible case of generii- ur 
specific s\n()n\my can be referred, and at once and for ever decided. 
The latter is relative, changeable, differing in various countries and among 
Entomologists of the same country. That which is convenient to 
European I ,epidopterists is the reverse to American. A collector has a. 
different standard of convenience from a naturalist. To reconcile all 
these differein opinions is impossible ; there is no rule which would l>e 
ackno">A'ledgei! 1))- all. 

Tai<e as ;in example one of our common Hesperidae, Paniphilazahiilim , 
described b\- Moisd. & Lee. in 1833, and found in all the European collec- 
tions under ih;;t name. In 1862 the same species was described in Har- 
ris, Ins. Mass.. as Hesperia hohovwk, and it is so named in most American 
collections. 1!\- the law of priority the matter would be at once deter- 
mined in r:i\(.nir of zabnlou. But which is the most convenient ? — zahi^li'ii 
evidciitl'.- t<i i-'.ni-opean Entomologists, and hobomok to American. 

Here is a case in which the convenience of the two parties ^^"ill ahvav's 
be opposed, and 'vhat rule have we to decide which is right? none, unless 
v/e accejit pri(.ii-it_\" as our guide. 

Pri',)nt_\- can be applied equally well to genera, but whether it v\iuild 
be advisable to change our families in accordance Avith it is, perhajjs, 
doubtfiif as the family name is not used in designating the insect ajul is 
thereiore not of so much importance. 

By accei'ting diese laws as proposed by Mr. Scudder, we are under no 
obligation to foil(,w him in his excessively fine generic divisions. It is 
the arra}' of isew names which gives his paper, at first sight, such a lor- 
midabk- a].)])earance. I would be the last one to separate such chjsely 
allied siiecies a, s inassasoit ■A.wd. zabiilo/i, mystic and sassaci/s, polyxcncs and 
troihis, and irian}- others which are placed in new genera. 

But the (jnestions which can be raised in regard to the e.xpedienc)' of 
using large or small genera, and others of like nature, will, in time, settle 
themseb'es. if we can establish our nomenclature on a firm foundation 
which will jiever be disturbed by subsequent investigation. 'J'his we 
think I\lr. .Scudder has done, and we hope that his work will be aj>pre- 
ciated ]>} .\inerican Lepidopterists. 



72 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 50, 

GRACILLARIA. 

If the rule holds good absolutely that the same generic name should 
not be used in Entomology and Botany, then GracUlaria must be dropped 
in one or the other. I do not know which has priority, but a name of a 
genus so old and well known as the GracUlaria of Micro-Lepidopterists 
ought scarcely to give place to an obscure genus of Cryptogamia. 

ETDO ALBAPALPELLA, 

Venillia albapalpella, ante v. 4, p. 201. 

Dr. Packard calls my attention to the fact, which has slipped my 
memory, that Venillia is preoccupied among Geomctridce. I therefore 
substitute Eido for it. 

PSORICOPTERA GIBBOSELLA, Stainton. 

Adrasteia que7'cifoliella, ante v. 4, p. 206. 

When ' Adrasteia ' was established I knew Fsoricoptera only by name 
A specimen of A. quercifoliella which I sent to Mr. C. V. Riley, was pro- 
nounced by him to be nothing else than P. gibboselia, St. Mr. Riley 
states that he has bred the species from larvae feeding on Oak leaves, and 
that he compared his bred specimens with specimens in the collection of 
Mr. Stainton. He has also favored me with a generic and specific 
diagnosis of P. gibboselia, and I am satisfied that his identification of A. 
quercifoliella with it is correct. Adrasteia must therefore give place to 
Psoricoptera, and the species which I have placed in the former must be 
removed to the latter genus. Some of the other species (as e. g. D ? 
psaid-accaciella) which I have placed provisionally in Depressaria, also 
approach very nearly to Psoricoptera, if they do not in fact belong in it. 

PTEROPHORUS. 

P. lacteodactybis. N. sp. 

Creamy white. Head pale lemon yellow, except between the antennae 
where it is of the general creamy white hue ; abdomen with a streak of 
pale lemon ye'low along the sides. AJar ex. i}i inch. Kentucky, in 
June. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 73 

ADELA. 

A. bclla. N. sp. 

Vertex, upper portion of the face, palpi and a long streak on eacli 
side of the thorax under the wings brilliant golden ; lower portion of the 
face dark purple. Ç with the basal half of the antennae dark purple, the 
remainder snowy white : in the ^ only about the basal third is purple. 
Thorax above the wings and both pairs of the wings dark shining purple, 
the thorax and primaries with a golden gloss and appearing, according to 
the light, dull brovm purple, violaceous, or golden ; before the apex of the 
primaries are three narrow, and in some lights, indistinct fasciae, the color 
of which varies with the light and all of Vv^hich are faintly dark margined 
both internally and externally ; the third fascia is at the apex. The fasciae 
when most distinct have a silvery lustre. 

Al. ex., $ Y-z inch ; 9 a little larger. Kentucky. 

A fresh or living specimen of tliis insect is a gorgeous creature, but 
after death the colors become dull. I am not acquainted v/ith the larva. 
The imago may be taken in May, feeding upon the flowers of the " Climb- 
ing Bittersweet" [Celastrus scandais), and a little later it is not uncommon 
resting upon leaves along paths or roadways through the woods. 

DICTE, gen. 710V. 

Head, face as broad as the thorax ; head and face, basal joint of the 
antennae and first and second joints of the labial palpi clothed with long 
loose hair-like scales ; antennae with the basal joint incrassate, stalk 
simple, reaching to the apex of the wings ; maxillary palpi microscopic ; 
labial palpi drooping (in the dead insect), the terminal joint projecting 
forvv'ards and a little upward, and about two-thirds as long as the second 
joint. (If recurved the palpi would reach the vertex.) Tongue naked, 
rather longer than the thorax ; eyes globose, prominent. 

Wings deflexed ; anterior oblong ovate, obtusely pointed, with 
moderately long ciiiae. The costal vein attains the margin about the 
middle. The subcostal curves gradually into the discal, giving off a long 
branch before the middle, a shorter one behind the middle, then a furcate 
one which curves upwards to the costal margin, whilst the apical branch 
also curves up from its junction with the discal vein to the margin just 
before the apex ; the discal vein closes the discal cell and sends three 
branches to the posterior margin ; the median is straight to the discal, 
where it becomes furcate, both branches attaining the posterior margin ; 
submedian , simple. 



THE CANADIAIs^ ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Posterior v»nng about as v/ide as the anterior, sub-o\';Uc. liic apex 
pointed and the costal margin but slightly convex • the I'usuil attains the 
margin behind the middle ; the discal cell is closed b)' a nnu-li curved 
discal vein which emits two branches to the posterior margin ; tiie sub- 
costal sends a branch to the apex from near the end of the cell and l)e)^ond 
tlie discal vein becomes furcate, both branches attaining tlie margin jjehind 
the apex. Median and submedian both simple, and both attain tiie pos- 
terior margin. 

The roughened head and palpi and the shape and neurarioji of the 
wings ally this genus to Tcnca and its congeners. 

D. corruscifasciella. N. sp. 

Head, palpi, basal joint of the antennae, thorax and basaJ half of the 
anterior v.àngs golden yellow ; antennae glistening snov/y \rhit(_\ the apical 
half annulate with velvetty black ; just before the middle of ihc anterior 
wing, in the yellov/ish portion, is a brilliant metallic fascia. The central 
]X)rtic'n of the apical part of the vfing is occupied b}- a large, nearly 
circular, greyish drab spot, containing four longitudinal \cl\erty black 
.streaks, bordered before by a brilliant metallic costal streak whicii points 
to'.N'ards the fascia ; and behind by a similar costal streak pointing towards 
the dorso-apical margin. The grayish drab spot is se]jai-ateLl from the 
dorsal margin by a rather large triangular velvetty black patch, the apex 
of whdch touches the dorso-apical margin. This triangular streak is 
dusted a little with gra3àsh drab scales ; two metallic spots (jn the disc, 
and leur dorsal spots of the same hue. Costo-apical n-iargin and the apex 
]>rowiiish golden, with a bright metallic fascia interrttptcd in the middle, 
-and another streak of the same hue at the extreme apex. J'usterior wings 
purplish fuscous ; under surface of both wings purplish fusc.jns mixed 
A\-itii yellowish green, and the fascia and streaks of the fore wing visible 
through the wing. Abdomen black washed with golden. an<.i each seg- 
ment margined beneath with silvery; legs black, annulate with white. 
Jli'.r ex. a little over )4 an inch. 

Kentucky and No. 127, collection of Mr. Wm. Ssimders. London, 
Ont. E.are. This is one of the prettiest and most 1)i-illiant ■Micros' 
known to me. 

SOLENOBIA. 

S. JValshella ? Clem. Froc. Ent. Soc. Fhila., vi, p. ./J2. 
Dr. Clemens described this species from a single specimen sent to him 
bv the late Mr. V/alsh. Mr. Walsh took the larva in tlie winter time 



THE CAÎs^ADIAN E^"'i'0.\l«jl;(J(;i-IST. 75 

underneath the bark of Hickory trees, arid susix-cted it of raakir.g iralîeries 
under the bark. Dr. Clemens more correcily suspected that it was 
Hchenivorous and hoped that Mr. Walsh mig'u ascertain its larval history. 
Alas ! the researches of both have terminated forever. 

Only the male Vi'as knoAvn to Dr. Clemens, and from his description I 
think his specimen must have been somewhat rubbed. Male, " Head 
and face dark gray. Antennae dark gnv)-. sliglu'y spotted with white." 
Fore wings dark gray at the base, remainder jjaler, sprinkled irregularly 
with dark spots and scales. Ciliae grayi^h A'.hite. " Hind wings gray.'' 
(The quotations are from Dr. Clemens' drsrriptiua.) The female is apter- 
ous, with the head clothed with hoary seniles -jnd a tuft of the same at the 
apex ; but the body is nearly naked. J/, r^:. 5 -5 inch. Kentucky. Com- 
mon. 

The larva feeds upon lichens and ma\' he found in March and April, 
feeding up. It becomes a pupa in April i\nd the im.ago emerges about a 
week thereafter. The larva is whitish, lie; nI bhiok, upper surface of the 
two succeeding segments shining yellc-.> i.-.h 'uri.vvn, anteriorly margined 
with white. The case is prismatic in oviiline. and of an almost leathery 
consistence, about yi of an inch long, and tapering slightly toAvards each 
end; it is composed of silk, sand, particles of lichens, and excrement of 
the larva, and I have sometimes found smal! "vfj illnscous shells adhering to it. 



ON SOME OF OUPv COTvlMuN INSECTS. 



\N.—THE ISABELLA IIGER MOTIL 
Pyrrhardia (Spilosoma ) IsobcUa. 



BY W. SAUNDERS, LONPOV, ONTARIO. 

There are but few of our readers who are not familiar ■\^•ith the cater- 
pillar of the Isabella Tiger Moth, one of our commonest " woolly bears," 
and found, we believe, in almost every pnrt of Canada and the Northern 
United States. This larva, in common with many other members of the 
family (ardiadœ) to which it belongs, hybern;ites during the winter. It 
acquires nearly full growth in the autumn, and tlien, having selected a cosy 
sheltered spot under bark, log, rail, stoiie or board in which to hide, it 



76 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



coils itself up there into a sort of bail and sleeps through the long and 
dreary v^inter, and about the time when the birds come back and the warm 
days of spring begin, this bristly creature rouses itself to begin life anew. 
Hence it is one of the few caterpillars which present themselves to us full 
grown in early spring, and from its peculiar appearance can scarcely fail 
to attract attention. It has not to wander far for food, for, being in 
possession of an omnivorous appetite, it feasts on the first green thing it 
meets with, grass, or v/eed, or early plant, and having fed but a short 
time, it spins its cocoon and becomes a chrysalis. 

The caterpillar is about an inch and a quarter long; its head and body 
are black, and it is thickly covered with tufts of short, stiff, bristly hairs, 
which are dull red along the middle of the body and black at each end. 
When handled it immediately coils itself into a ball and remains for some 
time motionless. It is very tenacious of life ; we have known the larva 
to be frozen in a solid lump of ice, and when thawed out move around as 
if nothing had happened. It sometimes occurs, although very rarely, that 
this larva becomes a chrysalis early in the fall, and produces the moth the 



Fig. 14. 




same season. We have never 
met with an instance of this but 

s^ once, see Can. Ent., vol. i, p. 

-^ 26 ; its usual course is that which 
has already been partially de- 
scribed. 



Its cocoon. 



14, IS spun 




in some secluded nook, and is of 
a dark color, of an elongated 
oval form and curiously wrought 
with a network of silk, in the 
meshes of which are interwoven 
the black and red hairs from the ■ 
body of the caterpillar. Within 
this enclosure the insect changes 
to a dark brown chrysalis, and remains as such about two or three weeks, 
sometimes longer, when the moth having burst its shelly covering, softens 
the silky fibres of which its cocoon is formed by a liquid with which it is 
furnished, and makes its exit through a hole at one end of the cocoon. 

The moth, a, fig. 14, wlien its wings are spread, measures about two 
inches. Its wings are of a pale yellowish buff colour, v/ith a few dull 



a- 




THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 77 

blackish dots more numerous on some specimens than on others. The 
hind wings are sometimes paler than the fore wings, and at other times 
tinged with orange red, while in other specimens we have observed that 
the under surface of the fore wings assumed a dull rosy hue. The body 
is a little deeper and richer in colour than the wings, and the abdomen is 
ornamented with longitudinal rows of black dots ; on the upper surface 
there is a row down the middle of the back, and one on each side, and 
on the under surface there are sometimes two additional rows of smaller 
dots. 

Although this insect is so common and well known in its larval con- 
dition, it is not often seen on the v/ing. It flies at night, and being seldom 
attracted by lights, it rarely finds its way into our houses. It is also pro- 
bably subject to the attacks of ichneumons, which destroy some of the 
caterpillars before they reach maturity. 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOME GENERA 
OF CANADIAN INSECTS. 

BY FRANCIS WALKER, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Before leaving the Canadian Clialcidice, in hope of returning to them 
when many more genera are discovered in Canada, I will mention Megas- 
iigmns, which very probably occurs there ; it is a genus of Torymidœ, and, 
in some respects, connects that family with the Eurytomîdœ, and is next to 
the latter in the interest with which it may be regarded in case there is a 
foundation for the report lately published concerning the seed-eating 
habits of the species which represent it in California. But this does not 
seem probable, as it is certainly carnivorous in Europe, where two species 
exceed the others in beauty and are especially conspicuous, the great M- 
giganteus that maintains itself on the Cyfiips of a one-chambered gall in 
the Mediterranean region, and M. dorsalis that, with various other species, 
lives on the substance of the Cyjiips of the many-chambered Oak Apple 
of North Europe. I have seen other species near London and in the 
Alpine vallies of Switzerland, and they are attractive on account of their 
comparative rarity, though their economy is but little known. The natural 
history of the Australian species may be unknown for some time to come, 
and I hope that its discovery will be preceded by attention to the 
Canadian galls and to their parasitic inhabitants. 



78 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SiREX. — This genus is well known by the large size of the few species 
that have been discovered and by its especial habitation in the North- 
I have mentioned elsewhere its occurrence in Eastern Siberia, which may 
have been the earlier habitation of the European species, and wherein 
some of the North American species also dwell, such as S. gigas, S. 
albicornis, S. Juveneus, S. spectrum and S. fiavicernis. S. juveneus has 
appeared as far south as Algeria, and S. ccdrorum is contemporaneous 
with the cedars on Mt. Lebanon. ^. varipes and S. diniidiahis inhabit 
North America, and there are three apparently undescribed species from 
that region and one of small size from Mexico. There are two in North 
Hindostan and one in Australia, and three or four whose native country 
is unknown to me. It does not appear that distance in space between 
two species is accompanied by corresponding difference in character, for 
the Australian species is very nearly allied to S. juveneus. In the neigh- 
bouring genus, Tremex, the European T. juxicernis is represented in North 
America by T. columba, and there are three undescribed species, one of 
North America, one of Hindostan, and one of China. 



NOTES ON COLLECTING. 

BY THEODORE L. MEAD, NEW YORK. 

Last season, while in the Catskill Mountains, I made some experiments 
in sugaring for moths, which may be interesting to collectors. 

The sugaring mixture employed was " molasses sugar " and water, in 
the proportion of three or four pounds to the gallon ; I could not per- 
ceive that other additions, such as alcohol or preserved fruit, &c., were of 
any advantage. 

About twenty trees in an orchard were sugared, but very few moths 
were seen for the first night or two, though as afterwards they came in 
immense numbers, it would seem that a little time is required for the news 
to spread. 

Having found a cyanide poison-bottle to be very useful in killing small 
Diumals, and noticing the almost universal habit of these moths, when 
disturbed, of darting downward before fîying away, it occurred to me to 
make a poison-bottle on a large scale and to dispense with a net, always 
so inconvenient to use at night. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 79 

Accordingly I procured a quart bottle with as wide a mouth as pos- 
sible — a fruit jar would have done very well — put in it enough lumps of 
common fused cyanide of potassium to cover the bottom, and having 
poured upon this about an inch of plaster of Paris mixed with plenty of 
water, I had only to await nightfall to commence operations. 

The large poison-bottle worked to a charm ; scarcely a moth escaped 
which I desired to take. With the new instrument I became impatient of 
the time required to take out and pin each specimen as soon as stupefied, 
and tried the experiment of capturing every uninjured moth seen and 
allowing them to remain in a layer upon the plaster until it was convenient 
to return to the house and sort them over, taking a moderate amount of 
care that they should not be unnecessarily shaken up in carrying. 

Rather unexpectedly I found that this treatment did not seem to injure 
or rub the specimens in the least degree, though sometimes nearly a 
hundred moths of all sorts and sizes would be piled together, making a 
stratum an inch or two thick in the bottle. 

After this discovery night collecting became easy, nets and boxes were 
left at home, and the only necessary articles were a lantern and the poison- 
bottle. Arrived at a tree and carefully turning the light upon the sugared 
patch, I selected out such moths as seemed desirable, and, removing the 
stopper, gently touched them from belov/ with the open bottle. When 
they had flown down into the receptacle, the cork was replaced and the 
specimens were thus safely disposed of till the following morning, when 
they could be sorted over at leisure. 

Occasionally a very wary moth would fly away at the first approach of 
artificial light, and I endeavored with laudanum and hydrate of chloral 
to so stupefy them that they could be readily taken. The laudanum v/as 
rather too effective, seeming to intoxicate them; at any rate, after imbibing 
the mixture, the moths fell off" the tree and sprawled around in the grass 
in a very absurd manner, quite unable to fly away ; but still most of them 
managed to go a considerable distance, and so were lost in the grass. The 
hydrate of chloral had no effect whatever upon them ; some moths which 
took a considerable quantity of a very concentrated solution — about equal 
bulks of the salt and of water — remained unaffected. 

Sometimes ants were troublesome, biting the trunks of the moths as 
they fed, and causing them to fly away. In these cases a dose of laudanum 
was generally effective in driving off the ants for a considerable time. 



80 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Strips of white cloth nailed upon the trees were very convenient to 
receive the sugar, though not necessary. One afternoon, while preparing 
my baits for evening, a fine Grapta Interrogationis hovered around the 
tree for a moment and then lit close by, and unrolling its proboscis, feasted 
on the nectar. While engaged in this absorbing operation I readily cap- 
tured it between thumb and finger. In some localities where rare species 
are to be found, it may be worth while to try sugaring for butterflies as 
well as moths. 

The vapor ot hydrocyanic acid in the poison-bottle, as a rule, did not 
change the colors of specimens even after prolonged exposure. But a 
single moth of those collected, a pinkish Cranihus, was faded by it,^ 
changing to olive brown. 

At my suggestion cyanide of potassium Vv'as adopted by the American 
Museum of Natural History, to preserve their Entomological collections 
from the ravages of insects. At first small tin boxes were used, but the 
salt chrystallized upon the tin and made its way over the edge and down 
the sides of the receptacle, staining the cabinet drawers. Finally small 
glass capsules were used to contain the poison, and proved satisfactory. 
The vapors render it unpleasant to work over the drawers while the cap- 
sules are in them, but with the temporary removal of these the 
inconvenience ceases. A fly or other small insect introduced into one of 
the cases, dies in a very short time, and the protection against Dermestes 
is very complete, though of course it is hardly advisable to use this method 
where the drawers are not nearly air-tight. Still I think that every Ento- 
mologist would find a single tight receptacle thus poisoned very useful as 
a sort of quarantine for suspected specimens. Even delicate green 
Geometrae, after being in an atmosphere of prussic acid vapor for months,, 
have, so far, shown no change in color. 



The South London Entomological Society, which, though only nine 
months old, has been extremely successful, held on Thursday evening 
last, at Dunn's Institute, Newington Causeway, a very interesting exhibition 
of collections of insects, chiefly British Lepidoptera. The collections 
were made by the members themselves, all amateurs, and do them the- 
greatest credit. The room was densely crowded, and the exhibition was- 
a great success. 



%\t €mém éwkimhpi 



VOL. V. LONDON, ONT., MAY, 1873. No. 5 

HYPENA SCABRA (Fabr.) AND H. ERECTALIS, Guen. 

BY J. A. LINTNER, ALBANY, N. Y. 

In the examination of my last season's collections of Hypena scaira 
(scabralis, Guen.,) and ^^ H, erectalis" for sexual determinations, I was 
surprised to find of the former, only the male represented, and of the 
latter, only the female. Collections of each having been made during the 
same period of time (from September ist to September 24th) and at the 
same place (the wall and ceiling of the piazza of my residence) — such a 
remarkable occurrence seemed to be so removed from accident, and 
inexplicable from any difference of sexual habits, that I was led to suspect 
the identity of the two species. On referring to my cabinet, I there 
found individuals labelled as ^ and % of each species ; but, on a critical 
review of these determinations by an infallible method of distinguishing 
sex in the Heterocera, viz., the structure of the frermliim (simple in the 
male and compound in the female), my '' % " scabra proved to be a ^ , 
and my " ^ " eredalis a % . Among my duplicates of the collections of 
several years, the same result obtained. Mentioning these facts to my 
friend, Mr. Meske, of this city, he was quite positive of having in his 
cabinet the sexes of each species, but he subsequently found that a 
frenulum inspection of all his examples gave him only one sex of each 
form. There was, therefore, no longer room for doubt of the identity of 
the "two species" — that ^^ eredalis" is only the female (though uniformly 
smaller) of scabra. 

It is interesting, in connection with the above, to notice that Guenee^ 
in his description of scabralis, refers to seven ^ 's under his observation, 
and says, " Je ne connais pas la % ." Of eredalis he says, "3 ^ , i Ç ." 
Mr. Grote (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, iv, p. 102) cites ^ and % of eredalis 



82 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



and scabra. The varying form of the abdomen of scabra — each sex often 
assuming the form pertaining to the other- — may have easily led him into 
this error, as it had done with me in those which I had placed in my cabinet. 

A strong testimony to the value of the investigations in which the 
eminent German Lepidopterist, Dr. Speyer, is at present engaged, in his 
examination and comparison of the identical or closely allied forms of 
European and American Heterocera, is given in the fact, that from the 
study of a small number of scabra and erecfalis submitted to him (perhaps 
three of each form), he was led to believe that the two would prove to be 
but one species. This opinion was recently communicated by him in a 
letter to Mr. Meske. Before its reception, the conclusion, confirming his 
belief, to which I had arrived, through an examination of abundant 
material, had been forwarded to him.. 

There seems to be no sufficient reason at present for changing the 
scabra of Fabr. into the scabralis of Guenee^ — the true relations of the 
Deltoidse, v/hether to the Noctuas or to the Pyralites, being still a matter 
of opinion and discussion. 

I embrace the present opportunity to communicate the fact, that an 
example of Depressaria Ontariella Bethune, sent by me last fall to Dr. 
Speyer, and by him submitted to Zeller, was by the latter determined to 
be D. heracliana Deg. The opinion of Mr. Angus, recorded in vol. 3, p. 
19 of this Journal, that it was probably identical with the above named 
European species, is hereby confirmed. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN HYMENOPTERA, No. 7 

BY E. T. CRESSON, PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 
Continued from Page 5i. 

Genus Helcon, Nees. 

Posterior femora toothed beneath near apex. 

Body entirely black, legs ferruginous 1. occidextali3. 

Body black and ferruginous. 

Abdomen black, with broad median ferruginous band. . . 2. borealis. 
Abdomen entirely ferruginous. 

Metathorax and pleura more or less ferruginous ; 

posterior tarsi white 3. albit arsis. 

Metathorax and pleura black ; posterior tarsi black. 4. frigidus^ 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 83 



Posterior femora simple. 
Body entirely black. 

Legs entirely honey-yellow or ferruginous. 

Wings hyaline ; first abdominal segment narrow, 

shining .5. americanus. 

Wings fxiliginous ; first abdominal segment broad, 

opaque 6. fulvipes. 

Legs ferruginous, posterior femora, tibias and tarsi black. 7- pedalis, 

1. Helcon occidentalis. 

Helcon occidentalis, Cress., Proc. Ent. Soc, iv, p. 292. Ç . 
Colorado, 

2. Helcon borealis. N. sp. 

^ . — Black, opaque ; clothed with a short thin pale pubescence ; top 
of head, cheeks and space on side of pleura smooth and shining, face 
finely and densely punctured ; antennae long, slender, brown ; thorax 
densely, rather roughly sculptured, somewhat coriaceous ; metathorax 
densely and coarsely sculptured ; tegulœ dull honey-yellov/ ; wings hya- 
line, iridescent, nervures and stigma fuscous ; legs bright honey-yellow, 
-anterior coxae tinged with fuscous, posterior tibiae black, reddish at base, 
their tarsi pale yellow, dusky at tips, femoral tooth strong and blunt; 
abdomen depressed, first segment coriaceous, second and third segments 
honey-yellow. Length .;^;^ inch. 

Maine. 

3. Helcon albitarsis. JV. sp. 

^. — Head, pro and mesothorax, scutellum and sometimes the pleura 
■entirely black ; remainder honey-yellow or ferruginous ; sometimes the 
pleura is entirely ferruginous, and sometimes the metathorax is obscurely 
ferruginous, nearly brown ; antennse black or brown ; head and thorax 
sculptured as in borealis, the metathorax being more distinctly reticulated ; 
tegulae honey-yellow ; wings hyaline, iridescent, nervures and stigma fus- 
cous ; legs bright honey-yellow, posterior tibiae black, reddish at base, all 
the tarsi white, dusky at tips, femoral tooth acute ; abdomen narrow, 
shining, first and second segments reticulated ; apical segments sometimes 
tinged with dusky. Length .2 7-. 3 5 inch. 



84 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Virginia ; Illinois. This may be the male of dentipes, Brulle, the 
female of which is described as having a white annulus on antennae, andl 
the tarsi are not conspicuously white as in albitarsis. 

4. Helcon frigidus. N. sp. 

% . — Black, shining ; face rough ; antennae slender, black ; prothorax 
except posterior angles, semi-circular band on pleura, disk of meso- 
thorax and basal excavation of scutellum, covered with coarse striae or- 
reticulations ; metathorax coarsely reticulated ; tegulae piceous ; wings 
smoky hyaline, nervures and stigma black ; legs, including coxae, rufo- 
ferruginous, tarsi tinged with yellowish, posterior tibite blackish, femoral 
tooth strong and very blunt ; abdomen longer than thorax, narrow,, 
polished, ferruginous, dusky at base, first segment with two longitudinal 
ridges and a stout blunt tubercle on each side near base ; ovipositor- 
longer than body, honey-yellow, sheaths black. Length .45-50 inch. 

Hudson's Bay- Vancouvers' Island (Henry Edwards.) 

5. Helcon americanus. JV. sp. 

Ç . — Black, shining ; face roughened ; prothorax and metathorax 
reticulated ; labrum and mandibles except tips ferruginous ; palpi pale 
yellowish ; antennae long and slender, brown-black, base honey-yellow ;. 
middle lobe of mesothorax prominent, divided from the side lobes by a 
deep groove which become confluent behind \ tegulae and base of wings 
honey-yellow ; wings hyaline, sub-iridescent, nervures and stigma black ;. 
legs honey-yellow, posterior tibiae and tarsi more or less dusky, femora 
simple ; abdomen long, slender, shining, sides and base of second and 
third segments tinged more or less with testaceous, first segment long, 
narrow, grooved medially ; venter more or less tinged with testaceous ; 
ovipositor very long and slender. Length .55-60 inch. 

Canada ; Virginia. Very distinct from fulvipes by the shape and 
sculpture of the first abdominal segment. 

6. Helcon fulvipes. 

Helcon fulvipes, Cress., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iv, p. 292. Ç . 
Colorado. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 85 



7, Helco-n PEDALIS. N. Sp. 

^ Ç . — Same form and sculpture as fidvlpes, from which it differs by 
the posterior femora except base, and their tibiae and tarsi being black. 
Length .40-48 inch. 

Hudson's Bay ; Massachusetts. 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 50. 

TINEA. 

1. T. eunitariœella. N. sp. 

Black; head and face rufous; palpi grayish white; antennae yellowish 
;:gray, annulate with black, tips white ; wings black, with a costal and 
dorsal white spot opposite each other just before the middle (sometimes 
united, forming a fascia), a white fascia (sometimes interrupted) beyond 
the middle, a costal white spot in the apical portion of the wing, and near 
the apex an obliquely curved costal white streak ; apical portion of the 
wing bronzy, iridescent, ciliae grayish brown ; legs silvery white, in parts 
tinged with fuscous ; posterior wing fuscous. Alar ex. less than Yi of an 
inch. 

The larva is found upon old stone walls and monuments in cemeteries. 
I do not know whether it feeds upen the hairs contained in the mortar of 
the walls or upon the mortar itself, or upon Lichens, but upon the wall 
where I have found it most abundantly, I have never found a trace of 
Lichens. The case is composed of silk and grains of lime. It is flat- 
tened, with the under surface truncate at each end, and the upper surface 
projects in shape something like the bowl of a spoon at each end ; the 
sides are emarginate near each end. I have lost m.y notes upon the 
larva. Hab. Kentucky and the Gulf States. 

It is one of the handsomest Tincœ known to me. 

2. T. Orleansdla. N. sp. 

Straw color or pale yellowish, thickly dusted with fuscous ; a discal 
iuscous spot about the middle of the wing, and another opposite to it on 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



the dorsal margin ; a row of dark brown spots around the apex, a dark 
brown spot on the base of the costa and an obscure one at the inner- 
angle : the apical portion of the wing is thickly dusted. Antennae gray- 
ish stramineous : head and palpi sordid stramineous, the outer surface of 
the palpi brown. Alar ex. ^ inch. New Orleans, La., in November. 

J. T. auristrigella. N. sp. 

Head and antennae straw color or pale golden, palpi silvery ; thorax 
and wings brown in some lights, bright purple, roseate or violaceous, with 
a wide shining straw colored or pale golden streak upon the fold, 
beginning at the base of the costa and extending to and into the beginning 
of the dorsal ciliae, and sometimes connected with a large straw colored 
or pale golden costal spot before the costal ciliae ; ciliae pale golden 
Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky, in July. 

4. T. siraininiella. N. sp. 

Head sordid yellowish ; palpi, antennae, thorax and anterior wings- 
straw color, palpi brownish externally ; sides of the thorax behind the 
eyes brown ; a row of small brown spots along the fold, another at the 
end of the disk. Apex dusted with brown. Alar ex. yi inch. Ken- 
tucky, in June. 

5. T. iridella. N. sp. 

Palpi and lower part of the face brownish ; upper portion and vertex 
yellowish ; antennae brown ; thorax and anterior wings iridescent, in 
some lights brov.-n, in others glittering bluish green, violet or topaz red. 
In some lights the entire wing appears of a beautiful azure. Posterior 
wings pale fuscous. Alar ex. r inch. Col. Mr. Wm. Saunders, of 
London, Ontario, Canada. 

A beautiful insect under the microscope. 

6. T. inisceella. N. sp. 

Head and palpi pale yellowish ; antennae pale fuscous ; thorax and 
primaries fuscous and saffron yellow intermixed in almost equal quantities, 
the fuscous scales being sometimes aggregated into small spots, one of 
which is about the end of the disc and a larger one is near the base. 
Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 87 

7. costotristrigella. N. sp. 

Head and palpi pale safifron yellow, the outer surface of the palpi 
dark brown ; antennae dark brown ; thorax and basal portion of the 
dorsal margin of the primaries dark brown dusted with yellowish white, 
the primaries otherwise white dusted with dark brown, with an oblique 
dark costal streak near the base, extended to the fold ; just before the 
middle is another longer one also extended to the fold where it enlarges into 
an irregular spot, being also dusted with yellowish white above the fold ; 
just behind the middle is another streak not reaching the fold, behind 
which is a small costal brown spot and a row of brown spots around the 
apex. The apical portion of the wing is more densely dusted than the 
disc. Ciliae white with fuscous spots. Alar ex. ^^ inch. Kentucky, in 
August and September. Taken flying. 

8. T. Mmaculella. N. sp. 

Outer surface of the second joint of the labial palpi brown ; inner 
surface and terminal joint pale yellowish or stramineous ; head pale 
stramineous ; antennae pale yellowish tinged with fuscous- thorax shining 
dark brown, almost black, except the tip which is stramineous ; costal 
half of the primaries fuscous, narrow towards the base, but spreading 
towards the apex, where it is mixed with pale yellowish, with a distinct 
dark brown spot beyond the end of the disc ; dorsal half stramineous, 
widest at the base, narrowing towards the apex, with a distinct dark 
brown spot within the margin about the middle : ciliae fuscous and 
stramineous mixed ; anterior and intermediate legs dark brown, the tarsi 
faintly annulate with stramineous ; posterior legs stramineous. Alar ex. 
j4 inch. Kentucky. 

Ç. T. aurosuffusella. N. sp. 

Palpi pale stramineous, the outer surface of the second joint of the 
labial pair brown ; antennae pale fuscous ; head and thorax pale stramine- 
ous, with a small pale fuscous spot on the thorax before the apex ; primaries 
pale stramineous streaked along the fold with pale reddish golden, and 
the apical portion of the wing suffused with the same hue ; a rather wide 
pale fuscous streak, the basal portion of which is scalloped towards the 
fold, extends from the base of the costa along the costal margin to a little 
beyond the middle, and a similar streak, scalloped towards the fold in its 
posterior half, extends along the dorsal margin from near the base to the 



88 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

beginning of the ciliae ; and at the beginning of the costal ciliae is a 
rather wide somewhat obHque streak or band which extends almost to the 
dorsal margin and is a little convex towards the base ; ciliae pale stran>- 
ineous. Alar ex. -ix inch. Kentucky. 

lo. T. griseella. N. sp. 

Palpi brown ; head and antennae sordid yellowish gray ; thorax and 
primaries brownish gray, with a small brownish spot within the dorsal 
margin before the middle, another still more faint on the disc, and a more 
distinct one at the end of the disc. Alar ex. t6 inch. Kentucky. 

//. T. fnarginistrigella. JV. sp. 

Palpi yellowish white, the labial pair brown externally and tipped with 
white ; head whitish yellow; thorax dark brown with a faint golden tinge; 
primaries dark golden brown, with some white intermixed, especially in 
the basal portion and along the dorsal margin to beyond the middle ; the 
white of that part of the dorsal margin is arranged in numerous narrow 
short streaks which are perpendicular to the margin ; a large white patch 
at the beginning of the dorsal ciliae, sparsely dusted with brown ; a row 
of white spots extends along the entire costal margin from near the base ; 
two of these spots about the middle being much larger than the others; 
extending to the middle of the wing, and only separated from each other 
by a narrow crooked brown line. The margin just before and at the 
apex is white, much dusted with brown and separated from the dorsal 
white patch by a patch of brown. Ciliae white with about seven or eight 
brown spots extending into them. Alar ex. y^ inch. Kentucky. 

12. T. trimacuklla. N. sp. 

Pale stramineous, the head a shade deeper yellow ; thorax and 
primaries dusted with pale fuscous ; two small fuscous spots upon the 
disc about the middle, the one nearest the costal margin being the most 
indistinct, and a third one more distinct at the end of the disc ; posterior 
wings shining pale or whitish yellow. Alar ex. in inch. Kentucky. 

/J". T. fîisco7naadella. N. sp. 

Gray, flecked and spotted with fuscous, which in some lights appears 
reddish or brownish golden ; one of the spots is at the base of the costa, 
and opposite to it on the dorsal margin is a smaller one connected with it 



THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. 89 



by scattered fuscous scales ; a fuscous streak from the costa to the fold 
sometimes almost interrupted in the middle ; an oblique fuscous streak 
about the apical third of the wing and a small dorsal spot opposite to it, 
and another small spot of the same hue near the apex ; antennae silvery- 
gray ; face and palpi whitish, outer surface of the palpi dusted with fuscous. 
Alar ex. y^, inch. Kentucky. 

The antennae in this species and in the one next described are rather 
longer than is usual in Tinea. The neuration of the wings in both these 
species is also different. But I have not thought it necessary to make a 
new genus for them upon this account, the more especially as the neuration 
is by no means constant among the different species of Tinea, and these 
two species differ somewhat from each other in neuration. There are 
also minute differences in the form and relative size of the joints of the 
labial palpi between the preceding species and these two. This species 
and the next differ from the others and agree with each other in having 
the costal margin of the hind wings excised from the middle to the tip. 
For these reasons I had at first intended to place them in a separate sub- 
genus, but as they differ from each other somewhat, especially in neuration 
and pattern of coloration, and agree with Tinea otherwise than as above 
quoted, I have concluded not to remove them from this genus. The next 
described species has the scales of the thorax and wings appressed and 
smoother than in the other species. 

14. T. argenti-strigeUa. N. sj>. 

Face and palpi silvery white, outer surface of the labial palpi brown ; 
antennae silvery beneath, maroon brown above, annulate with silvery 
white ; vertex maroon brown ; thorax above, a spot under each wing and 
the basal portion of the primaries rich maroon brown, or in som.e lights 
violaceous, with a narrow irregular white fascia upon the wings behind the 
maroon basal portion ; behind the fascia the primaries are maroon brown 
or violaceous, mixed with white towards the fascia, the white gradually 
disappearing towards the apex. Six oblique silvery costal streaks, the 
first being small and the others becoming gradually larger to the fifth, the 
sixth again being smaller ; two distinct dorso-apical white streaks and a 
small patch of maroon dusted with white in the dorso-apical part of the 
wing, which is continuous with those of the five dorsal silvery streaks ; 
dorsal ciliae silvery ; abdomen violaceous, each segment silver fringed ; 
legs silvery iridescent. Alar ex. yÇ inch. Kentucky. 

A very handsome species. 



90 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

The following species difter from the true T'niea as follows : the an- 
tennae are shorter and thicker, with the joints shorter and arranged like a- 
series of cups placed in each other, and microscopically ciliated (or rather 
pubescent.) I have not thought it necessary to erect a new genus how- 
ever, as in other respects they agree with the true Tinea. 

75. T. auropuIvcUa. N, sp. 

Snowy white ; outer surface of the second joint of the labial palpi 
brown ; antennae yellowish white ; primaries very sparsely dusted with 
pale reddish or brownish golden, except in the apical portion, where the 
dusting is rather dense ; it is also thicker near the base of the dorsal 
margin. A dark brown spot on the costa at the extreme base ; another 
larger one on the costa near the base ; a smaller costal one just before 
the middle ; a large one just behind the middle reaching to the fold; 
another small one before the ciliae and five or six other small ones 
extending around the apex at the beginning of the ciliae ; in some lights 
these spots are distinctly golden brown. Alar ex. fc inch. Kentucky. 
Taken in July resting upon the trunks of trees in forests. It is rather 
sluggish and does not easily take flight. 

16. T. fiiscopulvella. N. sp. 

Snowy white ; outer surface of the labial palpi dark brown ; antennae 
sordid yellowish white ; thorax and primaries dusted irregularly with dark 
brovv^n scales, the dusting sparse in some portions, but in others^ aggre- 
gated into small spots or patches, a small one of \vhich is on the fold not 
far from the base ; two other larger ones about the middle and others in 
the apical half of the vàng ; it also assumes the form of more or less 
distinct costal and dorsal streaks. Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky. 

//. T. 7naculabeUa. N. sp. 

Snowy white ; maxillary and labial palpi brown, except the inner sur- 
face of the labial pair, which is white ; antennae sordid yellowish white ; 
thorax and primaries snowy white, with large distinct dark bro\\Ti spots 
which in some lights are golden brown ; one of these spots is on the 
anterior margin of the thorax and one on each side before the apex ; 
primaries sparsely dusted with dark brown ] a dark brown costal spot at 
the extreme base and a larger one near the base ; another within the one 
last named on the fold ; before the middle is an oblique irregular streak 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 91 



of the. same hue reaching to the fold and pointing towards a spot of the 
same hue just within the fold ; a small spot of the same hue about the 
middle of the costa, behind which is an irregular costal streak of the same 
hue which extends to the middle of the apical portion of the wing and- 
widens into a large irregular spot ; in the apical part of the "wing is an 
indistinct longitudinal dorsal streak, nearly opposite to which, but a little 
behind it, is a larger and more distinct streak which is also longitudinal. 
All of these spots are mixed with or margined by reddish yellow scales ;. 
ciliae white dusted with dark brown. Alar ex. "/q inch. Kentucky. 

The three foregoing species thus resemble each other and differ from 
the others in ornamentation as well as in the structure of the antennae. 
They were all three taken in the same situations. 



ON THE HABITS OF CERTAIN GALL INSECTS OF THE 

GENUS CYNIPS. 

BY H. F. BASSETT, WATERBURY, CONN. 

For ten years past I have been studying the habits of the Cynipidae 
to determine, if possible, whether there are one or two broods of these 
insects each year. 

Several years ago I discovered the flies of C. q. operator in the act of 
ovipositing in the young acorns of Quercus ilicifolia, the oak on which the 
woolly galls of this species are generally found. The insect thrust its 
ovipositor down between the acorn and the acorn cup, and, late in the 
summer, the acorns thus stung proved abortive, while around them and 
often protruding far above the cup were little acorn-like galls, each con- 
taining a large Cynipideous larva. Several of these galls were often 
found in each acorn cup. That year nearly all the acorns were affected, 
and there are more or less thus injured every year. 

I have as yet failed to rear any flies from these galls, probably because 
I have failed to keep the galls in the proper condition for developement. 

A later discovery, made three or four years ago, v.^as that of two, and I 
think three species of Cynips in the act of ovipositing in the buds of the 
oak, Q. alba, just as the buds began to develope, but before the leaves; 
were visible. 



j92 ,:THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The relationship of these species to any known species was only 
inferentially established. It is true that the leaves of several oaks on 
which I found one species very abundant, were almost all covered with 
.galls of C. q. futilis, O. S., but the females of this species v/ere not so 
large as my new bud stinging species. 

I have, for the past three years, carefully examined the buds of Q. 
ilicifolia, hoping to find the producer of C. q. operator at work, but without 
success, till this week, when I found no less than thirty gall flies ovi- 
positing in the buds of this oak. 

That they really are the producers of these galls needs no further 
proof than I now give. The insect C. q. operator is distinguished from all 
-our other species by the projection of the ovipositor above the dorsum. 
In this respect it resembles the several species of guest gall flies that 
infest almost all our species of galls. It has, however, the neuration of 
the true gall flies. In size my insects are considerably larger than C. q. 
operator, but in form, color, neuration of the wings, and, above all, in the 
peculiar form and position of the sheath of the ovipositor, they are like 
this species. 

Few will doubt their identity; but to make " assurance doubly sure," 
I hope some one will be so fortunate as to raise gall flies from these acorn 
.galls, when a comparison with mine will settle the question whether this 
particular species (C. q. operator) is double brooded or not. 

I wish (if my article is not already too long) to state a few other facts 
and to show their bearing upon the history of these interesting insects. 

There stands not far from my house a small oak tree, Q. bicolor, which 
is almost ruined by the ravages of a species of gall fly, which closely 
resembles and may be identical with C. q. botatus, Bassett. Every summer 
the leaves of this tree are so injured by the galls that scarcely one perfect 
one can be found on the tree. The petioles and midveins are enlarged to 
the size of one's finger, and the blade shrivels up or remains undeveloped, 
and each gall contains a large number of insects which come out in June. 
I have reared many thousands of these gall flies and find them of both 
sexes — about equally divided. 

Late in the summer another form of gall appears, this time on the ends 
of the small branches, and the insects remain in these, in the imago, 
through the winter. I have reared not less than fifteen thousand of these 
^all flies and all are females, and they cannot be distinguished from the 



THE CANADIAIS' ENTOMOLOGIST. 93: 

summer brood except that they are a very little larger. The flies of C. q. 
futilis, O. S., are of both sexes, but among the considerable number found 
ovipositing in the buds of the White Oak, and which, I have no doubt, 
produce the galls of C. q. futilis, there are no males and the females are: 
considerably larger than the summer brood. 

And again, in my last discovery the flies are all females, but larger than 
the females of C. :>q. operator, though they have the structural peculi- 
arities of that species. 

From all the above facts I infer that all our species that are found only 
in the female sex are represented in another generation by both sexes, and 
that the two broods are, owing to seasonal difierences, produced from galls 
that are entirely distinct from each other. I shall not be surprised if it 
shall yet be found that all our species of Cynips proper are double 
brooded, but the allied genera Diastrophiis and Rhodites probably produce 
but one brood each year. 

Mr. V/alsh's successful attempts at colonizing C. q. spongifica, O. S., do 
not prove that the galls he raised were the inmiediate product of the flies 
he colonized ; another generation may have intervened from v/hich his 
galls were descended. 1 have in mind two species of Cynips that mature 
from the egg in less than thirty days. They are our earliest vernal 
species and are not yet described. 

In an article published ten years ago in the Proc. of Ent. Soc. of 
Phila., describing several new species of Cynips, I ventured to remark 
that probably some of the species whose galls are formed on the leaves 
deposit their eggs in the embryo leaves, the leaf buds of the following 
year being formed at the time these insects appear. 

This seems to be true only in part. It is at another time and by 
another brood that the eggs are so deposited. 

In the same article I gave it as my opinion that the woolly galls of C. 
q. operator, O.S. and C. q. seminator, Harris were the abnormal develope- 
ment of the embryo leaves, and that the wool was an enormous growth of 
the pubescence of the leaf. To this view the late Mr. B. D. Walsh 
objected, either in a published article or in a letter to myself, saying the 
galls were not connected with the leaf buds. 

Last spring I was so fortunate as to find two galls of C. q. se??iinator in 
the earliest stage of growth ; so young that I did not recognize their true 
character, being simply large buds just beginning to open, but exhibiting 



54 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on the summit a beautiful rose-coloured pubescence. I vvatched them 
till they were mature and had the satisfaction of seeing them develope into 
two fine galls of this not very common species. 

My friend, Mr. L. S. White, of this city, like a true chemist, as he is, 
suggested the idea of weiq/img the specimens of new insects w°e describe 
and tried his plan upon the gall flies taken the other day. The species 
taken en the buds of C. q. operator v,-eighed 45-^ millegrammes, while 
another species, probably C. q. globulus, Harris, weighed alive 18 mille- 
grammes. This last was taken on a bud of the White Oak. 

Slov.^ly, year by year, the above and other quite as interesting fragments 
in the history of the Cynipidfe have come to my knovv'ledge, and I hope 
to live to see their history fully written. It is in such investigations of 
the habits of insects that our real work and our highest enjoyment as 
Entomologists consists. 

A GLIMPSE OF INSECT LIFE. 

BY PROFESSOR BELL, OF BELLEVILLE. 

While looking over some old memioranda a fev/ days ago, I found the 
following, which may prove interesting to the readers of the Entomologist: 

In the summer of the year 1830, while residing in the northern part of 
the County of Northumberland, England, in the capacity of a farm 
student, I was recjuested to carry out a sentence of death upon a worth- 
less cur, which had been condemned as an incorrigible cattle chaser. 
After the execution, I dragged the carcass across some fields to a small 
clump of Willows near the river Till, and deposited it as an insect trap in 
a hollow, which, from having been long under water, was devoid of vege- 
tation. In a short time the decomposing carcass became the resort of an 
immense crowd of the common Blow-fly, Musca carnifex, under vvhose 
manipulations it soon became a seething mass of the largest, fattest and 
liveliest of maggots. It also attracted a number of the Silphida;, 
«specially Necrophorus humator, N. vespillo, and Necrodes littoralis. After 
■capturing as many specimens of these insects as I wanted, I was much 
interested in observing their proceedings. About forty of them had 
established a sort of encampment under the vertical wall of the hole, 
about thirty inches from the carcass, to which each individual ever and 
anon made a raid and captured a fine fat maggot, which he bore off 
writhing and wriggling in his mandibles to the camping ground, where it 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 95 

-was speedily devoured, when its captor made another incursion and 
carried off another victim. 

During the half hour that I watched their manœuvres, each one con- 
sumed one maggot and set out in search of another about once in five 
minutes ; and as they appeared to keep this up all day until late in the 
evening, and perhaps all night long, the quantity of maggots destroyed 
m.ust have been quite considerable. One gigantic fellow of a humator 
particularly distinguished himself in this predatory v/arfare, making about 
three incursions to two of any of the others. I captured him finally, and 
found him rather to exceed two inches in length. 

After the lapse of a few days the maggots disappeared into the earth, 
there to undergo their final transformation, when the burying beetles left 
the place, and were succeeded by the Silpha rugosa and one or two of its 
congeners, numerous specimens of which frequented the remains for a 
time ; and even after the softer parts had all disappeared, I took from the 
bones several individuals of tv/o or three species of NUiduIa. 

I never observed the Necrophorus mortnortnn near the carcass of the 
dog, though within half a mile, in the pine woods of Ev/art Park, it v/as 
very numerous on the bodies of crows and other carrion birds which had 
been shot and left lying by the gamekeeper ; and though I took several 
specimens of N. vespillo, and of another nearly allied species of which I 
do not remember the name, in comparing with the N. viorhio7-uin. I never 
met with a single individual of the N. humator or the Necrodes littûralis in 
the pine v/oods. 



The question has often been debated whether flies eat the pollen of 
plants, or merely carry it av/ay accidentally on their legs and backs. The 
question would appear to be set at rest by a paper read at the last meeting 
of the Scientific Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society by Mr. A, 
W. Bennett, in which it is stated, as the result both of his own observations 
and of those of Erm. Muller, that the microscopic examination of the 
stomachs of Diptera belonging to the order Syrphidœ, shows them to 
■contain large quantities of pollen-grains, especially of plants belonging to 
the order Compositae. Entomologists had expressed a doubt as to whether 
it were possible for insects possessed only of a suctorial proboscis to devour 
such solid bodies as pollen-grains ; but Muller believes that the transverse 
denticulations found in the valves at the end of the proboscis of many 
Diptera are especially adapted for chewing the pollen-grains, and for 
dividing the threads by which the grains are often bound together. 



96 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirby's Faima Boreali-Americana : Inseda. 



(Continued from Vol. 4, Page 235.) 
FAMILY GALERUCID^. 

292. Galeruca Olivieri Kirby. — Length of body 3^^ lines- 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Very near related to Galeruca quadrimaculata F. Body long, glossy, 
reddish-yellow : posterior part of the head black, a cross impressed 
between the eyes ; antennae dusky with the four first joints rufescent : 
prothorax impunctured, transversely subimpressed behind, sides mar- 
gined : elytra very minutely and lightly punctured with punctures just 
visible under a good lens ; at the base of each elytrum nearest the suture 
is a roundish black spot, and another large oblong one extends from above 
the middle towards the apex ; posterior thighs a little incrassated ; tarsi 
dusky, especially at the apex ; medipectus and postpectus black. 

[Synonymous with Phyllobrotica decoraia Say. Taken in " Canada, 
Lake Superior, Illinois ; rare. In the ^ the 5th ventral segment is very 
large, canaliculate, deeply excavated behind, with a small testaceous 
triangular appendage projecting over the 6th segment. The disc of the 
thorax is not impressed." Le Conte.] 

[219.] 293. Galeruca Canadensis Kirby. — Length of body 4 
lines. Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body elongate, hairy with short decumbent cinereous hairs or down, 
dirty-rufous, underneath black. Head with a black vertical spot ; six last 
joints of the antennae black, the others, except the scape, rufous black at. 
the tip ; scape rufous, black above ; prothorax transversely impressed, 
sides posteriorly oblique with a slight sinus ; three equidistant irregular 
black spots or dots placed transversely on the disk ; the two elytra taken 
together have three black stripes, the intermediate or suturai one being 
common to both, and converging with the lateral ones at the tip ; anus,. 
obscurely rufous. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 97 

[Belongs to Le Conte's genus Trichabda. " A common species 
extending from Lake Superior and the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific." 
Le Conte.] 

294. Galeruca Sagittari^ Gy//. — Length of body 2^ lines. 
Several specimens taken in Lat. 54°. Taken also by Dr. Bigsby in 
Canada. 

Body brown, a little downy, not glossy. Mouth dirty-yellow ; pro- 
thorax transverse, impressed, reddish-yellow, with three black nearly 
confluent spots ; scutellum subquadrangular, truncated at the apex ; elytra 
grossly but not thickly punctured ; suture and lateral margin paler than 
the rest of the elytrum ; anus and legs reddish-yellow ; tarsi darker. 

Variety B. With the base of the antennae yellowish underneath, the 
black spots on the prothorax distinct, and the elytra entirely of a brown- 
ish yellow. 

[*' Found throughout the middle and northern parts of the Atlantic 
district." Le Conte.] 

[220.] 295. Galeruca bilineata Kirby. — Length of body 2 lines. 
A single specimen taken in Lat. 54°. 

Nearly related to the preceding species, but smaller, the whole of the 
head is rufous, the joints of the antennae are shorter ; the prothorax is 
longer in proportion to its width ; and the elytra, nearer the suture than 
the lateral margin, have two somewhat elevated approximated blackish 
ridges, the interior one being the shortest and extending from near the 
middle to the base, and the other reaching neither base nor apex. 

[Considered by Le Conte as probably a specimen of G. iwtiilata 
Fab., with indistinct markings.] 

296. Galeruca marginella Kirby. — Length of body 3 lines. A 
single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body very black, a little downy. Mouth and base of the first joint of 
the antennae subtestaceous or reddish-yellow ; prothorax wider than long, 
impressed and confluently punctured on each side, with a longitudinal 
dorsal channel ; behind the margin has a slight sinus ; reddish-yellow with 
three black spots, the intermediate one being the smallest ; elytra grossly 
and thickly punctured ; lateral margin and apex reddish-yellow ; legs, 
dusky-yellow ; last ventral segment of the abdomen yellow and deeply 
emarginate. 

[Le Conte refers a specimen from Fort Simpson, Hudson's Bay Terri_ 
tory, to this species.] 



98 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

[221.] FAMILY SAGRID/E. 

297. Orsodacna tibialis Kirby. — Length of body 2^ lines. A 
single specimen taken in the journey from New York to Cumberland- 
house. 

Body piceous ; underneath hoary with decumbent hairs ; above naked, 
glossy, thickly punctured. Palpi and two last joints of the antennae 
obscurely rufous ; front between the eyes with a transverse levigated ele- 
vation ; prothorax longer than wide, constricted at the base ; lateral 
margin and epipleurae or side-covers of the elytra, except at the base, 
yellowish-red ; thighs, at the base, and tibiae reddish-yellow, the four 
posterior tibiae darker at the apex. 

[Taken at Lake Superior by Agassiz's Expedition.] 

298. Orsodacna Childreni Kirby. — Plate vii, fig. 6. Length of 
body 2^ lines. A single specimen taken in Lat. 54^. 

[222.] Body above punctured, naked. Head and its organs yellow, 
with the eyes, occiput, and apex of the mandibles black ; a levigated 
transverse elevation of the front, as in the preceding species ; prothorax 
longer than wide, constricted at the base, with an impression in the 
middle, pale-yellow, disk embrowned ; scutellum rufous ; elytra rather 
paler than the prothorax, with a stripe adjoining the lateral margin, an 
angular band beyond the middle and the base, black ; antepectus, anus, 
and legs, yellow, rest of the underside of the body is black, and hoary 
with decumbent white hairs. 

[Taken in Canada.] 

family donaciad^. 

299. H^MONiA nigricornis Kifby. — Length of body 3^^ lines. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

This species is considerably larger than H. Equiseti and Zosfcrœ, from 
which it is perfectly distinct. Body luteous above and glossy ; underneath 
it is covered with a thick coat of pale, decumbent, rather silky hairs, with 
somewhat of a golden splendor, if these are rubbed off, the colour of the 
breast and basal abdominal segment is black. Head hairy, dusky, with a 
levigated naked testaceous longitudinal elevation between the eyes ; 
antennae black, robust, very little longer than the prothorax ; jirothorax 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



99 



subquadrangular with prominent anterior and posterior angles making it 
appear constricted in the middle, it is channelled with an irregular discoidal 
impression on each side ; a few large dusky punctures are observable 
where the channel terminates ; elytra with ten equidistant rows of large 
punctures which converge at the apex ; besides these there is an abbrevi- 
ated row at the base next the suture, as in many Harpalidœ, &c., the apex 
of the elytra terminates in two teeth or spines ; the inner one short and 
'dentiform, the outer one long and spiniform ; legs and anal portion of the 
abdomen yellow, the former with all their articulations dusky at the 
extremity. 

The sculpture of the elytra in this species much resembles that of 
another aquatic genus Haliphis, Lat. 



ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 
5. THE GRAPE VINE PLUME.—Pterophorus periscclidactyhis. 



BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONTARIO. 

During the latter part of this month and early in June those who have 
grape vines under their charge are often annoyed at finding the terminal 
^'!?- ^^- leaves of the young and tender branches tied 

by means of silken threads into a sort of 
ball shaped mass, and within the hollow 
sphere thus formed is found a small whitish 
hairy caterpillar, which feasts on the tender 
leaves and young blossom bunches. Usually 
but a single occupant is found in each en- 
closure, but occasionally we have found two, 
and, in one instance, three. 

The very young larva is said to be smooth, 
or nearly so, the hairiness becoming more 
perceptible after each moult. 

In fig. 15 this larva is represented nearly 
^^1 full grown at a. It is then about half an inch 

f— oj long with a small yellowish green head, with 
i^ a. band of black across the front, and a 
yellowish green body, with transverse rows 
of dull yellow tubercles from each of which arises a small tuft of white 




100 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

hairs. There is a darker green line down the centre of the back, and the 
colour of the body becomes a little paler between the segments or rings. 
The under side is somewhat darker in color than the upper, with a few 
whitish hairs. It becomes full grown about the middle of June, and then 
changes to a chrysalis. 

The chrysalis, fig. 15, b, is a very odd looking thing, nearly half an 
inch long, angular and rugged in outline. It wriggles and twists about 
very briskly when touched. At first it is of a pale yellowish green colour, 
which gradually changes to a reddish brown. We have often found them 
attached to the under side of the leaves. 

In less than a fortnight the moth, d, fig. 15, makes its appearance. It 
is an elegant little creature ; its wings are very delicately constructed and 
measure, when expanded, about seven-tenths of an inch. The fore wings 
are long and narrow and cleft down the middle about half way to their 
base, the posterior half of the wing having a notch in the outer margin. 
They are of a yellowish brown colour and metallic lustre, with several dull 
whitish streaks and spots. The hind wings are divided into three lobes ; 
the lower division is complete, extending to the base, while the upper one 
is only about two-thirds as deep ; their colour is yellowish brown also, with 
the same burnished metallic appearance, and with a streak of dull white 
on the hinder lobe. The outer and hind margins of the wings, as well as 
all the edges of their lobes, are beautifully bordered with a deep whitish 
fringe, sprinkled with brown. The body of the moth is long and slender, 
and of a little darker colour than the wings ; the legs are also long, banded 
alternately with yellowish brown and white, and powdered with metallic 
scales. The unnatural grouping of the leaves when fastened together to 
form the home of this insect while in the larval state, leads to its ready 
detection, when it may be easily crushed with the hand. It is very 
generally distributed throughout the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Exchange. — I am desirous to exchange English for Canadian o^" 
American Lepidoptera. J. C. Wasserman, Beverly Terrace, Cullercoats, 
North Shields, England. 

CoLEOPTERA FOR Sale. — A number of Rocky Mountain Coleoptera 
will soon be for sale in sets by John Akhurst, 19, Prospect Street 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

J. C. Wasserman. — Plusia balluca is very like P. chrysitis. We know 
the latter insect well. 



Che Canabiaii ttmïïûlngist. 



VOL. V. LONDON, ONT., JUNE, 1873. No. 6 

ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 
6. THE RASPBERR Y SA W-FL Y—Selandria ruhi, Harris. 



BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONTARIO. 

Although this insect is quite generally distributed and very destructive 
to the foliage of the raspberry, it has, strange to say, been but little 
noticed by Entomologists in their publications. There is a short reference 
to it in " Harris' Entomological Correspondence," in a letter from Darling to 
Harris, written in 1846, where a very correct account is given of the 
manner in which the egg is deposited. There is also a much briefer 
notice in " Packard's Guide," and these are all the references we have been 
.able to find. 

The perfect insect, which is a four-winged fly, appears on the wing 
.about the middle of May. We noticed them this year first on the loth, 
last season they were not observed until the 21st, and they may be found 
from this time until early in June. The wings, which are transparent, 
with a shining surface and metallic hue, measure when expanded about 
half an inch across ; the veins are black with a streak of black along the 
front margin, extending more than half way towards the tip. The anterior 
part of the body is black, the abdomen dark reddish. In common with 
some other species of Selandria, these flies have a habit of falling to the 
.ground when disturbed, especially in the cool of the morning, and 
remaining in this position long enough to enable one to catch them ; with 
the increasing heat of the day they are, however, much more active, and 
take wing readily when approached. 

The egg, as it appears when squeezed from the body of the female, is 
about one-thirtieth of an inch long, and a little over one-hundredth of an 
inch wide at its widest portion. In form it approaches a long oval, rather 



102 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



obtuse at the ends, with its greatest diameter a Uttle before the middle. 
Colour white, with a faint yellow tinge and a smooth, glossy surface, semi- 
transparent. The enveloping membrane is very thin and easily ruptured, 
discharging watery looking contents. Only seven or eight eggs were- 
obtained from the body of the female examined ; possibly it ■ might have 
previously deposited most of its stock. The eggs are buried beneath the 
skin of the leaf, close alongside of the ribs and veins, placed there by 
means of the saw-like apparatus with which the female is provided, where 
it swells somewhat and produces a slight discoloration of the cuticle on 
the upper surface. The skin covering the under surface of the swelling 
is so thin and semi-transparent that the movements of the larva may be 
observed a day or two before hatching, by the black spots on the side of 
the head showing through. The larva escapes through an irregular hole 
made on one side of the swelling. 

The young larva as it appears when fresh from the egg. Length, when 
in motion, about one-twelfth of an inch. Head large, semi-transparent, 
greenish-white, with a large black eye-like spot on each side and with a 
number of short whitish hairs ; mandibles pale brown. 

The body above is nearly white, semi-transparent, and thickly covered 
with transverse rows of white spines, nearly all of which are forked 
towards the tip ; some of the spines on the anterior segments are more 
compound, having four or five branches ; the tips of all the branches of 
the spines are blunt, nearly rounded. The under surface is similar to the 
upper in colour and semi-transparency, feet and prolegs partake of the 
general colour. 

After the first moult the head is medium sized as compared with the 
body, of a pale yellowish green, covered with short fleshy looking hairs 
of the same colour. The body above is of a uniform pale greenish-yellow 
colour, excepting along the dorsal region, where, owing to the transpar- 
ency of the skin, the internal organs show through of a deeper shade of 
green. The surface of the body is thickly set with short greenish-yellow 
tubercles, most of which are forked at the tips, the two branches spreading 
in opposite directions, the greater portion of them extending anteriorly 
and posteriorly. Out of three specimens of this age examined, one 
varied from the others in having a pale brownish-yellow head. The under 
surface, feet and prolegs all pale greenish-yellow. 

With the subsequent moultings slight changes take place in the colour 
of the head, first pale brownish or greenish-brown, then bluish-green, and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 103 

sometimes the branches of the spines assume a brownish tint, especially 
on the anterior segments. 

When full grown this larva measures a little over half an inch ; it is 
nearly cylindrical, tapering slightly towards the hinder segments. 

The head is rather small, nearly globular, pale green with a faint 
yellowish tinge, and a dark brown dot on each side, and a few very fine 
short hairs visible only with a strong magnifier. The mandibles are 
tipped with brown. 

The body above is dark green, thickly set with green tubercles, from 
which proceed fleshy looking, forked, pale green, hair-like branches, 
most of them with their branches extending anteriorly and posteriorly 
On the anterior part of the second segment there is a row of four spines 
with five branches each, most of the others are forked, but some few of 
them have three branches each. There are eight spines or tubercles on 
most of the segments, arranged more or less perfectly in a double trans- 
verse row. In some specimens the hair-like branches or appendages ^are- 
black at the tips, and occasionally entirely black from the point of 
divergence. 

The under surface is similar to the upper ; feet and prolegs green. 

When mature — from the middle to the latter end of June — these larvae 
penetrate below the surface of the ground, where they construct little oval 
earthy cocoons, formed by glueing together particles of earth with silky 
and glutinous matter. These cocoons are toughly made, and may be 
taken out of the earth in v/hich they are embedded and even handled 
roughly without much danger of dislodging the larvae. The specimens 
which we have bred, when examined a week or two after the cocoons. 
were constructed, were still in the larval condition, although somewhat 
contracted in length. They all dried up and died before changing to 
pupae, so we are as yet unable to indicate when this change takes place, 
the appearance of the chrysalis or its duration. As we have not met 
with more than one brood in the season, it is probable that the larvae 
remain in the ground for some weeks unchanged, gradually transform to 
pupae and remain under ground in this condition until early the following, 
spring. 



104 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

From both sides of the Atlantic we continue to receive a continuous 
and ever-welcome stream of serial publications, on various scientific 
subjects. In all of those devoted to general Natural History our favorite 
department of Entomology receives its due share of attention, while there 
has been no recent diminution in the number of publications specially 
devoted to this branch of Zoology. To Practical Entomology we find 
more and more space and attention directed, year by year, in the leading 
agricultural magazines and ncAvspapers ; few, indeed, of the latter are 
now considered complete without the regular contributions of an Entomo- 
logical Editor. The various State Entomologists continue, too, to afford 
us their annual Reports, filled with great stores of most valuable informa- 
tion, not only for the farmer and gardener, but for the student of nature 
as well. 

As we have not for some time directed the attention of our readers to 
the scientific serials that we are constantly receiving, we propose to devote 
rather more space than usual in this issue to the enumeration of the 
principal papers that are of interest to the Entomologist. We take the 
opportunity also of returning our grateful thanks to the Authors, Editors 
and Publishers who, month by month, and year by year, favour ns with 
their much valued productions. 

To turn to the old world first. — No more welcome visitor comes to our 
table than the weekly numbers of Nature (London : Macmillan & Co.) 
This most interesting publication has now entered upon its eighth half- 
yearly volume, and is evidently thoroughly well established in public 
estimation. Recent numbers contain numerous articles and letters by 
leading men of science on the much vexed subject of Instinct and 
Perception in Animals. During the last month there have also appeared 
the first two of a series of illustrated articles by Sir John Lubbock on 
" The Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects," and a paper by Mr. A. 
Murray on " Venomous Caterpillars." 

Science Gossip (London : Hardwicke) is replete with matter of a lively 
and popular character. During many months past there have been 
published in its pages a useful series of articles on " Collecting and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 105 

Preserving" objects of Natural History in all departments. No. loi, for 
May, 1873, is now before us ; it opens with an illustrated account of the 
plant-crystals, Raphides, &c., by Prof Gulliver ; then follows " Notes on 
Collecting and Preserving Land and Fresh-Water Shells ; " " Records of 
Rare Plants," the " Origin and Distribution of the Insects of the British 
Isles," " Comparative Size of Animal Hairs," ' Gossip ' on Microscopy, 
Zoology, Botany, Geology, &c. 

The Scottish Naturalist (Perth, Scotland) is an excellent quarterly 
magazine of Zoology and Phytology, published by the Perthshire Society 
of Natural History. With the number for January last the second volume 
was commenced, and the size of the publication enlarged from 32 to 48 
pages — a notable sign of progress. Among the articles of interest in the 
last two numbers we may mention that on " The Occurrence of the 
Hooded Seal at St. Andrews," by Mr. R. Walker ; " Memoirs on Scottish 
Tenthredinidse," with a beautiful colored plate of Ncmatus gallicola, by 
Mr. P. Cameron, jun. ; a paper by the Editor (Dr. F. Buchanan White) 
on the extraordinary occurrence of Vanessa antiopa in Great Britain last 
year; papers on Scottish Diptera, Spiders, Tortrices, Galls, &c., by various 
authors ; an article on " Polarity in the Geological Distribution of 
Genera," by the Rev. J. Wardrop ; and instalments of an excellent 
" Insecta Scotia " — Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. We heartily wish the 
publication the fullest success. 

Neivmaii's Entomobgist (London : Sirapkin, Marshall & Co.) and 
Zoobgist (Van Voorst) — for which we are indebted to our friend Mr. Reeks 
■ — continue to maintain their respective characters : the former as a 
recorder of captures, varieties, ' exchanges,' &c. ; the latter chiefly as an 
Ornithological magazine, though singularly enough, we always find in it the 
fullest and best reports of the meetings of the Entomological Society of 
London. 

The Entomologisf s Monthly Magazine (London : Van Voorst) appears 
to us to be better maintained and of more general interest than formerly. 

From the authors we have received Notes on CJialcidiœ (Parts i to vii), 
by Francis Walker, Esq. ; Note on a Chinese Artichoke Gall, by Albert 
MuUer, Esq. (from the Linnean Society's Journal) ; and two papers On 
Modern Glacial Action in Canada, by the Rev. W. Bleasdell (from the 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society). 

Turning to this side of the Atlantic, we may notice first the Proceedings 
and Transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science (Part ii., 



106 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



vol. iii). The number opens with the conclusion of Mr. J. M. Jones' 
paper on " Nova Scotian Lepidoptera ; " among the other articles we 
would especially mention " The Mammalia of Nova Scotia," by Dr. 
Gilpin, " On Parallel Lines of Elevation in the Earth's Crust," by Mr. A. 
Ross, and "The Human Teeth," by Dr. A. C. Cogswell. 

The Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History (vol. xv., 
part i., Jan. — April, 1872), are chiefly occupied with an able geological 
article by Mr. John B. Perry, on the "Post-Tertiary History of New 
England." 

The Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of Ne7u York (vol. ix 
and vol. x. Nos. 1-7) contain, amongst a large number of able papers on 
all branches of Natural Science, two portions of the late Mr. Coleman 
Robinson's " Lepidopterological Miscellanies." The Proceedings of the 
same Society from April, 1870 to April, 187 1, contain a number of short 
interesting articles, among which we notice a large proportion on Micros- 
copy, by our friend Prof. A. jNI. Edwards. • 

The Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia 
(parts ii and iii, May — Dec, 1872) contain but one short article that 
bears any reference to Entomology — " On the Agency of Insects in 
Obstructing Evolution," by Mr. Thos. Meehan. 

The American N'aturalist (Salem, Mass.), vol. vii, Nos. i — 4. This 
excellent publication is maintained with undiminished vigour by its 
energetic proprietors, Profs. Packard & Putnam. The numbers of the 
current volume now before us contain the following articles on Insects : — 
" Harvest Mites," by Prof. Riley ; " Controlling Sex in Butterflies," by 
Mrs. Mary Treat, in which the authoress is unkind enough to suggest that 
male butterflies are produced only from half-starved larvae, the full fed 
specimens producing females ! — this new phase of 'women's rights,' though 
based upon experiments, we cannot but regard as a fortuitous coincidence 
in the cases referred to^ and by no means a law of nature ; "A Viviparous 
Fly," by Rev. S. Lockwood ; and " The Cotton Caterpillar," by Mr. L. 
A. Dodge. 

The Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences- — vol. i. No. i, 
April, 1873 — is a new addition to the list of scientific serials, and one that 
we trust will be warmly supported by all naturalists throughout America. 
It is to be published quarterly, in octavo form, thirty-two pages at least 
forming a number. The copy before us contains four valuable articles, all 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 10' 



tfrom the pen of Mr. Aug. R. Grote, viz. : ' Descriptions of new North 
-American Moths/ illustrated with a plate ; ' Catalogue of the Sphingidfe 
■of North America,' ' Catalogue of the Zygaenid?e of North America/ and 
' Conclusions drawn from a Study of the Genera Hypena and Herminia.' 
This list of contents will, we trust, be sufficient to cause our Entomo- 
logical friends to send for the publication, and thus aid its permanent 
'establishment. 

MontJdy Report of the Department of Agriculture (^Vashington, D. C, 
April, 1873). The " Entomological Record" in this number contains an 
illustrated paper by Prof Townend Glover, on the Tobacco and Potato 
worms ( Macrosila Carolina and qainquc-viacuhita ). 

The Canadian Journal (Canadian Institute, Toronto, May, 1873) and 
The Canadian Naturalist (Montreal : Dawson Brothers, vol. vii, No. i) 
imaintain their respective characters as literary and scientific periodicals. 

The Canada Farmer (Toronto, vol. x. No. 9 — May 15, 1873) is now 
issued fortnightly instead of monthly, and is much improved both in form 
-and matter. 

The Canadian Patent Office Record and Mechanics' Magazine (Montreal: 
<j. E. Desbarats) is a new and attractive candidate for jjublic favour. The 
ifirst number, now before us, is profusely and handsomely illustrated ; it 
•consists of two parts, the official portion giving a record of inventions 
patented at Ottawa during the preceding montli, with illustrations of the 
majority — the present issue contains no less than 237 diagrams ; and the 
^unofficial or magazine paper affording elaborately illustrated articles on 
Engineering, Mechanics, Manufactures, &c. The work is well got up and 
deserves to become a great success. 

Our limited space forbids our doing more at present than briefîy 
acknowledging with thanks the receipt of the following publications : — - 
The Americaji Agricidturist ; The Horticulturist ; The JVeekly Sun, and 
the Rural IVew Yorker, from New York ; The Prairie Farmer, Chicago ; 
The Maine Farmer, Augusta, Ale. ; The North JVestern Farmer, Indian- 
.apolis ; The y^ournal of Education, Toronto ; Geological Sun^ey of Canada, 
Report of Progress for 1870 — '71, and The Statutes of Canada, 1872, from 
the Department at Ottawa; The Canadian Almanac, 1873, Copp & Clark, 
Toronto ; Catalogue of the Birds of Canada, by Dr. A. M. Ross, Toronto ; 
Directions for Collecting Coleoptera, and a Catalogue of species of the 
order, by Geo. Dimmock, Springfield, Mass. The Reports of State 
Entomologists, now being issued, we hope to notice in our next number. 



108 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

OUR SPECIFIC NOMENCLATURE. 

BY THEODORE L. MEAD, NEW YORK. 

In the article published in the April number on the subject of nomen- 
clature, it is stated that Mr. Scudder. in his Revision, has followed the 
same principles which govern all other departments of Zoology. It 
would be interesting to know '\^■hat these universally adopted principles, 
may be, for, judging from the recent publications on the subject, they 
must be yet unknown to a great number of those eminent in science. 
Mr. Wallace, than whom we have no higher entomological authority, in 
his address to the London Ent. Soc, recommends English naturalists to 
follow the British Association rules until others may be assented to, while 
these same rules find scant acceptance in Germany or France. 

In regard to species having been described, not by naturalists but hy 
amateurs, this may be conceded in Hubner's case, but the term will hardly 
apply to Linnaeus and Fabricius and the other authors whose species are 
the cause of most dispute. 

Mr. Kirby's Catalogue is said to combine the results of the labor of 
European students, but Dr. Staudinger's elaborate and conscientious- 
Catalogue no less had the benefit of all these investigations, with the 
result of hopeless variance as far as both works cover the same ground,, 
and that too when the principles of nomenclature adopted by either 
author are almost identical with each other and with those which Mr.. 
Scudder apparently follows. In the group of insects best known and 
most studied, the British Diurnals, these two authors difter as to the 
specific names of one seventh of the entire number. This is the result, 
of rigidly following the law of priority, which sJioidd at once and forever 
decide every possible case of synonymy. That does not seem encourag- 
ing, for both authors in nearly all cases make the references to the same- 
obsolete and unrecognizable descriptions. 

The rule of absolute priority, adopted as paramount law by a few 
in^'estigators, has already brought about such a state of things as this, and 
alone is capable of continuing it. 

Let the first law be stability of already accepted names, then the law- 
of priority takes its proper subordinate place to decide between names in 
use. Rather than the term " law of convenience," used by the opponents. 
of this rule, though it is suggestive and to some extent appropriate, L 
would propose the name " Law of Stability " as most applicable. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 10î> 



AU nomenclature is but a means to the end of increasing our know- 
ledge of the organisms themselves, and for this, unchangeability of names 
is the first requisite. Whatever the strict law of priority theoretically 
should accomplish, we have seen but the beginning of the permanent 
confusion in which its practice results, and which its continuance as the 
fundamental law will hand down to the remotest generation ; each inexact 
description, as published, adding new material to increase the complexity 
of the tangled web of names. 



NOTES ON HYPERCHIRIA 10 (Fabr.) 

BY C. v. RILEY, ST. LOUIS, BIO. 

I have obtained many egg-masses of this species the present season 
and have had them deposited by moths reared in- confinement. Even in 
a state of nature they are deposited quite irregularly, some fastened on 
one of the compressed sides, some piled on top of others, but most of 
them on the small end as in the closely allied Mala. The average length 
is 0.07, largest width 0.05, and greatest thickness 0.03 inch. They are 
compressed on two sides, and flattened at the apex, the attached end 
smallest. When first deposited they are pure cream color, with a trans- 
lucent yellow spot on the flattened apex. Toward maturity the colour 
changes to a more intense white with a faint lilaceous tint ; the yellow 
spot at apex becomes mostly black and the compressed sides are more or 
less translucent, especially the upper half, through which the yellow of the 
enclosed larva and some of the darker spines may easily be seen just 
before the hatching period. Mr. Lintner's description as " elliptical, 
somewhat flattened," and Mr. Minot's " top-shaped " are neither, strictly 
true, and would hardly enable one to distinguish this egg from many 
others ; while my own description is not as ample as it should be. Hence 
these notes. The larval changes are given in my 5th Report (p. 135.) 
The spines of the larva in the first stage are too weak and pliant to enter 
the most tender skin ; and the urticating property is only ascertainable 
after the first moult. 



110 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY Y. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Continued from Page 91. 

Errata. — For T. eunitarœdia, ante p. 85, read T. cœmetcî-ilella. 



(This is a section of Tinea having the wings tufted and narrower than 
in Tinea.) 

Head and face rough (as in Tinea), tongue very short. Maxillary- 
palpi folded; labial palpi drooping, with the terminal joint more than half 
-as long as the second, which has a îtv^ bristles beneath ; eyes globose; 
no ocelli. Antennae two-thirds as long as wings, filliform. Anterior 
wings with raised tufts of scales, the tufts generally rather brightly 
■coloured ; lanceolate, narrower than in Tinea ; the costal vein attains the 
margin before the middle ; discal cell closed by a straight distinct discal 
vein, which gives off four branches, two of them to the costal and two to 
the dorsal margin, one of the latter near the apex. The subcostal attains 
the costal margin, giving off a long branch before the middle and a shorter 
-one near the end of the cell ; the median is three branched, the two last 
.arising together from the end of the cell ; submedian simple, fold 
thickened at the end. 

Posterior wings linear, lanceolate ; costa excised from the middle to 
the tip ? the costal vein attains the margin about the middle ; the sub- 
costal is straight to the margin before the apex ; the cell is closed by a 
curved discal vein which gives off two branches, one to the apex, the 
•other belov/ it ; the median vein is three branched, the terminal one 
having a common origin with the lower discal branch ; the two others 
•arise from the apical half of the cell. Ciliae long ; submedian and 
internal obsolete. 

I. P. auricristatella. N. sp. 

Pale gray, with intermixed brown scales. Head hoary ; a small 
scattered patch of raised golden scales within the costal margin near the 



THE CANADIAÎf ENTOMOLOGIST. Ill 

hase, and a similar one opposite near the dorsal margin ; another large 
one just before the middle, another small one within the costal margin 
behind the middle, and a fascia of raised golden scales before the ciliae ; 
a few scattered golden scales in the apical portion behind the fascia. A/. 
£x. over yi^ inch. Kentucky. 

2. P. fusco-cristateUa. N. sp. 

Head and palpi sordid yellowish-gray ; antennae pale fuscous ; thorax 
"brown above, with a brown patch on each side under the base of the 
wings ; basal three-fourths of the anterior wings sordid white, yellowish, 
and brown scales intermixed, the apical fourth fulvous and separated by a 
distinct line, which is convex towards the apex. An obscure cloudy spot 
near the base of the wing ; at about the basal third are tw^o dark brown 
patches of raised scales, one of which is on the disc, the other within the 
dorsal margin ; about the apical third are two similar tufts similarly 
situated. About six small white costal streaks on the apical half of the 
costa. Alar ex. ^ inch. Kentucky. 

J. P. fasciclla. N. sp. 

Grayish fuscous, overlaid Avith golden yellow. Anterior wings with a 
narrow brown border along both margins ; a tuft of silver gray raised 
scales on the disc at about the basal third, and another opposite within 
the dorsal margin ; a row of small oblique silvery streaks along the costal 
margin ; just before the ciliae is a narrow fascia of raised silver gray 
scales, behind which, near the apex, are two indistinct narrow white 
fasciae not raised, the first of which is especially indistinct. In the brown 
dorso-apical margin are about eight small white spots. Ciliae gray. There 
is a brown patch on each side of the thorax just underneath the base of 
the wings ; thorax brown ; vertex brownish-red ; antennae pale fuscous ; 
palpi and face white, the second palpal joint white wathout. Alar ex. 3^ 
inch. Kentucky. 

In the general color of the wings and the costal markings this species 
seems somewhat to resemble Hoinosetia costisignella Clem. The genus 
also resembles Homosetia as described by Clemens, in the palpi and 
neuration, but differs somewhat in these respects, and Homosetia has no 
raised tufts. 

4. P. misce-cristatella, N. sp. 

Palpi whitish, the labial pair externally fuscous ; low^er part of the 
face white, upper part and vertex sordid gray ; antennae pale fuscous ; 



112 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

thorax grayish fuscous ; primaries whitish, sparsely dusted with golden- 
brown scales and with three or four transverse patches of golden brown ;. 
about the basal fourth, in one of the golden brown patches, are tAvo smalf 
spots of yellow scarcely raised scales opposite to each other and just 
within the margins, the dorsal one being the smallest. (In one specimen 
in place of the dorsal yellow spot is a distinct patch of brown raised' 
scales.) In another of the transverse patches, about the middle, is. 
another larger spot of yellow scarcely raised scales, with a small opposite 
dorsal patch of raised scales, and in another transverse fuscous patch,, 
about the beginning of the ciliae, is another transverse patch or streak of 
whitish and brown scales with a few yellow ones intermixed. Costal 
margin brownish, with seven white streaks, the first three pointing a little- 
obliquely backwards, and the last four, which are in the apical part of the 
wing, nearly straight or a little oblique forwards ; the last two cross the 
wing and are concave — especially the last one — towards the apex. The 
brownish portions of the wing with golden reflections in some lights. Al 
ex. y^ inch. Kentucky. 

The specimen above mentioned in parenthesis has the apex of the- 
wings a little worn and I cannot distuiguish the costal streaks in that part 
of the wing. Possibly it may be a distinct species, but I think not. 

The foregoing sub-genus is allied to Thica both in the trophi and the- 
neuration of the wings. Nevertheless, it differs decidedly from that genus^ 
in the neuration. In tlie neuration of the wings and their tufts of raised 
scales it is allied to XylestJiia, but differs decidedly from it in the trophi ; 
and the antennae differ decidedly by their increased length. In this 
respect and in the neuration and palpi it approaches nearer to Clemens' 
sub-genus (of Tinea) Homosetia, but that sub-genus has no raised tufts 
upon the wings, and the neuration is not exactly the same. 

CYANE, gen. nov. 

This genus is very near to Tinea, the principal differences being in the 
form and neuration of the hind wings (in which respects different species 
of Tinea by no means agree with each other), in the absence of bristles 
on the palpi, and the ciliated antennae. The general appearance of the 
insect in repose is that of a Gelechia, and such I supposed it to be when 
it was captured. It also approaches that group in the form and neuration 
of the hind winsf'^. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 113 

Primaries lanceolate, ovate : the costal vein attains the margin about 
the middle ; discal cell wide and closed ; the subcostal is obsolete towards 
the base, and sends a long branch from near the base to the margin 
behind the cell, two shorter branches from near the end of the cell, and 
then proceeds to the costal margin before the apex ; the median sends one 
branch from near the end of the cell to the closed margin, and then pro- 
■ceeds from the end of the cell to the dorsal margin ; the discal gives off 
four branches, one to the costal margin near the apex and three to the 
dorsal margin. Submedian simple. 

Secondaries a little wider than the primaries, with the costal margin 
very faintly excised from the base to near the middle, and slightly arched 
thence to the apex. Posterior much and regularly curved and apex 
rounded. The costal vein is close to the margin, but only attains it in the 
.apical fourth of the wing. ' Subcostal obsolete towards the base, nearly 
straight and attaining the costal margin just before the apex ; discal cell 
wide and closed : the discal vein gives off two branches to the dorsal 
margin : the median sends from about the middle of the wing a curved 
branch to the dorsal margin and proceeds to the end of the cell and thence 
to the dorsal margin : submedian and internal veins distinct and simple. 

Head roughened (as in Tinea). Antennae little more than half as 
long as the primaries, tapering from the base to a point at the apex, with a 
•distinct shoal of ciliae on each joint. Tongue ? (concealed by the max- 
illary palpi, which are folded) ; labial palpi drooping in the dead insect 
(or perhaps more properly called incurved), without bristles, long enough 
to reach the eyes if recurved (as I think they are in the living insect), 
with the second joint as long as the first and third united, the third verti- 
cally compressed and with the scales roughened. Eyes, globose, moderate; 
ocelli none. 

C. visaliella. N. sj>. 

Maxillary palpi white ; labial palpi white, outer surface of the second 
joint, except at the apex, and a spot on the outer surface of the third 
joint brownish ; head whitish gray with some brown scales intermixed ; 
antennae with alternate white and brown annulations ; thorax and 
primaries pale or whitish gray, sparsely dusted with brown, a small brown 
spot on the base of the costa, a smaller one about the basal fourth, and a 
very large one just behind the middle touching the costa and crossing the 
fold ; apical portion of the wing brownish, with some whitish and gray 



114 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

scales intermixed, and with two small oblique costal white streaks just 
behind the large brown spot ; costal ciliae dark brown, dorsal ciliae- 
grayish. Alar ex. 3/s inch. Several specimens captured in June resting. 
on forest trees, at Visalia, Kentucky. 

CLYMENE, ge/i. nov. 

Clothed with longish hair-like scales, those of the head and face 
roughened, standing out in every direction, many of those oi the anterior 
wings also standing out (or rather reversed, suggesting a resemblance to- 
the breed of chickens with reversed feathers). 

No tongue; labial palpi short ; maxillary palpi long, three jointed, the- 
second and third joints sub-equal, drooping together or sometimes folded 
in the dead insect (^folded in the living ?). Antennae more than half as. 
long as the wings, hairy, somewhat roughened in the living insect, carried 
projecting together straight in front; eyes small, not visible from above. 

Forewings lanceolate ; there is a long semi-opaque space on the costal 
margin ; discal cell unclosed ; costal vein short ; subcostal nearly straight, 
passing to the apex, giving off to the costal margin four branches, the- 
first from about the basal fourth, the second and longest from just before- 
the middle and attaining the margin just before the other two, which are 
given off in the apical part of the wing ; the median passes nearly straight 
to the dorsal margin behind the apex, from about the basal fourth it gives- 
off a long branch which attains the margin just behind the vein itself, 
which is trifurcate in the apical part of the wing ; fold very distinct ; sub- 
median furcate at base. 

Posterior wings lanceolate ; costal vein almost coincident with the 
margin ; subcostal straight to the apex, sending to the costal margin two 
short branches, the first behind the middle, the second in the apical por- 
tion ; median vein nearly straight to the dorsal margin behind the apex, 
sending to the dorsal margin two branches, one not far from the base, the- 
other about the middle ; submedian distinct. Ciliae moderate. 

The imago is very shy and active, running very rapidly till it finds a 
place of concealment, and taking flight easily. The larva of the species 
described below is unknown ; the imago is abundant in May and June- 
upon the trunks of Beech trees. 

C. œgerfasciella. JSJ. sp. 

Head luteous with intermixed dark brown scales ; palpi dark grayish 
fuscous ; legs and body sordid luteous ; antennae sordid luteous, mixed 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. ll.> 

with dark grayish fuscous : thorax and anterior wings dark purplish brown 
with a faint whitish spot on the dorsal margin near the base, a faint narrov,' 
whitish fascia about the middle, and a faint whitish costal and similar 
dorsal spot opposite, just before the ciliae, and another similar spot at the 
apex ; these spots are all very indistinct. Ciliae fuscous. Posterior wings 
grayish fuscous. The ends of the fascia on each margin are visible as 
whitish spots in the wing itself after it is denuded. Alaj; ex. y^ inch., 
(The wings are much longer than the body.) Kentucky. 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA.. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirhys Fauna Borcall-Ainericana : Inseda. 



(Continued from Page 99.) 

[223.] 300, DoNACiA FEMORALis Klrh)'. — Length of body 2))'\ 
lines. Taken in Nova Scotia by Dr. MacCulloch. 

Body bronzed, gilded, with a greenish tint, very minutely and thickly 
punctured, not conspicuously hairy underneath. Frontal channel slight ; 
antennae, except the scape which is bronzed, and mouth rufous ; prothorax 
with an impression above the scutellum ; anterior tubercles more than 
usually prominent ; scutellum rather large ; elytra with single slight 
anterior impression adjoining the suture ; legs rufous, but the thighs, 
which are much incrassated, except the base and summit, are green- 
bronzed ; posterior thigh without any tooth ; abdomen as in the preceding, 
species. 

This species seems nearly related to Donacia pusilla Say. 

301. Donacia flavipes Kirby. — Length of body 4 lines. A single 
specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body bronzed-copper with a golden lustre ; clothed below with very 
short, somewhat silvery, decumbent hairs, the metallic splendor of the 
body being visible through them. Head thickly, minutely, and con- 
fluently punctured or wrinkled, channelled between the eyes ; antennae 
testaceous, longer than the prothorax ; prothorax subquadrangular, longer 
than usual in the genus, widely channelled, very minutely, thickly, and 



116 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

con-fluently punctured and wrinkled ; anterior tubercles large and not 
prominent; elytra with two impressions adjoining the suture, elevated at 
the base ; legs testaceous. 

[Taken in Ontario and at Lake Superior]. 

302. DoNACiA AFFiNis Klrby. — Length of body 2>V\ lines. Taken 
by Dr. MacCulloch in Nova Scotia. 

Body minutely punctured, copper-coloured brilliant with the splendor 
of gold ; underneath very slightly hairy, Head channelled between the 
eyes ; antennae and mouth testaceous ; prothorax widest anteriorly, chan- 
nelled, punctured but not thickly, lateral anterior tubercles levigated ; 
scutellum small ; elytra with a single impression, not far from the base, 
adjoining the suture; base elevated; margin of the ventral segments of 
the abdomen of a fine bright, the anus of a deeper orange ; legs 
testaceous. 

Very iieir D. Jlavipes, but the sculpture of the pro thorax, the 
impressions of the elytra, and the colour of the underside of the abdomen 
.are different. It differs from JD. discolor in having the prothorax much 
more thinly punctured, the anterior tubercles, which in that species are 
near obsolete, more prominent, and the scutellum much smaller. 

[Named D. Kii'byi by Lacordaire.] 

303. DoNACiA EMARGiNATA Kirhy. — Length of body ■^iy'i lines. 
Taken with the preceding. 

[225.] Body black-blue, clothed underneath with pile, in certain 
lights, glittering like silver. Antennae black ; tubercles of the prothorax 
prominent ; elytra with an impression near the suture ; last dorsal segment 
of the abdomen emarginate ; thighs very thick, bronzed, posterior one 
with a stout tooth. 

This species comes very near D. sericea, but it is sufficiently 
distinguished by its deeply notched podex, and the silver pile that clothes 
its body underneath, which in that species has a golden lustre. 

[Taken in Canada and at Lake Superior.] 

304. DoNACiA PROXiMA Kivby. — Length of body 5 lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. 

Body a little flattened, covered underneath with a dense coat of 
.glittering silver pile resembling satin. Head a little bronzed, channelled 
between the eyes, minutely punctured ; palpi testaceous; anteiinae entirely 
.black ; prothorax in the disk dark violet and channelled, sides bronzed 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 117 

and impressed ; anterior tubercles not prominent ; scutellum bronzed ; 
elytra nearly black with a slight tint of violet, punctures green-gilt, inter- 
stices of the rows not wrinkled ; an anterior impression near the suture ■ 
rounded at the apex ; posterior legs long, with thighs somewhat curved, 
attenuated at the base, armed at the apex with two teeth placed 
consecutively, the first long, slender, and acute ; the last wide, short, and 
denticulated posteriorly. 

This species is nearly related to D. crass ipes Fab., but the antennae 
and the legs are entirely black, the teeth on the posterior thighs are not 
equal. 

[Probably synonymous with D. episcopalis Lac. Taken on shore of 
Lake Superior.] 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Personal. — In part No. 2, " Lepidoptera, Rhopaloceres and Heter- 
oceres," the author, Mr. Herman Strecker, makes a most uncalled for and 
ungentlemanly attack on me, which in justice to myself, much as I dislike 
introducing matters of this sort into a scientific periodical, I can scarcely 
allow to pass unnoticed. 

It appears that Mr. Strecker received last summer, from Mr. Couper, 
specimens of a Papilio which he had taken on the Island of Anticosti 
while on a collecting tour there. At first Mr. S. says he thought it might 
be my P. brevicauda, described in a foot note in " Packard's Guide," but 
on comparing the description there given with his specimens, he found 
them to differ in some important particulars. He then proceeds to say 
(I copy zvr^. at lit,) " I now again had the pleasant excitement incidental 
to endeavoring to study out bare descriptions, unaccompanied by figures, 
and in my misery I wrote to Mr. Couper, in Montreal, requesting him to 
try to see the types of Brevicauda, and compare his examples with them, 
or if that was impossible, to write to Mr. Saunders, of Ontario, Canada, 
who described it and with whom he was acquainted, concerning the 
species ; after some time Mr. Couper wrote ' I communicated with the 
Rev. Canon Innes (in whose collection are specimens of Brevicauda) and 
Mr. W. Saunders, asking for information regarding P. Brevicauda ; up to 
this instant no answer from either ; ' this certainly was not very satis- 
factory, but as I was not particularly anxious to make a fool of myself by 
re-christening old species, I importuned Mr. Couper to try the gentlemart 



118 THE CANADIAÎf ENTOMOLOGIST. 

with another epistolary shot ; in due time, under date March 17, 1873, 
came another letter from Couper thus : ' I have purposely delayed a reply 
to your favor of 2nd, because since its receipt I wrote again to Mr. W. 
Saunders for the desired information, and my letter was written in terms 
which could not deter him from answering ; however, no answer has been 
received.' After receiving this letter, I, of course, concluded that Mr. 
Saunders' time was of too much value to be encroached upon, and 
requested Mr. Couper to by no means trouble him again, as his dignified 
silence at last brought me to a proper sense of my true position, and was 
a merited punishment to both Couper and myself for our temerity." 

I did receive the two letters referred to from Mr. Couper. In the 
first, dated Jan. 21, Mr. C. asks me where I obtained the Papilio described 
as brevicauda, and whether I would loan him a specimen, as he wished to 
compare it with some Anticosti Papilio's which had been named for him 
by his U. S. correspondents as P. polyxe/ics. There were other matters 
referred to in the letter which I wished to attend to before replying to 
Mr. Couper, and as I was then extremely busy, and was obliged to leave 
home for a while, not knowing either that there was any pressing need of 
an immediate answer, I deferred writing for a time. In the second letter, 
dated March 3rd, Mr. C. refers again among other matters to P. hi-evicauda, 
expresses no disappointment at my not answering his first, does not even 
now ask for a prompt reply, or hint that any of the information he desires 
was for anyone but himself Indeed, after referring to some differences 
which he thought existed between his Anticosti specimens and my 
brevicauda from Newfoundland, he says : " It is my inte?itioii to investigate 
this matter further,"' and referred to the opportunities he hoped to have 
on revisiting the Island. To this second letter I replied as promptly as 
possible, Avithin a few days, and gave Mr. C. all the information in my 
power in reference to brevicauda, as well as satisfactory reasons why I had 
not written sooner. 

It was scarcely kind of Mr. Couper to give me no hint of the terrible 
state of excitement under which his friend, poor Mr. Strecker, was at that 
time laboring, boiling over, as he evidently was, with indignation towards 
one who was perfectly innocent of all knowledge of his wants. Had I 
known the state of his mind my sympathies would at once have been 
aroused and I should have written promptly, when I suppose this formid- 
able bull of his would never have been fulminated against me, and I 
should have been s]:ared from being impaled on the sharp end of Mr. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 119 



Streckers irony, where, like a beetle on a pin, I am now supposed to be 
wriggling and writhing in great discomfort. 

I do not know Mr. Strecker and have never had any correspondence 
with him, but I do feel sorry for him, that he should in his anger have 
allowed himself to use language so discorteous in reference to one who 
was a perfect stranger to him, without taking pains to enquire whether it 
was deserved or not. I can scarcely designate such a proceeding under 
such circumstances, as anything less than contemptible, and quite 
unworthy of a naturalist or a gentleman. 

Mr. Strecker further remarks in the paragraph following that last 
quoted : " However, I believe this is distinct from Brevicauda, and if it 
be not, // is an absurdity to retain that îianie ; the probability after all is 
that Brevicauda and Anticostiensis (if they be not the same) are both 
varieties of Asterius." Why Mr. Strecker considers it absurd to call a 
species brevicauda he does not deign to inform us ; can it be that he has 
a conscientious objection to any further references to the tails of insects 
under any circumstances, or is it the evident superiority in length and 
grandiloquence of sound Avhich Anticostiensis has over brevicauda which 
makes the use of the latter to his mind so absurd? It does seem strange 
that with all Mr. Strecker's anxiety to avoid " re-christening old species," 
he should astonish the Entomological world with such a name as Anti- 
cos tie/is is nov. sp., when at the same time he states his belief in the 
probability of its being but a variety of asterias. Such a proceeding 
seems at least contradictory, and, it will appear to some, as if he had thus 
placed himself, in his anxiety to have his name attached to a species, in 
the very position he professes a wish to avoid, and which he has 
designated in such choice I language. — W. Saunders, London, Ontario. 

To CoLLECïORS.-I am very anxious to obtain the eggs, larvte in different 
stages,and chrysalis of Grapta f annus, and I will offer as a reward to any 
one who will obtain them for me. Vol. I of the " Butterflies of North 
America," or Vol. II, as it shall appear. Where this species is common, that 
is, in the highlands of New York and New England, or British America, it 
would not be difficult to obtain eggs at the proper season, and from these 
all the rest would follow. In the Catskill Mountains, the fresh specimens 
of Faunns appear about the ist of August, and by the 15 th are plenty. 
Allowing eleven days for chrysalis, the mature larvae Avould be found 
between the 20th of July and the 5th of August. From egg to chrysalis 



120 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

will be about fifteen days, and allowing four days for duration of the egg,, 
we may conclude that this is deposited from ist to 15th of July. There- 
fore, an efifort should be made to take the females the last of June or first 
of July ; and when taken, they should be enclosed in a gauze bag, on a 
stem of Hop, or on Nettle, Elm, and perhaps Currant or Wild Goose- 
berry ; or enclosed in a keg, if convenient (nail or powder keg), from 
which the heads have been removed, and the upper end covered with a 
cloth, held down by one of the hoops. Care should be taken to stop up 
all holes next the ground by which the insect would escape. In this way 
eggs will infallibly be had, if the insect is confined with the food plant of 
the larvae. In the present case, as that is not certainly known, if after 
24 hours no eggs are found to be deposited, I should try one of the other 
plants named. If eggs are obtained, two or three should be placed in a 
small vial of water, to which has been added a few drops of carbolic acid 
solution, which preserves them effectually, and should be sent by mail tO' 
Miss Mary Peart, Pauling, Chester Co., Pennsylvania, for drawings 
for me. In the same way, the larvae at different stages may be sent, in tin 
or wooden (not paper) boxes, by mail, with a supply of the food plants 
advising by letter of such sending. The chr3'salis may be sent in the 
same way as soon as formed. It is desirable that as full notes as possible 
should be taken of the changes of the larvœ. These I will publish, as 
well as the drawings, in Vol. II of But. N. A., with credit to the discoverer 
and observer. 

In the same way, it is desirable that the larva of G. gracilis should be 
found, and I will give a similar reward for the discovery of the preparatory 
stages of this species, if attention is given to my directions in forwarding 
the eggs, larvae and chrysalids for drawings. — W.m. H. Edwards, Coal- 
burgh, West Va., May 24th, 1873. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Exchange.— I am desirous to exchange English for Canadian or 
American Lepidoptera. J. C. Wasserman, Beverly Terrace, CuUercoats, 
North Shields, England. 

CoLEOPTERA FOR Sale. — A number of Rocky Mountain Coleoptera 
will soon be for sale in sets by John Akhurst, 19, Prospect Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



TOL. V. LONDON, ONT., JULY, 1873. No. 7 

OBSERVATIONS ON CERTAIN PLANT LICE OF THE 
GENUS APHIS. 

BY THOMAS G. GENTRY, GER?,IAMTOWN, PA. 

That the Aphides in the spring time are wingless, virgin females, is an 
opinion that has been carefully entertained by some of the most 
distinguished naturalists and ph3^siologists in the world. Bonnet, 
Reaumur, Owen, Fluxley, (Sec., have especially studied this interesting 
class of insects, and have given expression to the above opinion in their 
writings. But this, there are strong reasons for asserting, must be taken 
in a restricted sense, so far, at any rate, as our own Aphidae are 
concerned. 

Whilst engaged recently in an examination of a species which was 
observed feeding upon the leaves and tender shoots of Rumex crispiis, 
with the view of testing its manner and rate of reproduction, several 
clusters of the insect were met with, each of which, contrary to expecta- 
tion, contained one or two winged specimens. These, in addition to the 
possession of wings, differed still further from the apterous ones in the 
superior length of the antennae, and in the remarkable fulness of the 
thorax above ; this fulness being undoubtedly necessary for the attach- 
ment of the wings and the muscles by which they are controlled. In 
color the wingless specimens were entirely jet black, which, however, in 
those endowed with the power of flight, was somewhat relieved by the 
j^resence of a light fulvous annulus upon each antenna and tibia. 

The presence of wings in some of the specimens at this season of the 
year, in view of the assertions of naturalists to the contrary, would seem 
to imply the existence of males. This impression does seem to be further 
heightened and strengthened l^y comparison with drawings of the male 
rose Aphis in " Duncan's Transformation of Insects." To be assured 



122 THE CAIs^ADÏAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

viponthis point, a solitary winged specimen was secured and confined in a 
box in which a sprig of the insect's natural food had been previously- 
placed to satisfy its Avants ; due examination having been made to the 
intent that nothing in the shape of food or animal life should stand in 
the v.'ay of a fair and impartial test. After the lapse of twenty-four 
hours, the inside of the box and its contents were examined with a glass 
of moderate diameter, and a single, newly-born Aphis was discovered 
fastened to a leaf stalk, in the act of imbibing its juice. 

A further continuance of the feeding process for several days longer 
was productive of the same positive results. The rate of increase in this 
species, as shown by these experiments, unlke its European congeners, 
was proved to be but one a day ; so it is to be seen that the insect does 
not propagate as rapidly in this case at any rate, as naturalists have 
asserted. European species, we read, produce at the rate of three, four, 
and seven a day, according to eminent authorities. As our native Ameri- 
can species differ in many points from European, in a structural as well as 
a functional sense, this difference in the rate of propagation may not be 
wondered at. From the above facts it does seem that nature has decreed 
that there shall be both winged and wingless specimens in the spring time, 
for it seems just to conclude that both varieties are virgin females. But 
other observations vrhich were subsequently made, seem to foreshadow 
the existence of males also ; but the evidence upon this point is not of 
the most positive character, and requires further facts to settle it beyond 
the shadov.' of a doubt. 

Having secured similar winged specimens a few days later, they were 
submitted to a like test, when both positive and negative results were 
reached. Hlere was a rather curious and interesting problem for solution. 
Why some should prove fertile, and others, which in no single particular 
differed therefrom, so far as could be determined, should nianifest a 
contrary state of affairs was more than could be divined, and this too after 
frequent experiments had been made. If the latter are males^ as their 
sterility v/ould seem to indicate, the solution is self-evident ; but if of the 
opposite sex, there can be no adequate key to unlock the problem, unless 
the principle of excessive nutrition, which seems to account for so many 
strange things in the vegetable creation, should prove to be it. But even 
here a doubt arises, as observation has shown me that a succulent shoot 
produces almost invariably wingless specimens, while a less tender one the 
opposite variety. As the very existence of the two forms depends upon 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 123 

the quantity of sap Vihich each obtains, said quantity being measured by 
the nature of the shoot, whether succulent or otherwise, the only rational 
conclusion that can be drawn is to consider the sterile form as male. The 
correct course to have adopted would have been a dissection of the 
animal, and a comparison of the organs of reproduction, but in this I was 
debarred by the want of suitable instruments for the purpose. 

From what has been written upon European species, combined with 
the facts developed in this paper, it seems safe to conclude that the Aphidas 
reproduce both in a sexual and asexual manner. If not sexually, then 
there is no getting rid of the conclusion that in the spring of the year 
three forms of females are produced, wingless virgin, winged virgin, and 
winged sterile females. As a further confirmation of the above facts, let 
me add that similar experiments were performed upon a small drab-colored 
species, which was found feeding upon the leaves and succulent shoots of 
Spiraea corynnbosa, with similar results. 



NOTES ON RHYNCOPHORUS ZIMMERMAN 11, Sch. 

BY S. V. SUMMERS, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Larvœ, long, 1.07 to 1.40 inch. Head rather large, smooth, vertical ; 
occiput dark chestnut brown ; medial line abbreviated, but well defined ; 
lateral lines complete ; vertex piceous, sculptured ; front rufo-piceous ; 
mandibles obtuse, opaque, with three large deep impressed punctures ; 
labium 3-dentate ; mentum sinuated, sub-tlavous. Body sub-cylindrical, 
not curved, sub-flavous, middle segments largest, humeral and anal seg- 
ments corneous, brownish \ legs replaced by six tubercles. 

Described from seven living matured larvae. 

Pupce, long, 1. 10 to 1.24 inch. Quite characteristic of imago, tawny 
yellow ; prothorax and metasternum piceous ; rostrum bent close on pro- 
sternum, and reaching anterior margin of metasternum; elytra enclosing 
posterior legs. Three specimens. 

R. Ziinincrmanii. Long (exclusive of rostrum), 0.66 to 1.20 inch. 
Black, shining, rostrum shorter than thorax ; ^ nearly arcuate before 
antenna, smooth, v^ith rather large punctures ; Ç not arcuate, tuber- 
culate; antennae with outer half of first joint rufous; eyes large, finely 



124 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

granulate ; prothorax longer than broad, smooth, finely and sparsely 
punctured ; angles rounded ; basal margin closely embracing elytra ; 
scutellum prolonged, polished; elytra with six distinctly punctured strise 
which do not quite reach the apex ; intervals broadly rounded. 

Inhabits Southern and Gulf States ; abundant. Our largest curculio, 
of which numerous varieties occur while immature, the most common 
variety has the elytra and thorax reddish-brown, Avith three black spots on 
elytra and one or more on thorax. 

The larvae bore in the roots and stocks of the Palmetto, in the latter 
part of June and July. When about to pupate, they construct an oblong 
cocoon, which consists of layers of fibres and excrement loosely woven 
together. These are invariably formed at the thickened basal part of 
leaves' stems, from which the imago issues in September and October. 
They do not seem to be attracted by the lamp, but on several occasions 
during the month of February, in the vicinity of New Orleans, I have 
observed large numbers flying among the Palmetto's, when they v.'ould 
produce a buzzing noise similar to Copris Carolina, They seem most 
partial to the older and more injured plants, particularly those having 
been burnt. As many as sixty specimens have occurred in a single tree. 



MICRO - lf:pidoptera. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 
Contmned from Page 115 

CYLLENE, ge7i. nov. 

Anterior and posterior wings linear lanceolate, and apparently destitute 
of nervures. (In a single specimen of the hind wing, mounted as a 
microscopic specimen in Canada balsam, a short costal nervure, a sub- 
costal and an independent nervure close along the posterior margin, but 
not beginning at the base, are visible, but ordinarily I can find no trace of 
any nervure ty^cç^^i perhaps the costal is visible; to all ordinary observation 
the wings are without nervures.) The posterior are excised from the 
basal fourth of the costal margin to the apex. Size minute. The other 
generic characters are those of Clymcne( supra), dxià it is characterized like 
it by the erect or reversed hair-like scales. But it lacks the pale spots in 
the integuments of the wings, which characterize Clynieiie^ 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 125 

C. viintitisimella. N. sp. 

Vertex, palpi and abdomen silvery; face rather sordid white: antennae 
dark griseous or fuscous, tipped with whitish ; anterior wings brown mixed 
towards the base confusedly with silvery, with a distinct silvery spot on 
the costal margin, two others on the dorsal margin, one of which is just 
behind the middle and the other farther back: one at the apex and one 
on the costal margin opposite the space between the two dorsal ones. 
In some lights these spots are not distinct. Cilice and hind wings dark 
griseous. 

Alar ex. scarcely exceeding yi inch. It is therefore probably the 
smallest Lepidopteron known. Mr. Stainton, A^at. Hist. Tin., v. J, says 
that Nepticula microtheriel/a, measuring i^ lines in alar ex., was then the 
smallest. It is a shaggy and rather " uncanny " looking little moth. The 
larva is unknown. I have taken the imago abundantly in May and July 
at the lamp. But I find that I have but a single specimen left, for, as it 
is too small to pin successfully, I placed it in a tin " cell " on a microscope 
shde, covered by thin glass, held down by a rubber band, into which crept 
villainous little Atropes and ate all my little Cyllene save one. 

NEPTICULA. 

Nepticula miners of leaves of the Sycamore (Plataniis occidentalis.) 

Three species of Nepticula mine these leaves. Dr. Clemens describes 
these mines fully (Proc. Ent. Soc. Fhila., March, 1862). One of the 
mines is at first a slender track filled nnthfrass. Afterwards the mine is 
expanded into a round blotch, almost obliterating the previous linear 
mine. This is the mine of 

N. platauclla Clem., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila, Jaiiy, 1862. 

It may be distinguished from the two other species by having the 
wings shining dark brown, 7ùiit/i a silvery costal streak about the middle, and 
an opposite spot of the same hue on the dorsal margifi. For other particulars 
see Clemens' description. Al. ex. -sh inch. Kentucky. 

The mine described by Dr. Clemens as No. 2 is linear, slightly enlarged 
towards its extremity, with the terminal portion enlarged into a small 
blotch just before the larva leaves it. // has a central line of frass. Dr. 
Clemens was not acquainted with the imago which I call 

N. Clemensella. N. sp. 

Palpi and face stramineous, tinged with rufous between the antennae 
and eyes ; eye-caps yellowish silvery. yVntennœ pale fuscous. Primaries 



126 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



bluish black, rc'/V// a minute ochrcous spot on tJie extreme dorsal margin about 
the middle. Viewed from the direction of the head there is a faint silvery 
streak visible opposite the ochreous spot, but it is not visible with the 
light in any other direction usually, although in one specimen it is visible 
on one 7C'in§ in any light, but is not on the other. Cilice pale yellow, with 
a dark brown hinder marginal line near the base. Al. ex. -/V inch. Ken- 
tucky ; Pennsylvania. 

The mine of the third species is at first crooked, Vi4th a eentral line of 
frass. It is afterwards enlarged, forming an irregular blotch, which covers 
all or nearly ail of the original mine. It then resembles the mine of N. 
platanella, but is less rounded and the outline is more irregular. I have 
not succeeded in breeding this species, but have no doubt that the species 
described below as A', maximella is the maker of the mine. 

^V. maximella. JV. sp. 

Head and eye-caps yellowish v>hitc ; palpi a little paler ; antennce dark 
fuscous above, whitish beneath ; thorax and anterior wings bluish black, 
with a silvery white fascia about the middle, concave towards the base, and 
sometimes faintly interrupted in the middle. Apical cilice whitish, with a 
dark brown hinder marginal line near the base. Al. ex. yl inch. Ken- 
tucky. 

Taken in large numbers resting on the trunk and leaves of Sycamore 
trees (P. occidentalis ), seldom elsewhere, and I believe it to be the miner 
No. 3. 

N^. serotimcellei. N. sp. 

Tuft rufous ; face reddish yellow ; palpi silvery gray ; eye-caps and 
hinder portion of the vertex very pale or v.-hitish golden ; thorax and 
primaries blackish, with purple and bronzy reflections, the primaries 
crossed by two silver fascite, both of which are straight, the first being 
rather the widest, ])laced just before the middle, the second just before 
the beginning of the ciliae ; clliae of the general hue, but in some lights 
silvery gray, the dorsal ciliae rather pale. Al. ex. A inch. Kentucky. 

Tlie larva makes a very pretty mine on the leaves of the ^^^ild Cherry 
(Prunus scroti na). The mine is narrow, linear, very much convoluted 
at first, filled with frass, which afterwards becomes a central line only in 
the mine, which is gradually a little widened ; the mine is whitish and 
the frass black, but to the naked eye the mine appears brownish red, and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 127 



the leaf around it also becomes stained of that hue. The larva is bright 
green. Possibly this may be the N. bifasciella Clem., but I can discern 
no trace of green in the wings. Dr. Clemens gives no measurements and 
was not acquainted Avith the mine of bifasciella. He mentions, jPrt't". E?it. 
Soc. P/iila., Nov., 1861, an empty mine in the leaves of the Wild Cherry 
as doubtfully that of a Nepticula, and possibly dipterous, and calls it N. ? 
J>runifoliclla. As, however, he says that that mine begins in â blotch, 
. and as he was not acquainted with the insect in any of its stages, and it 
often happens that two or three species mine leaves of the same plant, I 
have not deemed it expedient to adopt his name. The practice of naming 
-species from an empty mine or even a larva, is a bad one, I think. 

N. apici-albcUa. N. sp. 

Palpi and eye-caps white ; face reddish orange ; antennae silvery, 
suffused with fuscous ; thorax and primaries dark brown, slightly irides- 
cent, suffused with purplish or golden, according to the light ; just behind 
the middle of the wing is an oblique white fascia, which is nearest to the 
•apex on the dorsal margin ; ciliae of the general hue, except at the extreme 
apex, which is white. Al. ex. -i-i inch. Kentucky. Larva unknown. 
Imago in June. 

N. minimella. JV. sp. 

Palpi white ; face ochreous ; eye-caps white ; antennae light fuscous ; 
primaries fuscous to the fascia, which is just immediately behind the 
middle, and /j (TiS'/^z-'dr both anteriorly and posteriorly ; purplish fuscous 
behind the fascia ; apex whitish. Al. ex. less than two lines. Kentucky. 
At light in August. 

N. thorace-albella. N.sp. 

Palpi and eye-caps white ; face reddish ochreous ; antennae pale fus- 
cous ; thorax white, with a io^si scattered dark brown scales ; primaries 
dark brown, with a curved white fascia about the middle, concave towards 
the base, and rather indistinct upon the costa. A white spot at the 
beginning of the costal ciliae, and an opposite dorsal one ; ciliae of the 
general hue, except at the apex, where they are white. Al. ex. A inch. 
Captured in June in Kentucky. 

N. querci-castanella. N. sp. 

Head, eye caps and palpi white, except a dark brown spot between 
the antennae on the head ; antennae dark brown above, whitish beneath ; 



128 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

thorax and primaries yellowish ochreous, well dusted with dark brown ; 
eiliae pale ochreous. Al. ex. s%- inch. Kentucky. 

The larva makes a somewhat crooked linear yellowish-white mine^ 
with a central line of frass, in the leaves of the Chestnut Oak (Qjiercus 
casianea), in the latter part of July. 

N. fusco-capitella. N. sp. 

Head dark fuscous ; palpi, eye-caps and antennae yellowish white, the 
antennae somewhat stained with fuscous above ; primaries and thorax 
white, faintly tinged with yellowish, and the apical half of the primaries 
dusted with fuscous scales arranged mainly in small spots ; body and legs 
creamy white. Al. ex. almost y^ inch. Captured in Kentucky in June. 

N. ocJire-fasciella. N. sp. 

Head and eye-caps pale reddish-ochreous; palpi a little pialer; antennse 
pale fuscous, with a silvery lustre ; thorax and primaries blackish-brown, 
with a nearly straight yellowish-ochreous fascia just before the middle ; 
apical eiliae yellowish-ochreous, basal half of the primaries yelloAvish- 
ochreous on the under surface. Al. ex. scarcely yi^ inch. Kentucky .- 
Taken in June. 

N. ciliœ-fusccUiX. N. sp. 

Palpi silvery ; head reddish-yellow ; eye-caps silvery ; thorax and fore- 
wings dark brown, a little bronzed, and cilliae of the same hue. A white 
fascia just behind the middle of the wing, nearly straight, a little widest 
on the dorsal margin, and perhaps a little nearer to the base on the costal 
margin ; under surface and legs yellowish white ; posterior tibiae fuscous. 
Al. ex. -A of an inch. Taken at lamp, Aug. 23rd. 

I cannot see wherein tliis species differs from fusco-tibiella Clem., 
except that Clemens says " Ciliae pale grayish," whereas the eiliae in this 
species have the bronzy dark brown hue of the wings. Dr. Clemens. 
gives no measurements. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. l2^ 



INSECTS OF THE NORTHERN PARTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITOR. 

From Kirby's Fauna Boreali-Aincrii-ana : Insect a. 



(Continued from Page 117.) 

305. DoNACiA CUPR.EA Kirby. — Length of body 4^ lines. Taken 
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby [also on Lake Superior.]. 

[226.] Body above copper-coloured, glossy; underneath covered 
with a thick coat of decumbent pile of a cinereous colour, glittering in 
certain lights. Head downy, channelled ; mouth and palpi rufous ; man- 
dibles and antennae black ; prothorax rather wider than long, very 
minutely, thickly and confluently punctured and wrinkled ; channelled, 
with a pair of impressions on each side, anterior tubercles not prominent ; 
scutellum downy ; elytra very grossly punctured in rows ; a single anterior 
impression near the suture ; truncated at the apex ; three intermediate 
ventral segments of the abdomen have a yellow margin ; legs obscurely 
rufous ; thighs bronzed in the middle ; posterior thighs with a minute 
tooth near the apex. 

306. DoNACiA HiRTicoLLis Kirbv. — Length of body 33^2 lines. A 
single specimen taken in Lat. 65°. 

Body underneath covered with a thick coat of decumbent pile 
resembling satin and shining like silver. Head hoary from inconspicuous 
hairs, most minutely and confluently punctured with a slight interocular 
channel with an obtuse ridge on each side ; antennae with the second and 
third joints equal in length ; labrum glittering with silver pile ; prothorax 
longer than wide, hoary from inconspicuous down, most minutely and 
confluently punctured, channelled, sides subimpressed, anterior tubercles 
flat ; scutellum large, levigated ; elytra black, punctured in rows, whose 
interstices are wrinkled ; posterior thighs with a single short obtusangular 
tooth. 

This pretty species comes near D. bidens Oliv., which I always find on 
Potaviogeton natans, but it is sufficiently distinguished by its black thorax 
hoary from down, and legs without any red. 

[Synonymous with D. rudicoUis I,ac. Taken on Lake Superior.] 



130 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

307. DoNACiA iEQUALis Sav. — Length of body 4-43-2 lines. Many 
taken in the journey from New York to Cumberland-house [also in On- 
tario.] 

[227.] Bodv underneath covered Avith a thick coat of silver pile as in 
the preceding species. Head bronzed, hoary from cinereous down, 
minutely and confluently punctured, channelled between the eyes v>'ith a 
lono-itudinal obtuse ridge on each side the channel ; antennae black, 
bronzed at the base, second and third joints equal in length ; mouth 
piceous ; prothorax bronzed and gilded, rather longer than wide, thickly 
and confluently punctured and wrinkled ; channelled; sides longitudinally 
-subimpressed ; anterior tubercles obsolete ; scutellum hoary from down ; 
elytra bronzed, gilded, punctured in ro^^ s except at the apex where the 
punctures are confluent, two impressions adjoining the suture, and one in 
the middle of the base ; apex truncated ; ventral segments of the 
-abdomen, the last excepted, with a bright orange margin; posterior thighs 
with a stout short tooth. 

N. B. In the male the ventral segments are witliout the orange 
margin. 

Variety B. Prothorax bright copper, elytra black-bronzed. 

FAMILY HISPID.E. 

30S. HiSPA (A}ioplitis) lucoLOR Oliv. — Length of body 3^ lines. 
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby. Mr. Francillon had specimens from 
Georgia. Oliv. 

[228.] Body linear, naked. Head black, smooth, channelled between 
the eyes ; antennae robust, scarcely longer than the prothorax, black; eyes 
large, dark-brown ; prothorax transverse, narrowest anteriorly, red, with 
four dusky spots placed transversely, grossly punctured, posterior angles 
producted, behind with a slight sinus on each side ; space above the 
scutellum truncate; scutellum dull-red ; elytra linear, black, three-ridged, 
with an abbreviated ridge towards the apex between the second and 
third ; ridges elevated ; interstices with a double series of large and very 
close punctures ; between the second and third at the base and apex the 
series is quadruple, in the middle triple; lateral margin and apex serrulate; 
underside of the body blood-red ; legs black, base of the thighs red. 



THE CAjS^ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. l3l 

FAMILY COCCINELLID,^:. 

309. CocciNELLA KPiscoPALis Kirby. — Plate' v, lig. 4. Length of 
body 2 lines. Taken in the journey from New York to Cumberland- 
house. 

[229.] Body narrow, nearly linear, having at first sight the aspect of 
a Haltica, underneath black. Head black with three oblong pale yellow 
spots, two adjoining the eyes on their inner side, and one placed back- 
wards in the vertex ; mouth, antennae, and palpi rufous ; prothorax and 
both elytra taken together, pale yellow with two black stripes, common to 
both, resembling a bishop's crosier, the crook being on the thorax and 
the stalk on the elytra ; suture of the latter black except at the tip ; legs 
pale testaceous ; anus, sides of the abdomen, and tips of the ventral 
segment, except the basal one, pale. 

[Belongs to Nœinia Mais.] 

310. Cûccinf:lla tredecim-punctata Linn. — Length of body 3 
lines. Several specimens taken in Lat. 54°. 

Body oblong, black, lightly and minutely punctured ; underneath 
slightly downy. Mouth and its organs pale rufous ; nose white, whiteness 
with a posterior central lobe ; antennae rufous ; prothorax white with a 
large discoidal spot falling short of the anterior margin, where it is trun- 
cated ; sides lobed, besides which there is a black dot on each side 
connected with the above spot ; elytra reddish-yellow with six largish 
black dots, namely 1,2, 2, i, and one at the scutellum common to both 
elytra ; the first marginal dot is ovate, the rest approaching to round ; the 
tibiae and tarsi are testaceous ; there are two transverse white spots on 
each side the breast, between the four posterior legs ; and four triangular 
pale ones on each side the abdomen. 

Variety B. Nose rufous, with a parallegramniscal white spot between 
the antennae. 

[Belongs to Hippodainia Muls. ; very common in Canada.] 

311. CocciNELLA TRiDENS Kivby. — Length of body 2 ^^ liucs. Two 
specimens taken in the Expedition. 

[230.] Body rather oblong, very minutely punctured ; black under 
neath, with two distant white spots on the breast, and three contiguous 
ones on each side of the abdomen. Head black with a transverse white 
band or trident between the eyes, tricuspidate both anteriorly and 



132 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



posteriorly ; the intermediate posterior lobe the longest ; prothorax white 
with a large bipartite black spot, each lobe being trilobed with rounded 
lobes resembling a trefoil leaf and connected with the other by a transverse 
band ; elytra pale reddish-yellow ; with three black spots and one at the 
scutellum common to both elytra, placed 2, i, i ; the scutellar spot some- 
what bell-shaped, the humeral one roundish, the intermediate one nearly 
kidney-shaped, and that nearest the apex rather crescent-shaped. 

Variety B. Frontal band replaced by three white spots, the inter- 
mediate the longest and linear. 



LIST OF COLEOPTERA OF ST. LOUIS COUNTY, MISSOURI, 



BY S. V. SUM-MERS, M. D., NEW ORLEANS, LA. 



The following list has been prepared to enumerate all the known 
Coleoptera — not new — found in Southern Missouri, collected on a line 
between St. Louis and Sedalia during the summers of 1869, '70, '71, and 
'72. The families Curculionidae and Cerambycidae are omitted in this 
list. 



CICINDELID^E. 



Tetracha, JVesha. 

Carolina, Linn. 

virginica, Litiii. 
CiCiNDELA, Linn. 

sexguttata. Fab. 

purpurea, OHv. 

splendida, Hentz. 

var. audubonii, Lee. 

generosa, Dej. 



Omophron, Latr. 

tesselatum, Say. 
americanum, Dcj. 
nitidulum, Lcc. 



CiciNDELA, Ljiui. (continued.) 
vulgaris. Say. 
repanda, Dej. 
var. i2-guttata, Chaud. 
hirticoUis, Say. 
cuprascens, Lee. 
macra, Lee. 
lepida, Dej. 
punctulata. Fab. 



CARABID^. 



Elaphrus, Fab. 

clairvillei, Kirby. 
ruscarius. Say. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



133 



NoTiOPHiLus, Dum. 

sibiriciis, MotscJi. 
Nebria, Lair. 

pallipes, Say. 
Calosoma, Fah. 

externum, Say. 

scrutator, Fab. 

Wilcoxi, Lee. 

frigidum, Lee. 

Sayi, Dej. 

calidum, Fab. 
■Cychrus, Fab. 

lecontei, Dej. 

elevatus, Fab. 
Pasimachus, Bon. 

elongatus, Lee. 

punctulatus, Fab. 
Scarites, Fab. 

substriatus, Hald. 

subterraneus, Fab. 
Dyschirius, Bon. 

globulosus, Say. 

sphsericollis, Say. 

truncatus, Lee. 

sellatus, Lee. 
Ardistomis, Ptitz. 

viridis, Say. 

ASPIDOGLOSSA, Putz. 

subangulata, Lee. 
Clivina, Latr. 

corvina, Putz. 

cordata, Putz. 

ferrea, Lee. 

bipustulata, Fab. 
SCHIZOGENIUS, Putz. 

ferruginea, Putz. 

amphibius, Liald. 



Brachinus, Weber. 

tomentarius, Lee. 

alternans, Dej. 

strenuus, Lee. 

perplexus, Dej. 

americanus, Lee. 

ballistarius, Lee. 

fumans, Fab. 

cordicollis, Dej. 

médius, Lee. 

lateralis, Dej. 

distinguendus, Chaud. 

patruelis, Lee. 

rejectus, Lee. 

pumilo, Lee. 
Panagaeus, Latr. 

fasciatus, Say. 
MoRio, Latr. 

georgiae, Beaur. 
Helluomorpha, Lap. 

laticornis, Dej. 
Galerita, Fab. 

atripes, Lee. 

jamis, Fab. 

lecontei, Dej. 

bicolor, Drury. 
ZuPHiUM, Latr. 

americanum, Dej. 
Casnonia, Latr. 

pennsylvanica, Linn. 
Leptotrachelus, Latr. 

dorsalis, Fabr. 
Plochionus, Dtj. 

bonfilsii, Dej. 
Lkria, Latr. 

grandis, LLentz. 

atriventris. Say. 



134 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Lebia, Latyj: (continued.) 

pumila, Dej. 

furcata, Lee. 

scapularis, Dej. 

vittata, Fab. 

lobulata, Lee. 

pulchella, DeJ. 

bivittata, Fab. 

viridipennis, DeJ. 

marginicollis, DeJ. 

var. affinis, DeJ. 

viridis, Say. 

var. moesta, Lee. 

ornata, Say. 
Tetragonoderus. 

fasciatus, LLald. 
Blechrus, Motsch. 

linearis, Seh. 
AxiNOPALPUS, Lee. 

biplagiatus, DeJ. 
Glycia, Chaud. 

purpurea, Say. 
CvMiNDis, Latr. 

americana, DeJ. 

pilosa, Say. 
Callida, DeJ. 

punctata, Lee. 
Calathus, Bon. 

gregarius, Say. 

opaculus, Lee. 

impunctata, Say. 
Platynus, Bon. 

marginatu?, Chaud. 

pusilius, Lee. 

sinuatus, DeJ. 

extensicoUis, Say. 

decorus. Say. 

cupripennis. Say. 



Platynus, Bon. (contimied.) 

punctiformis, Say. 

limbatus, Say. 

crenistriatus, Lee. 

pectinicornis, Nettnn. 

crenulatus, Lee. 

lutulentus, Lee. 

octopunctatus, Fab. 
Olisthopus, DeJ. 

parraatus, Say. 

micans, Lee. 
Loxandrus, Lee. 

erraticus, DeJ. 

minor, Chaud. 

taeniatus, Lee. 
EvARTHRUS, Lee. 

seximpressus, Lee. 

obsoletus. Say. 

incisus, Lee. 

substriatus, Lee. 

colossus, Lee. 

orbatus, Newm. 

var. sodalis, Lee. 
Pterostichus, Bon. 

chalcites, Say. 

lucublandus, Say. 

var. fraternus, Say. 

var. castanipes, Kirby. 

var. dilatatus, Lee. 

coracinus, Neiutn. 

erythropus, DeJ. 

caudicalis. Say. 

disidiosus, Lee. 

femoral is, Kirby. 

stygicus, Say. 

permundus. Say. 
LoPHOGLOssus, Lee. 

haldemani, Lee. 



(To be CoDtinued.) 



THE CA^^ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 135 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

To the Editor : 

Sir, — Your notice of " The Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural 
Sciences," edited, I believe, by Mr. Grote, reminds me that I have a duty 
to perform. 

Mr. Grote has, I am told, named and described a new Sfs/'a in the 
Bulletin {Sesia marginalis I think is the name.) To this insect Mr. 
Grote has no sort of right of an}^ kind, nor had he any right to name or 
describe it. 

It was, as I am informed, simply sent to him by my friend, Mr. 
Strecker, for the purpose of obtaining his opinion as to whether it vv'as a 
new species or not, and as it was consigned to Mr. Strecker by me for the 
express purpose of having it described and figured in his new work nov/ 
being issued, I must protest against Mr. Grote's action in this matter, 
and trust that Entomologists generally will mark their disapprobation of 
this grab game by ignoring altogether Mr. Grote's very unbecoming action 
in the premises. 

W. V. Andrews. 

P. S. — I shall send the insect to Europe for description, (S:c., with an 
explanation of the circumstances. 
New York, Aug. i, 1873. 

Note by Ed.^ — -We really are unable to sympathize with our corres 
pondent in his grievance. If he has ever done anything in descriptive 
Entomology he must know what an immense amount of labour is often- 
times involved in the effort to ascertain whether a particular insect has 
been described before or not. Unless one is thoroughly conversant, by 
dint of hard study and research, with the group or family to which an 
insect belongs, one must spend hours of work in hunting through, not 
only the descriptions of Anrerican I-<^ntomologists, but also the Erench,, 
German and Latin, as well as English descriptions of European authors. 
After all this has been done and one arrives at the conclusion that the 
insect in question is new to science, it does seem a little hard that the 
labourer should be required to hand over the results to some one else Vv'ho 
has not the ability or the industry to perform the work himself, and to 
allow him to reap all the credit that may be attached to the publication 



136 THE CANADIAN ENTOAIOLOGIST. 

of a new specific name. Surely Mr. Andrews is expecting Mr. Grote to 
do a little too much when he allows him to perform all this labour in 
identifying a particular species of Sesia, and then proposes* that some one 
else should publish the results ! * 

After all, however, it seems to us a very great misfortune that so much 
importance — so much glory, in fact — is supposed to be acquired by a 
naturalist by the mere giving a new name to an insect, and the appending 
of his own to it. Were this kind of renown less sought after— were there 
more generally diffused amongst us a humble desire to benefit science and 
increase the sum of human knowledge — we should not be oppressed with 
such a burden of synonyms as Entomology now groans under — infinite 
labour would be spared to the conscientious student, — dire confusion and 
distraction would not so often await the efforts of the pains taking 
observer. 



E C O N O M I C A L E N T O M O L O G Y. 

BY PROFESSOR BELL, OF BELLEVILLE. 

It is distinctly within my knowledge that many persons who are not 
overburdened with too large a share of worldly wealth, are strongly 
inclined to make the study of Entomology and the collecting of insect 
specimens an employment for their leisure hours, were it not for fear of 
the expense they believe it necessary to incur for cabinet, cork, pins, &c. 
Now, the cabinet and cork may be dispensed with — in fact, I have neither 
the one nor the other myself I keep my collection in boxes, nineteen by 
twenty-four inches, outside size, of three-fourth inch pine board planed 
down to about five-eighth inch, by two and a quarter inches deep ; the 
backs are made of clean basswood planed smooth, and half an inch 
thick, nailed on to the sides. On the upper edge of the two sides and on 
one end I fix a slip of thin pine, so as to leave eighteen and an eighth 
inches clear between the edges, and about one eighth for a groove at the 
bottom. Over each of these I nail firmly a slip of pine a quarter of an 
inch thick and a little wider than the thickness of the sides, so as to 
project over the inside slightly. This forms a groove for a light of glass 
eighteen by twenty-four inches to slide in, and the groove at the bottom 
receives the lower edge. The top is left open and the upper edge of the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 137 

glass projects about a quarter of an inch above the frame, which is con- 
venient for drawing it out by. The inside is then lined out with paper 
such as newspapers are printed on, a stout picture-ring is screwed into the 
side at the top, and the box hangs like a picture against the wall. 

I find that the Basswood, with a little care in putting in the pins, 
answers as well as cork ; but if a softer substance is thought desirable, 
take a Basswood log and cut it into slices, about three-eighths of an inch 
thick, across the grain, making the boxes a quarter of an inch deeper and 
lining the backs with this, previously smoothed with a sharp plane. This 
is an excellent substitute ; in fact I prefer it to cork, as it is free from the 
hard nodules which often have caused me to bend a pin and spoil a 
valuable specimen, and it never corrodes the wire, which the acid 
developed in the cork often does. 

Some of my younger friends have adopted this plan, and look with 
pardonable pride on the adornment of their walls by these cases, which 
they have coloured and varnished, and which they declare are far superior 
to any pictures they could aftbrd to buy. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

PvRRHARCTiA {SpHo&omd) ISABELLA. — Under this heading, in the 
April, '73 No. of the Canadian Entomologist, we have from the pen of 
Mr. Wm. Saunders, a brief history of the habits and metamorphoses of 
this insect. My experience with the larvae of this moth has been that 
some individuals at least are somewhat particular as to their diet, many 
rejecting clover and preferring the early shoots of June grass, others per- 
sistently refusing the latter and greedily devouring the former, others still 
ignoring both in their anxiety for some possibly more palatable article of 
food. Omnivorous they certainly are, but sometimes decidedly finical. 
Mr. S. states that they are ''probably subject to the attacks of ichneu- 
mons." I have this spring bred from cocoons of Pyrrharctia Isabella two 
parasites, which have been kindly identified for me by Prof Riley as 
Ichneumon signatipes, Cresson ; and Trogus obsidianator, BruUe. 



138 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I may add as a noticeable fact that I have this morning pinned a 
brood of Cryptiis ininciiis, Say, bred from cocoon of Platysamia cecroJ>iay 
numbering 21 $ and 19 Ç , neither sex, in this instance at least, being 
reniarkabiy predominant. — O. S. Westcott, Chicago, July 12, 1873. 

Phylloxera. -A very important paper has been printed by Government, 
respecting the FJiylloxera vastatrix, or new Vine Scourge. It commences 
with a letter from Sir C. Murray, H. M. Ambassador at Lisbon, calling 
attention to the ravages of the disease; and stating that the Portuguese 
Government has named a Commission " to examine into the progress of this 
dangerous evil, and to gather from all quarters, whether scientific or 
practical (sic) suggestions for the best mode of extirpating it." A report 
foilov/s from Mr. Crawford, H. M. Consul at Oporto, on the scientific 
aspects of the disease, as well as several others from French a,uthorities, 
including a very important one addressed to the Minister of Agriculture 
and Commerce by the Commission instituted for the study of the new 
disease, M. Dumas, president. The various papers having been referred 
to Dr. Hooker for him to report upon them, he states that the only really 
effectual remedy at present discovered, and this can obviously be only 
very partially applied and not in the best districts, is flooding the vine- 
yards in winter. He adds : " there is reason to believe that on the first 
symptoms of attack in isolated cases, the prompt destruction of the vine, 
its burning on the spot, and the subsequent treatment of the soil v/ith 
some approved insecticide, such as carbolic acid, would be of great 
importance." Vines of American species appear at present to have 
enjoyed immunity from its ravages in the Rhone district, but the disease 
has undoubtedly appeared in this country on vines cultivated under 
glass. — Nature. 

Exchanges. — As I have occupied myself for some time with Ento- 
mology, and have in my collection a good number of duplicates of 
insects in all the orders, I am ready to make exchanges with any of the 
correspondents of the Can. Ent. I am in especial want of Neuroptera. 
As I spend the summer in the collection of insects, I believe that I am 
in a position to make numerous exchanges. — F. X. Bélanger, Natura- 
liste, Université Laval, Quebec. 

Exchanges. — I am much in want of a Canadian correspondent in 
Lepidoptera. I may say that every Canadian insect is a desideratum to 
me, for I have not a series of good specimens of any species. I have 
many, of course, but not a complete series, and there is not a butterfly 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 139 

which I should not be glad of, even to Pieris oleracea, Gnipta f annus, and 
Dauais chrysippus. Thus even the commonest species would be very 
acceptable. My plan is to send a lai-ge box from Liverpool once a year, 
instead of smaller ones, though I occasionally forward lesser ones by 
post. Address : — Dr. Jordan, 35 Harborne Road, Edgbaston, Birming- 
ham, England. [We take this opportunity of thanking Dr. Jordan for 
the little box, containing 46 species of beautiful English Lepidoptera, that 
he so kindly sent us. They came by post, and, thanks to careful packing, 
arrived in excellent order. As soon as we obtain a little leisure we shall 
return the box — not empt}''. — Ed. C. E.] 

Pieris rap^. — This destructive pest of the cabbage and allied plants 
has now come as far west as Port Hope ; it is almost as abundant in our 
garden as the common Collas philodlce. No doubt it will proceed as far 
as Toronto before the close of the season. We have not yet perceived 
any particular depredation from its larvae in the kitchen garden, but we 
fear that we shall not long enjoy this immunity. — C. J. S. B. 

Sembling. — On the 19th of June last a fine female Cecropia Emperor 
moth issued from its cocoon, which had been cut from an apple tree and 
kept in my study for some weeks. Being anxious to try the virtues of the 
process of " sembling," I fastened its wings by an ordinary spring clip 
and exposed it on my verandah for several nights without success ; the 
evenings were fine and cool. On the 28th, the evening being warm and 
misty after a shower, the moth was exposed as usual on an empty flower- 
stand, just outside of an open window ; inside the room on a table a lamp 
was kept burning. About 11 o'clock, p.m., I entered the room and 
observed nothing but a few ordinary Noctuae flying about ; on returning, 
however, an hour later, I was amazed to find four splendid specimens of 
the male Cecropia quietly at rest upon the table and lamp ; a few 
moments after a fifth came in and flew wildly about the room, succeeded 
in a little while by a sixth ! They were all in excellent order and 
evidently fresh from their cocoons. As I had kept the female so long in 
confinement, I determined not to continue the experiment any longer ; I 
accordingly dispatched five of the males with chloroform, while the sixth 
was left with the object of his attraction. The result was a large batch 
of eggs and subsequent larvae. As the female was entirely hidden from 
view underneath the window, and was not found by the males, who entered 
the room to the light instead, flying but a short distance over the fair one 
of whom they were in search, it is evident that they were guided to the 



140 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

spot by the sense of smell and not by sight. The light in the room could 
not have been the primary attraction, as it was so obscured by a trellis 
covered with creepers as to be hidden from view a few yards off. 

Not long after I tried the same experiment with a female Promethea, 
but with no success whatever, though the evenings were often favourable. 
This failure I attributed to the scarcity of its food plants in the immediate 
neighbourhood (its cocoon was brought from a considerable distance),and 
the consequent absence of males within reach of the females' attractive 
powers.— C. J. S. B. 

Noxious Insects. — The Yiç^'s,%\;}Ci\-'ày ( Cecidomyia destructor) has made 
its appearance in the neighbourhood of London, Ont., and has done a 
great deal of injury to the spring wheat. The Colorado beetle {Dory- 
phora decem-lingata) is very abundant throughout Western Ontario, but, 
we are happy to say, is being well kept down by the intelligent farmers of 
that district, who wage an exterminating v.ar upon it with Paris Green. In 
its eastern progress it has nearly traversed the whole Province of Ontario, 
but not yet in sufficient numbers to occasion much diminution of the 
potato crop. To the south-east we learn that it has invaded Maryland 
and Pennsylvania. In the neighbourhood of London and Guelph, Ont., 
we observe, with great regret, that the Locust trees are being rapidly 
destroyed by the ravages of the borer {Arhopaliis robiniœ, Forster). 
Young Apple and Mountain Ash trees are also suffering grievously from 
the attacks of the Buprestis borer [Chrysobotkris femorata, Fabr.) About 
Port Hope, Ont, this summer, the Forest and American Tent caterpillars 
{Clisiocainpa sylvatica and Americana) have been more than usually 
numerous and destructive. — C. J. S. B. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Exchange. — I am desirous to exchange English for Canadian or 
American Lepidoptera. J. C. Wasserman, Beverly Terrace, Cullercoats, 
North Shields, England. 

CoLEOPTERA FOR Sale. — A number of Rocky Mountain Coleoptera 
will soon be for sale in sets by John Akhurst, 19, Prospect Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



VOL. V, 



LONDON, ONT., AUGUST, 1S73. 



No. 8 



ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 



7. THE FALL WEB-WORM— Hyphantria textor, Harris. 



BY THE EDITOR. 



Fig. 16. 



Though extremely abundant and very destructive throughout the 
Tvhole of this Province, and in the neighboring Northern and Middle 

States, this insect (fig. 16) is very 
commonly confounded with the 
equally abundant and noxious 
Tent Caterpillars ( Clisiocajupa 
Americana and Sylvatica^tiaxxis) 
see fig. 17. This confusion 
arises solely from the fact that 
all three species spin large webs 
upon the trees they infest, and 
therefore, Avithout further obser- 
vation, it is taken for granted that they are one and the same. We feel 
no surprise at a mistake being made between the two species of Tent 
Caterpillars, as they closely resemble each other in many respects ; but 
the Fall V/eb-worm differs from both in almost every particular. For 
instance, the former are hatched from the egg-bracelets very early in the 
spring before the apple leaves are fully expanded, and very soon spin in 
the fork of a limb, or upon the side of the trunk, their thick, silvery 
white, cobweb-like ' tent ; ' the latter do not appear till the month of 
August, when they form a loosely-woven, dirty-coloured web over the end 
of a bough. Were the web and the ' tent ' at once upon the same tree 
there would be no difficulty in distinguishing between them, but few bear 




142 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



in mind the differences when the one follows the other. Again, the eggs 
Fig. 17. of the Tent Caterpillar are 

deposited in bracelets of two 
or three hundred on the twigs 
of the trees about midsummer, 
but do not hatch out till the 
following spring ; those of the 
Web-worm are deposited in 
little clusters upon the leaves 
about the middle of June, and 
hatch out early in August. — • 
The Tent Caterpillars, when 
fully grown, are over an inch 
and a half in length, covered 
with sparse hairs, blackish in 
colour, ornamented with blue 
and with either a white stripe 
or a series of white spots along: 
the back ; the Web-v/orra is 
much smaller, more hairy, in 
general colour varying from 
black to blue and greenish and 
with a broad blackish stripe 
along the back. Further, the moths produced from the former belong to- 
the family Bombycidee, and are of a rusty red or pale brownish colour, 
with the fore wings crossed in the one species with two pale lines, in the 
other with two dark ones ; the moths of the latter belong to the family 
Arctiidfe, and are of a pure white colour, free from any markings whatever 
upon the wings.. Lastly, the former pass the winter in the egg ; the latter 
in the pupa state. 

Having now related the principal characteristics that distinguish H. 
textor from our two species of Ciisiocampa, it is unnecessary to give any- 
further description of the insect, any indefiniteness being done away with,, 
we trust, by the illustrations prefixed to this paper. 

The Fall Web-worm feeds upon the leaves of a great many kinds of 
trees, few indeed- — except the evergreens — appearing to come amiss to it. 
It seems to be especially fond of the Wild Cherry, Hickory, Ash, Elm» 
Willow, Apple, Oak, Birch and Button-wood. 




THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 14S 

The best, and indeed the only feasible remedy for the ravages of this 
insect is to cut off and burn, or carefully tread under foot, the whole 
portion of a branch that is covered with the web. As the worms feed 
always beneath their web, and do not wander over the tree like the Tent 
Caterpillars, this method of dealing with them is a sure one. Where it is 
unadvisable to cut off the branch, as may sometimes be the case with 
young or dwarf fruit trees, the insect may be got rid of by simply drawing 
the infested leaves through the hand and crushing the caterpillars upon 
them. 



ON MR. SCUDDER'S SYSTEMATIC REVISION OF SOME 
NEW ENGLAND BUTTERFLIES. 

[3RD PAPER.] 

Continued from Page 63. 

BY A. R. GROTE, CURATOR BUFFALO SOCIETY NATURAL SCIENCES. 

6. Danais, Latr. — It is objected that our species is generally known 
as archippus, to the restitution of the name plexippus, given by Linn, to 
our common species. It is much better to alter a label than to perpetuate 
an error. 

7. Basilarclia, Scudd. — Together with sixty-eight specimens ot 
ariheniis, Mr. Chas. Linden took six proserpina near Buffalo, N. Y. The 
material before me makes me feel sure that Mr. Scudder is wrong in 
referring Edwards' species as a synonym of iirsida. Traces of the white 
band and the general size make me suggest that we have possibly to do 
with a race of ai'theinis. But as yet we must catalogue proserpina as 
distinct. We have a reasonable excuse for preferring tirsida as the trivial 
name for our common species. To this genus we must refer L. weidemey- 
erii. 

8. Dox-ocoPA, Hubn. — It is not disputed, or at least should not be^ 
that we have no true Apatura known from the Atlantic district. 

9. Grapta, Kirby. — The retention of Kirby's term is defensible on 
general grounds. 

10. Nymphalis, Zrt;/r. ii. Papilio, Z/;/;/., restr. ^z/^^/^. — Schrank's 
limitation of the term originally used for all the butterflies by Linn, is 
referred to by Latreille, Insecta Pterodicera, p. 198, where vanessa is 



144 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

considered as the equivalent. I believe that Fabricius' use of the term 
Papilio will not allow us to follow Mr, Scudder's. I remain of the opinion 
that the older writers before Schrank sufficiendy expressed their ideas as 
to the typical section of the genus, and that the term should be used for a 
genus of which the European P. machaon is the type. As we cannot use 
Ezigonia, Hubn., of which angelica, Cramer, is the type, I propose the term 
Scudderia for the Pap. antiopa of Linnaeus. 

12. Ag-lais, Dahn. — This I think we may adopt without hesitation 
and be thankful for the pretty name. 

13. Vanessa, J^âî^r. 14. Junonia, ^^//Z'v?. 15. 'E.v-ptoikyk, Doubl. — 
The values of these terms have not been altered. The seven genera 
among which our frittillaries are divided^ I think we must agree are 
tenable. To Euphydryas I refer Melitœa chalcedon, Boisd., from Cali- 
fornia. 

23. LiBYTHEA, Fabr. — We are unfeignediy glad Kirtland's term is 
retained and that we are not to be vexed by another of Boisduval and 
Leconte^s unfulfilled intentions. 

24. Calephelis, G. & R. — Mr. Scudder uses erroneously Poly- 
stichtis. In the Verzeichniss, Hubner identifies with an exclamation mark 
Papilio fatima, Cram., 271, A. B., and regards this as the type of 
Polystichtis. It is from Surinam. Our two species from the Atlantic 
District are generically distinct from the S. American forms. Hubner 
considers that "Pap. cereus" of Linn, is this species of Cramer's, and 
prefers that name, but this identification may not be correct. Retain 
Polystichtis for the S. American forms, but there is no excuse for stating 
that " Papilio cœnins " is the " type " of Polystichtis. We were familiar 
with Hubner some time ago. We doubt that Linnaeus intended our JV. 
pumila under his '■^cereus" " cerea" or "cœnins." We propose to 
designate our two species as Cal. pumila and C. borealis. 

So far as we have proceeded some few generic changes seem impos- 
sible to be avoided. Many of Hubner's genera are excellently well 
limited (e. g. Nisoniades), even according to our present views. Perhaps 
it is not hazarding too much to say that his genera are not in the present 
state of science, more incongruous than those of any one author of or 
before his time. It is difficult to say on what plea we shall ignore him. 
The prejudice has been strong that has hitherto neglected him. 

As we must adopt Oeneis, Hubner, we propose the term Callœneis as 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



145 



a substitute for Mulsant's synchronic term. C. pusilla is from Nebraska. 

Hubner's subsequent use of the term Eugonia in the Phalaenidse 
cannot be defended. I propose the term Eriplatynietra for our E. 
coloradaria and the European E. angidaria. 



LIST OF COLEOPTERA OF ST. LOUIS COUNTY, MISSOURI. 

BY S. V. SUMMERS, M. D., NEW ORLEANS, LA. 
(Continued from Page 134.) 

CARABID^. 



LoPHOGLOSSUS, Lec. (coniimied.) 

strenuus, Lec. 

scrutator, Lec. 
Am ARA, Bon. 

avida, Say. 

lacustris, Lec. 

angustata, Say. 

impuncticoUis, Say. 

fallax, Lec. 

obesa, Say. 

muscuius, Lec. 

chalcea, Dej. 
Badister, Clair. 

notatus, Llald. 

pulchelkis, Lec. 

ferrugineus, Dej. 
DiPLOCHILA, Brti. 

laticoUis, Lec. 

major, Lec. 

impressicoUis, Dej. 

obtusus, Lec. 
Dic^LUs, Boti. 

dilatatus, Say. 

splendidus, Say. 



purpuratus, Bon. 

sculp tiUs, Say. 

ovaHs, Lec. 

simplex, Dej. 

elongatus, Dej. 
Anomoglossus, Chaud. 

emarginatus, Say. 

pusillus, Say. 
Chl^nius, Bon. 

aestivus, Say. 

erythropus, Germ. 

fuscicornis, Dej. 

laticollis, Say. 

rufipes, Dej. 

sericeus, Fors. 

prasinus, Dej. 

chlorophanus, Dej. 

cordicollis, Kh'by. 

nemoralis, Say. 

pensylvanicus, Say. 

tricolor, Dej. 

brevilabris, Lec. 

impunctifrons, Say. 

niger, Ra?id. 



146 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



tomentosus, Say. 

viduus, Hor?i. 

lithophilus, Say. 
Atranus, Lee. 

pubescens, Dej. 
Anatrichis, Lee. 

minuta, Dej. 
OoDES, Bon. 

fluvialis, Lee. 

americanus, Dej. 

amaroides, Dej. 

cuprEeus, Chaud. 
Geopinus, Lee. 

incrassatus, Dej. 
Cratacanthus, Dej. 

dubius, Beam'. 
Agonoderus, Dej. 

lineola, Dej. 

comma, Lee. 

pallipes, Fabr. 

partarius, Chaud. 
DiscoDERUs, Lee. 

parallelus, Bald. 
Anisodactylus, Dej. 

rusticus, Dej. 

carbonarius, Say. 

harrisii, Lee. 

raelanopus, Hald. 

nigrita, Dej. 

discoideus Bej. 

baltimorensis, Say. 

laetus, Dej. 

coenus, Say. 

sericeus, LLarris. 
Xestonotus, Lee. 

lugubris, Dej. 
Spongopus, Lee. 

verticalis, Lee. 



Amphasia, Newm. 

interstitialis, Say. 
EuRYTRiCHUs, Lec. 

piceus, Lec. 

terminatus, Say. 
Gynandropus, Dej. 

hylacis, Say. 
Bradycellus, Er. 

vulpeculus, Say. 

badiipennis, LTald. 

rupestris, Say. 

tantellus, Chaud. 

Harpalus, Latr. 

gagatinus, Dej. 

dedicularius, Dej. 

caliginosus, Fab. 

testaceus, Lee. 

erraticus, Say. 

viridiaeneus, Beaur. 

faunus, Say. 

pensylvanicus. De Geer. 

compar, Lec. 

erydiropus, Dej. 

pleuriticus, Kirby. 

herbivagus, Say. 

nitidulus, Chaud. 

rufimanus, Lec. 

vagans, Lec. 
Stenolophus, Dej 

carbonarius. Bru. 

fuliginosus, Dej. 

conjunctus, Say. 

ochropezus, Say. 

dissimilis, Dej. 
Patrobus, Dej. 

longicornis, Say. 

Bembidium, Er. 

paludosum, St. 



THE CANADIAN 


ENTOMOLOGIST. 


147 


inaequale, Say. 




lEevigatum, Say. 




coxendix, Say. 




Tachys, Zlegl. 




nitidulum, DeJ. 




proximus, Say. 




nitidum, Kirby. 




scitulus, Lee. 




americanum, Dej. 




corruscus, Lee. 




fugax, Lee. 




Isevus, Say. 




cordatum, Lee. 




nanus, Gyll. 




dorsale, Say. 




flavicauda. Say. 




patruele, Dej. 




cap ax, Lee. 




pictum, Lee. 




xanthopus, Dej. 




affine, Say. 




incurvus. Say. 




texanum. 




pulchellus, Ferte. 




frontalis, Lee. 




dolosLis, Lee. 




4-maculamm, Lin7i. 




Pericompsus, Lee. 




pedicellatum, Lee. 




ephippiatus. Say. 






(To be Continued.) 





MICRO - LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY V. T. CHAMBERS, COVINGTON, KENTUCKY. 

Continued from Page 128. 

CLYMENE and CYLLENE. 

C. aegerfaseiella, ante p. 114, and C. inimUisimella, ante p. 12^. 

When the generic and specific characters of these insects were written 

more than a year ago — I placed them, with much doubt, among the 

Micro-Lepidoptera. Subsequent examination has only served to increase 
those doubts, or rather, has convinced me that they are allied to the 
ILydraptilidœ, and are Trichopterous, if LLydroptila is Trichopterous. At 
the same time, it was partly because I was unable satisfactorily to place 
them in LLydroptila, or any allied genus heretofore described, that I was 
induced to place them among Micro-Lepidoptera. These minute species 
of supposed Trichopterous affinities are so little known ; the charajcters 
of families, genera, and species are so vague ; and so much confusion 
prevails about them, that I take the liberty of suggesting that the LLydrop- 
tilidcB are more Lepidopterous than Trichopterous or Neuropterous — at 



148 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

least if these two species are true Hydroptiïidœ. I am, however, no- 
Trichopterist, and am not competent to decide the question. It seems 
to me, however, from an examination of such specimens as, I have seen, 
and from such study as I have been able to give to Trichoptera, that they 
are more nearly allied, for instance, to Tinea than to Phryganea, that they 
do not differ from other Tineina more than other genera of that family 
differ from each other, and that they differ from other Trichoptera fully as 
much as they do from any Tineina. I speak only of the imago — for the 
larvae of Clyniene and Cyllenc are unknown — Trichoptera, and especially 
Hydroptila^ seems to me a very heterogeneous assembl?.ge. 

Referring the reader to the published accounts of Clyniene and 
Cylle^ie on previous pages of this volume, I add the following notes as • 
bearing on their Trichopterous affinities. : — 

The most striking character of both species, and that v/hich first 
suggested doubts of their Lepidopterous affinities, is the clothing. Both 
are clothed with short stiff or scale-like hairs, instead of true scales, of 
which I have not been able to denude the wings except by boiling in 
potash. Many of these hairs are reversed, looking as if brushed back-- 
wards ; and, in Clyniene especially, the Patagia are comparatively naked 
and are clothed with rather long stiff hairs or bristles. I have found both, 
species in the same localities in company with each other and with 
Gelechia, Lithocolletis and other true Lepidoptera, resting upon fences and 
trunks of trees, in the dryest situations to be found in this well watered 
region. Of Cy/Z?/^^ I have dissected both ^ and % ; of Clyniene oxAy 
the % . In both the antennae are moniliform. 

Cyllene. — Anterior tibia spurless ; intermediate ones with two apical 
spurs, one of which is small ; posterior v/ith one long median spur, and^ 
two short apical ones, one of v\'hich is very short. Basal joint of the 
antennte small ; ocelli none; maxillary palpi 3 (or 4 ?) jointed (if four 
the basal one is very minute and indistinct), the last joint being slender 
and longer than either of the others. I was not able to detect the 
presence of labial palpi, even when the head Vv'as severed carefully from 
the body and boiled over the lamp on a glass slip under the thin glass 
cover. Anterior wings pointed ; posterior wings with the costa excised, 
from before the middle to the tip ; cilia long. 

Clyniene. — Basal joint of the antennœ swollen ; ocelli none. In the 
diagnosis, ante p. 114, I have stated that there is no tongue. This is 
scarcely correct ; there is a minute, conical, fleshy protuberance which L 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 149^ 

think is a rudimentary tongue, and on each side of it a smaller and more 
cornéus projection, which I take to be the representatives of the maxillse. 
Maxillary palpi three-jointed, the joints simple and of nearly equal 
length ; labial palpi small, simple, one (or two?) jointed (if two the basal 
one is minute and indistinct.) Anterior tibia without spurs ; interm.ediate- 
tibia with one short median, and one short and one long apical spur ; 
posterior tibia with two median spurs, one of them small, and two rather 
long apical spurs. 

The cilise, especially of the hind wings, are very long in both insects. 
The neuration is obsolete in Cyllene; in Clymene it resembles closely that 
of Hydroptila tineoides Dalman, as figured by McLachlan in Trans. Eut. 
Soc. Lo?id., Ser. j, v. j", plate ^, fig. y. Indeed that of the forewings is 
almost identical, whilst the hind wings differ somewhat both in shape and 
neuration. 

The specific description of C. aegei'fasciella should be corrected by 
adding the statement that the hairs around the mouth are dark brown. 

By comparing the above account of these insects with McTyachlan's 
account of the family Hydroptilida and its two genera, Agraylea and- 
Hydroptila, loc. cit., the differences to which I have alluded will be 
observed. 

BUCCULATRIX. 

This- genus is usually associated with LithocoUctis and allied genera; 
but the fact that it is an external feeder, except for a very brief period ; 
the absence of palpi and tongue, and the different neuration of the wings 
seem to me to remove it from that association. 

In addition to the points of structure just mentioned, a Bucculatrix 
has the basal joint of the antennae expanded, forming an eye-cap which 
almost conceals the eyes. The face is smooth and there is an. erect tuft 
upon the vertex, and the antennae are nearly as long as the wmgs. 

A — Species having a brownish spot on the dorsal margin of the 
anterior wings. 

* Havmg an apical spot. 

I. B. trifasciella, Clemens. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., i86_^, p. 147. 
Unknov/n to me except by Dr. Clemens' description. Wings ochreous 
with three silvery costal streaks. 



150 THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. 

2. B. capitealhella. N. s_p. 

Face and tuft snowy white ; antennae silvery white ; anterior wings 
snowy white, with a few scattered ochreous brown scales about the 
middle of the basal half Just before the middle is a pale yellowish 
costal streak passing obliquely backwards to the middle of the wing and 
widest on the costa, where it is dusted with brown. A similar but less 
■oblique streak just behind the middle. On the dorsal margin, opposite 
the space between these streaks, is a rather large yellowish spot internally 
margined by a small raised patch of dark brown scales. On the base of 
the costal ciliae is a patch of pale yellowish dusted with brownish ; a 
streak of the same hue around the base of the dorsal ciliae, containing a 
minute brown spot at the beginning of the ciliae and another at the apex 
of the wing. Ciliae white, flecked with brownish at the extreme tip. 

Alar ex. a little over ^ inch. A single specimen taken in Kentucky. 
Larva and food plant unknown. 

J. B. pomifolidla, Clem. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci„ Phila., i860, p. 
211. 

This is our commonest species. It feeds on the leaves of Apple 
trees. Wings whitish dusted with brown. A brownish costal streak 
widest on the costa passes obliquely across the wing to the dorsal ciliae. 

* * No apical spot. 

4. B. obscurafascielia, N. sp. 

Face yellowish white ; tuft reddish orange, becoming almost rufous on 
top ; antennae yellowish silvery, dotted with brown above ; anterior wings 
pale golden at the base, deepening towards the apex, with two tolerably 
distinct but not well defined costal white spots or streaks before the 
middle, the first continuing as a very indistinct band obliquely across the 
■wing and slightly angulated posteriorly near the dorsal margin, where it is 
bounded behind by a distinct dark brown spot containing raised scale» 
-At near the apical third is an indistinct whitish fascia with a ïçw dark 
brown scales before it on and near the costa. Ciliae pale stramineous. 
Apex and ciliae sparsely flecked with pale fuscous. A dark brown hinder 
marginal line in the ciliae. Under surface and legs yellowish silvery with 
the anterior surface of the tarsi annulate with fuscous. Alar ex. about ^ 
inch. Larva and food plant unknown. Captured May 23rd. 



THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. 151 

Dr. Clemens' description of his B. coronatella seems to resemble this 
insect, except that he does not mention the dorsal spot and the ist fascia 
is represented in that species by a costal and opposite dorsal spots. 

5. B. luteella. N. sp. 

Face, tuft and antennae white ; thorax and anterior mngs pale creamy 
Tvhite suffused with pale orange, which in some places is condensed into 
blotches or bands ; sparsely dusted with pale fuscous, and with a very 
small patch of raised scales about the middle of the inner margin of the 
anterior wings. Ciliae stramineous. Alar ex. ]^ inch. Kentucky. 
Larva and food plant unknown. Captured in March. 

6. B. agnella. Clem., loc. cit. 

Wings whitish, washed with luteous brown, especially towards the tip. 
Costa dark fuscous from the base, giving ofif about the middle a short 
fuscous streak. Imago in May. Unknown to me except by Dr. 
Clemens' description. 

B — No dorsal spot. 

7. B. Packardella. N. sp. 

Face and eye-caps white, lower portion of the face tinged with pale 
golden, sparsely flecked with pale brownish. Tuft white below, tipped 
above with yellowish and brownish. Antennae pale yellowish, dotted 
with brown. Thorax white, well dusted with brown, and with a small 
brow7i spot oil each side luar the apex. Wings, basal half white flecked 
with brown, faintly streaked with orange chrome upon the fold, and with 
a narrow line of the same along the costal margin flecked with brownish 
and widening towards the middle, whence it spreads over the apical half 
of the wing, which is a decided orange chrome, with a short, faint, narrow 
curved white streak running through it from the middle of the wing to the 
base of the dorsal ciliae, and a small oblique white streak about the 
middle of the apical portion of the wing, which is dusted with brownish 
along the costa, and in the ciliae forming an approach to two hinder 
marginal lines in the ciliae, which are yellowish stramineous. Alar ex. y^ 
inch. Larva and food plant unknown. Taken in April. 

8. B. coronatella, Clem. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., i860, p. 13. 
Unknown to me except from the description of Dr. Clemens. See 

B. obsmro-fasciella, ante. 



152 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Ç. B. Thiiellal Packard. 

Unknown to me except from the figure in the " American Naturalist,"' 
V. 5, p. 427, which does not indicate a dorsal nor an apical spot, though 
Dr. Packard says that it resembles B. poviifoliella. I place it doubtfully- 
in this section. 

These, I believe, are the only described American species. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

MoNTRRAL, July 14TH, 1873. 
Dear Sir, — 

I should like to be informed how to distinguish the sexes of moths 
and butterflies when there is no dissimilarity in the markings of the 
wings, &c. ; also, how to distinguish A. cybele from A. aphrodite, and also 
to recognize A. atlmitis and A. montinus, as in Harris they are not 
described at all, and Packard only mentions their names. I should also 
like to know how to preserve spiders and bugs, &c., in the best way. 

Yours, &c., 

H. H. L., Montreal, P. Q. 

In the larger moths the sexes may be distinguished frequently by the 
structure of the antennae, they being more widely pectinate in the male 
than in the female. Where no distinguishing features of this kind present 
themselves, the relative size of the bodies will enable one to decide this 
matter, the bodies of the females being usually distended with eggs. A 
more accurate method would be to examine the character of the generative 
organs, for the structure of which we would refer our correspondent to 
Packard's Guide, p. 16, 170, 237. 

In answer to the queries relating to cybele, apJwodite and atlaiiiis, we 
quote the following from that excellent work of Mr. W. H. Edwards' : 
" The Butterflies of North America" : — 

" Cybele is the larger, and the difference in color between the sexes is- 
much less than in Aphrodite. In the latter the male is much smaller in 
proportion to the female, is brighter colored than Cybele, and has ver^ 
little brown at base of wings. The black markings are noticeably more 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 153 



•delicate, the marginal lines on primaries nearer together, more or less 
excluding the fulvous spots which, in Cybele, are distinct along the whole 
margin. The margin of secondaries also has an edge line like the 
primaries ; the median band is formed of small crescents, separated by- 
wide spaces and obsolete on costal margin ; and there is no black space 
between the costal and subcostal as in Cybele. On the under side the 
silver marginal and costal spots are decided, while in Cybele they are 
usually wanting, or indicated by a few scales only ; the basal color of 
secondaries is cinnamon-brown, and the band is more or less encroached 
on by the ground color ; the pyrifomi- spot of third row is cut by the arc 
as in Cybele, but the smaller spot thus made is edged above with black 
and is in effect a distinct spot. Comparing the females, Cybele is luteous, 
very dark at base, heavily marked with black. Aphrodite is suffused with 
a rich red tint that seems as if in the very texture of the wing, and that 
makes living specimens conspicuous ; the under side of primaries is red 
fulvous, of secondaries deep ferruginous, and the band is almost wholly 
crowded out." 

" Atlantis is readily distinguished from Aphrodite by its smaller size, 
duller color, broad black margins, confluent median band of secondaries 
and color of same wings below ; also by the longer and narrower fore 
wings." 

Spiders may be preserved in diluted alcohol in bottles. Bugs (Hemip- 
Jera) are pinned in the usual way. 



We received from our esteemed correspondent, V/. H. Edwards, Esq., 
a few days since, a letter in v/hich he informed us that he had received 
from Labrador, from Mr. Wm. Couper, specimens of a Papilio which has 
■already been several times referred to in our journal. With the writer's 
consent we have much pleasure in inserting the following note, which has 
just come to hand. — Ed. C. E. 

COALBURGH, W. Va., 24TH AUG., 1873. 

Dear Sir, — 

I have taken the Papilio's from Anticosti from drying blocks, and have 
-compared with all the allied species that I had with me ; also, have com- 
pared with the description of Brevicauda, Saunders, and I have no doubt 
that the species is a good one and its name is Brevicauda. It is allied to 
Zolicaon and Machaon. 



154 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

But the above is seen to differ in this, that the hind wings are black 
from base to yellow band beyond the cell, while in all the others named 
the color of that section of the wing is yellow. Also, the body is black 
spotted with yellov/, in longitudinal lines, as in Asterias, while in the 
before named species the wings are black with yellow stripes, not spots- 
There are other differences, but these are enough to mention. 

The yellow spots of Brevicauda are replaced with fulvous to a. 
remarkable extent, but that peculiarity is not unusual in the group, nor in 
the Asterias group. These specimens from Anticosti differ greatly in this 
respect, though in all I have seen the fulvous is confined to the lower side. 
They also differ in length of tail, though the longest is short compared- 
with the average Asterias. Yours truly, 

W. H. Edwards. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Tent Caterpillars (Clisioeajnpa). — These pests were very numerous- 
here this season, swarming on the trees of both orchard and forest. I 
observed one Thorn tree on Montreal Mountain that had been completely 
stripped of its leaves by them, leaving nothing but a few old webs that 
one might fancy were banners left to mark the path of a victorious army. 
A little farther on I found another horde encamped upon two Thorn trees 
that were growing one on each side of a large rock ; not finding the 
leaves of the tree on which their parent had 'placed them to their taste, 
they made a path across the rock to the tree at the other side, and upon 
which they climbed by two or three leaves that rested against the edge of 
the rock. Now, if it had not been for the leaves touching the rock the 
caterpillars would have had to crawl down one tree and up the other 
whenever they needed food, and their instinct seemed to have taught them 
so, for although the whole nestful of hungT}^ caterpillars crossed the leaves 
every time they went to feed, not one of them attempted to eat their 
bridge, but passed farther on before commencing their meal. In former 
seasons any of these caterpillars that I observed spinning up, chose the 
shelter of a fence or crevices in bark or some such place to make their 
cocoons in, but this season I found them rolling up leaves and making 
their cocoons inside them, and in some cases I found two cocoons in the 
same leaf I found them spun up in almost every kind of leaf. Linden^. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 155 

Oak, Maple, Butternut, Thorn, Sweet Briar, Asclepias, Fern, &c. On 
Asclepias and Fern they only rolled one edge of the leaf, and sometimes^ 
spun up on the leaf exposed without any covering. I also found several 
spun between stalks of grass, indeed they selected some most extraordinary 
places, for a friend of mine showed me one in a bird's nest. The nest 
was built in a Fir tree and contained four eggs, over which the cocoon 
was spun and attached firmly to the sides of the nest ; it would not have 
been so strange if the nest had been on any of its food plants and built 
low down, but this was on a Fir tree and a good highth from the ground. 
I suppose it may be set down as one of the freaks of Nature. I selected 
cocoons from leaves of various trees and plants, and all of them proved 
to be Clisiocivnpa sylvatica, Harris. 

Rare Captures. — Dehis porlandia. — I found a locality for this butterfly 
in a sunny opening in a wood at Lachine, nine miles west of this city. 

Erebus odora, Cram. — -I received a specimen of this splendid moth, 
taken in this city in July of this year. It was attracted into a room by 
light. I believe this is the farthest north that it has been taken. Both 
these species were kindly determined for me by Mr. Herman Strecker, of 
Reading, Pa. — Frank B. Caulfield, Montreal, P. Q. 

Reduvius raptatorius. — One night at the end of April I caught one 
of these swift-footed insects, and while holding it between my finger and 
thumb it managed to insert its proboscis into the latter member and gave 
me, much to my surprise and disgust, a most savage sting, 'ihe pain was 
very great — much more than that caused by a mosquito, and it continued 
for a.boutfive days, although the thumb did not swell. I put the R. R. 
into a jar of water in which, fora fortnight, I had been keeping a large 
water-beetle (Dytiscus), feeding it with flies, ectobias and other insects ; . 
but this Hemiptera was too much for the poor beetle. It refused to be 
quietly killed and eaten, but instead, pierced the hard shell which in the 
morning was floating dead upon the water, while the victor still lived. 
The mode of the beetles's attacking its prey was very interesting; it 
would make a sudden dash, seize the quarry with its strong mandibles, 
then dive down and swim about beneath the surface as if to drown its 
victim ; then after a time it would rise to the top and there quietly crunch 
up its foodjdiscarding the wings as too dry eating.-R. V.RoGERS,Kingston. 

Venemous Caterpillars.— Mr. R. Benson, of Madras, India, gives 
the following account, in a recent number of Nature, of pain inflicted by 
a caterpillar : — " In 1868, when travelling in company with Capt. Street in 



156 THE CAN^ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the Burmese forests on a botanical trip, and whilst in the act of detatching 
.a specimen plant of Bendrohium far?nerii from the naked branch of a 
tree, I felt a severe and painful sting on my thumb. On examination I 
noticed I had seized hold of a large caterpillar, lodged amongst the roots 
of this orchid. It was about two inches long, clothed with erect hairs ; its 
•colour was a reddish brown, the lower part of the abdomen being darker, 
with well-developed legs. My thumb continued painful for three days ; it 
was considerably swollen, the skin having a drawn glazed appearance. 
The Burmese told me that this kind of caterpillar was exceedingly 
venemous, and one fellow was particularly consoling by informing me that 
unless the pain subsided in three days the sting might prove fatal. I am 
inclined to think that the caterpillar for self-protection has the power of 
detaching these hairs ; whether any propelling force is present at the time 
of detachment it would be difficult to prove. I found steeping my hand 
in Eau de Cologne gave me the greatest relief." 

Mr. Albert Mitller communicated the following notes at a meeting 
of the Ent. Soc. of London, England : — 

1. Arœocerus coffeœ. at Basle. — "On the 29th of September, 1862, 
•while attentively watching the unpacking of some freshly-imported bags 
-of Java coffee, in a warehouse at Basle, a very lively specimen of this 
beetle came tumbling out of one of the bags. I secured it and kept it 
alive for some days. In a letter dated the 14th of March, 1873, which I 
have just received from my lynx-eyed friend Herr H. Knecht, of the 
•same city, he tells me that he can now get this species in any quantity at 
Basle. It is well known that this species of Anthribidœ feeds in the larval 
•state on raw coffee-berries ; hence its introduction and capture in com- 
mercial emporia on the coasts of different continents need cause little 
■surprise; but the two facts here recorded illustrate once more the 
indubitable axiom that insects living on merchandise are spread chiefly 
along the main trade-route, and become acclimatised along their whole 
course, Basle being one of the chief markets where Central Europe stores 
and disposes of the purchases derived from Mediterranean and Atlantic 
ports." 

2. TrihoUum ferriigineiwi in Ground-nuts. — "In the summer of 1863 
a cargo of ground-nuts (Arachis hypogœa) arrived in the port of London 
direct from Sierra Leone. On arrival the usual samples were drawn, when 
it turned out that the husks were riddled by countless holes, while the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOÎ^IOLOGIST. 157 

kernels were half eaten up by myriads of larvae and imagines of Tribolium 
ferrugineum. So completely had they done their noisome work that in 
the nmnerous samples examined scarcely an intact kernel could be found. 
If a nut was opened the whole interior was often found to be converted 
into a living conglomerate of larvae, pupae and imagines of Tribolium 
accompanied by the larvae and perfect insects of a Rhizophagus preying 
on the former, the whole mass being wrapped up in a layer of cast-skins 
and excrement. As no purchaser could be found, owing to the deplor- 
able state of the cargo, the work of destruction continued through the 
months of August, September and October, the owners being unwillingto 
take a considerably lower price than had been calculated upon. A fresh 
proof how the marketable value of an article can become reduced through 
delay and ignorance on the part of its owner." — The Zoologist. 

The Waxy Exudation of Homoptera. — An exudation, corres- 
ponding to that which is characteristic of Aphis Fagi, is common to all 
the several thousand species of Homopterous insects, and appears more 
or less, and in various forms, throughout the tribes, from the singing 
Cicada to the stationary Coccus, and often serves as a defence. In Cicada 
it is slight and powdery ; in some of the tribe, of which the lantern-flies 
are the most conspicuous representatives, it is excessive, and forms waxy 
filaments which surpass the body in length. It hardly appears as an 
emanation from the frog-hoppers ; but in the next family, or Psyllidse, it 
may be often witnessed in gardens by the multitude of white flecks which 
proceed from Psylla Buxi on the box-trees, and fall in shov/ers when the 
branches are shaken. Next come the Aphides, of which the types are 
distinguished by two pipes, v/hence the streams of honey flow. The 
beech Aphis, or A. Fagi, is less typical and less multiplying than many 
others, and is more sheltered than them from the oviposition of Aphidius 
by the fleecy or gummy substance which it emits. The American blight, 
which belongs to this family, is defended by the abundance of its cottony 
covering. The wax-insect, or Coccus of China, has been mentioned in 
several books, and a Coccus in Arabia produces a substance which is 
called manna, and is supposed by some persons to be identical with the 
manna in the wilderness. — Francis Walker-, in Neiuman's Entofnologist. 

The Colorado Potato Beetle Varying its Food. — A generally 
received opinion in regard to the Colorado Potato Beetle, Doryphora 
lo-lineata (Say), is that its food is confined to plants of the family 
Solanacece. I have found it this season (June 19, 1872) at Port Austin, 



158 THE CANADIAÎ^ ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Michigan, sparingly feeding on grass, on which it had also deposited its 
eggs. Later in the season (July 20), at Fort Gratiot, Michigan, I 
encountered it in large numbers, in both the larva and perfect states, in 
the vicinity of potato fields (where it had committed terrible depreda- 
tions), devouring the younger leaves and flower buds of the common 
thistle (Cirsium lanceolatum, Scop.), which it was rapidly stripping even 
to its thick stem so that the entire top of the plant hung down, almost 
severed. In the same neighborhood I also saw it on pigweed (Amarantus 
retrqflexus L.), hedge iTiustard ( Sisymbriu?n officinale Scop.), the cultivated 
oat, smart-weed (Polygonum hydropiper L.), and the red currant and 
tomato of the gardens, as well as the common night-shade (Solanum 
nigrum L.), the last two its more legitimate food. But of the last 
mentioned plants, with the exception of the night-shade, it ate only the 
young leaves, and of them very sparingly. The thistle it seemed par- 
ticularly to relish. Could its attention be diverted from the potato to the 
Canada thistle it would encounter an object worthy of its prowess ; and 
the curses which have been heaped upon its striped back would be turned 
to blessings. But, I fear, little good can be hoped from the capacity, thus 
evinced, to diversify its food, and so accommodate itself to circumstances. 
This can only be regarded as another obstacle in the way of its 
extermination. 

Smce writmg the above I have found the beetle feeding on the maple- 
leaved goosefoot ( CJie?iopodiiim hybridum L.), lamb's quarters ( C. album 
L.), and thoroughwort ( Eupatorium perfoliatum L.) ; and August 8, 1872, 
I saw it in the larva and perfect states, voraciously eating the black 
henbane ( Hyosciamus niger L.), on which was also to be seen an abun- 
dance of the eggs. — Henry Gillman, Detroit, Michigan, September, 
1872, in Amcricafi Naturalist. 

The Ant-lion. — While in the Indian Ladder Region, Albany Co., 
N. Y., in August, 1871, 1 found a large colony of ant-lions. It is situated 
near the head of the " Ladder Road," at the base of the cliffs and 
extends for several rods along the path to the " Tory House." The cliffs 
here hang over the paths, so that it is almost impossible for rain to reach 
the spot. The soil is composed of disintegrated limestone, extremely 
fine, but mingled with minute fragments of stone as well as larger 
pebbles. 

In Aug., 1 87 1, the colony numbered rather more than 600 individuals, 
but on July 6, 1872, there were scarcely half that number. Perhaps at 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 159 

this last date some were in the chrysaHs, as of several specimens thus 
obtained most of them entered that state in a short time, while those 
taken in August remained until the following spring. 

Food was very scarce in this colony, as it was rare to see more than 
four or five victims in the lions' dens at one time. On several occasions I 
noticed a strong and active insect, having ventured over the edge of the 
pit, run swiftly down and up the other side, leaving the ant-lion wildly 
snapping its jaws, as the intended victim mounted the steep side of the 
pitfall. 

The ant-lion does not, as far as my observation goes, throw up sand to 
iDring down its prey, but throws it up in every direction in order to keep 
its jaws free to seize the insect when it reaches the bottom of the den. 

In 187 1 there was another colony (which I did not visit in 1872) near 
the *•' Paint Mine." It consisted of some 300 members. I call it a 
colony, although, of course, there was no friendly intercourse between the 
inhabitants of the settlement. On the other hand, in the most crowded 
portions, the chief employment of the insects was to throw out the dirt 
which their active neighbors were depositing on their own premises. — E. 
A. BiRGE, Williams College, in Ameriean Natwalisi. 

Destruction of Dragon-flies by Birds.— Mr. Gould, in a com- 
munication to the Entomological Society of London, says, " I believe 
that the larger dragon-flies are very liable to the attacks of birds, and 
have no doubt that the hobby and kestrel occasionally feed upon them ; 
with regard to the small blue-bodied species (Agrionidse) frequenting the 
sedgy bank of the Thames, I have seen smaller birds, sparrows, etc., 
capture and eat them before my eyes, after having carefully nipped off the 
wings, which are not swallowed. This must take place to a considerable 
extent, as I have observed the tow-path strewn with the rejected wings." — 
This has been observed by Mr. J. L. Hersey of New Hampshire (see the 
following note) : — Eds. 

Bees and King-birds. — For the last ten years I have carefully noted 
the habits and movements of the king-birds, and have come to the follow- 
ing conclusion, viz. : that they do eat the honey bee, and so does the 
purple martin ; but instead of being destroyed for it, they should be 
protected and allowed to build their nests near the farm-house, because 
they drive off the hawks, crows and other plundering birds from the 



160 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

poultry yard. Warm afternoons in July and August, when the drone bees 
are out, we have seen the martins come down within ten feet of the hive 
and snap up the drone bees, thus relieving the workers from the necessity 
of expelling them from the hive and biting off their wings to prevent them 
from getting back to the hive. The king-bird also, we find, selects the 
drone, and will come afternoons and take his position on a stake in front 
of the hive, and when a drone bee comes along will make a rush for him, 
come back to the stake, give him a pick or tv.-'o and swallow him. But 
says an objector, "What do they subsist on before the drone bees fly 
out ? " This point I settled by shooting one in the month of May, and 
I found in his crop the wings and legs of May-bugs. By watching their 
movements, I find the dragon-fly is also a favorite food for them. — J. L. 
Hersey, A?nerican Bee Journal. 

Agricultural Ants. — Mr. Moggridge has observed at Menton, 
France, two species of ants {Aphenogaster) carrying into their nests, during 
the winter months, the seeds of certain late fruiting plants. He has traced 
their burrows to a spherical chamber filled with the seed of a grass which 
he had seen the ants in the act of transporting. " Outside the channels 
there Vv^as generally a heap of the husks of the various seeds, and some- 
times one of those heaps vvould fill a quart measure. These husks had 
had their fiirinaceous contents extracted through a hole in one side. He 
purposely strewed near the nests large quantities of millet and hemp 
seeds. After the lapse of a fortnight many of these seeds, previously 
conveyed into the nests, had been brought out again, they having evidently 
commenced to germinate, and he then found that the radicle was gnawed 
off from e3,ch seed, so as to prevent further growth, and, this being 
effected, the seeds were carried back again. The cotyledons of germinated 
seeds were removed from the nest." — Trans. Entomological Society of 
London, i8yi. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Exchange. — I am desirous to exchange English for Canadian or 
American Lepidoptera. J. C. Wasserman, Beverly Terrace, Cullercoats,, 
North Shields, England. 

CoLEOPTERA FOR Sale. — A number of Rocky Mountain Coleoptera. 
will soon be for sale in sets by John Akhurst, 19, Prospect Street,. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



VOL. V. 



LONDON, ONT., SEPTEMBER, 1873. 



No. 



ON THE GENUS CATOCALA. 



BY -AUG. R. GROTE., BUFFALO, N. Y. 



Catocala Meskei, Grote. 

Forewings dentate, pulverulent, of a rather lighter grey than C, 
wiijuga. Median lines black, single, not very distinct. A whitish space 
before the large bisannulate concolorous reniform ; sub-reniform likewise 
whitish, closed, joined to the t. p. line, the latter jagged but without very 
prominent discal teeth, making a deeper and narrower sinus above vein 
than in C. unijuga. Subterminal upright, dentate, shade (preceding the 
blackish line) distinct. Terminal line appearing as black lunulated inter- 
spaceal marks. Hind wings bright red, somewhat pinkish. The black 
median band is straight, not regularly curved as in C, parta, and straighter 
than in C. îmijuga, rather narrow, nowhere greatly excavate, rounding and 
narrower on the interspace between veins i and 2 opposite the excavation 
of the marginal band, arrested at vein i, but a few blackish scales mark 
its continuance towards internal margin. Marginal band narrower than in 
C. unijuga. Cilise white, with a îq'n red scales at base, especially at 
apices. Beneath the median band of the hind wings is narrower than 
above, with the same peculiarities, constricted at veins 2 and 5, and con- 
tinued by scattered scales beyond vein i. Expanse 78 m. m. 

Lent me by Mr. O. Meske, after whom I name the species, from near 
Albany, N. Y., and who writes me that it has been taken in considerable 
numbers by a collector in that vicinity. 

Note i. — Mr. Walker's description of C. junctura applies to the 
secondaries of C. meskei, but the color is not "red lead, orange-red 
towards the base," nor is there any " large elongated apical spot," nor 



162 THE CANADIA^f ENTOMOLOGIST. 

" red marginal lunules." The fore wings are also very evidently different 
in tint and color of median spots, v/hile from my recollection of Mr. 
Walker's type, it v/as much nearer C. unijuga than the present species 
seems to be. 

Note 2. — In looking over my paper on this genus, in the Transactions 
of the American Entomological Society, I hnd that I have stated in refer- 
ence to C. nebulosa, that " Mr. Edwards compares the secondaries of this 
species quite wrongly v>dth C. cerogama." In reality, Mr. Edwards no- 
where directly alludes to C. cerogama. I should have written that Mr. 
Edwards describes tlie secondaries in such a manner as to lead one to 
suppose that he intended a species resembling C. cerogama, and my idea 
is correctly expressed in my origir±al description of C. ponderosa. I am 
sorry that in repeating my idea from memory, without referring to former 
papers, I should have used words not in literal accordance with the 
facts. 

Note 3. — The median band of the hind v/ings in C. partavs, curved, 
and occasionally a few dark scales are visible along the cross vein above. 
Darker specimens of C. parta, exhibiting every peculiarity of the species, 
the apical streak, characters of the hind wings, etc., have occurred about 
Buffalo with the paler, more usual specimens, and seem to be Mr. Strecker's 
" nov. ? var." perp)lexa ; it seems to me that an assumption of bastardy is 
unnecessary to account for so slight a variation. Mr. Strieker's statement 
that M. Guenee mistook C. relkta for C. fraxini must be based on an 
erroneous comprehension of ray quotation of that author. So excellent 
an Entomologist as M. Guenee could not have made such an error. 
Fraxhii was doubtless sent him with an erroneous locality. M. Guenee 
always shows an appreciation of the slightest differences in separating 
European and American specimens throughout his great work, and here 
the difference is excessive. Occasionally v/e see Acherontia atropos incor- 
rectly referred to as occurring in America, nor can in this case any of our 
Sphingidœ have been mistaken for it. Mr. Strecker criticises the coloring 
of subnata ; this plate was published plain and drawn without being 
intended for coloring \ the few copies colored for private distribution are 
not properly the subject of public criticism. Mr. Strecker's figures, 
however, are, and the coloring of the hind wings oi anfinympha,fyg. 7, and 
unijuga, fig. 9, is so bad that I should doubt his determinations were it 
not that he has taken his information from the collection of the American 
Entomological Society, v/liich represents my identifications. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 163 

Note 4. — Catocala Walshii, Edwards, is still unknown to me. I 
believe the types perished in the Chicago fire. It must be nearly allied to 
nnijiiga. Mr. Edwards' description of the fore wings, "Primaries yellow- 
ish brown, clouded between the transverse lines with grey ; markings 
indistinct, but similar to Uniguga, Walk ; reniform ferruginous, in a pale 
circlet," is not exhaustive, but it contains nothing contradicting Walker's 
description of C. jtmctura. 

Catocala Arizonœ, Grote. 

Size large. Fore wings dentate, rather uniformly dark grayish brown 
with a glaucous shade over the more grayish median space. Median lines 
black and rather broad. A whitish shade before the brown-tinged, broadly 
bisannulate reniform. Sub-reniforra rather small, pyriform, whitish brovv^n, 
connected with the t. p. line, tending to become narrowly open. T. p. 
line well produced opposite the cell, with two sub-equal rather prominent 
teeth. A not very deep but broadly marked sub-median sinus. The dark 
scales tend to connect with the t. a. line along the sub-median interspace. 
The grey sub-terminal shade, preceding the dentate dark line itself, is not 
erect, but runs obliquely backv/ard to costa above vein 6. Secondaries 
pinkish red. Median band rather narrow, not much curved, nearly even, 
rounding and becoming narrower below vein 2, and terminating at vein 
I. Marginal band rather narrov/, rather deeply excavate opposite the 
termination of the median band, and leaving a yellowish apical space 
tinged with red. Beneath largely pinkish red ; the median whitish space 
on primaries also tinged with red inferiorly. The median band as on 
upper surface, and seen to terminate a very little before vein i. Thorax 
and collar brownish, v^ithout perceptible lines. Expanse 80 m. mi. 

I have received this species from Professor Townend Glover, of the 
Agricultural Department at Washington. It is labelled " Borders of 
Arizona and New Mexico. — Dr. Palmer." It is apparently nearest to C. 
amatrix, than which it has more obscurely brown primaries and is perhaps 
intermediate in character between the group of C. amatrix and the Cali- 
fornian red-v/inged species, represented by C. californica. 

Note. — In my list of the species of Catocala, p. 164, 1872, I 
enumerated 59 species of the genus from our Territory. The total num- 
ber must be now increased to d^^. Of these \\,y\z., Strcichii Behr., 
adultéra ITinze, ireiie Behr., Walshii Edwards, iixor Guenee, zoe Behr., 



164 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

nuptialis Walker, microjiympha Guenee, co?inubialis Guenee, messalina- 
Guenee, and Mr. Strecker's Faiisthm, are unknown to me in nature. 
Already twice the number of species of Catocala have been discovered in 
America than have been described from Europe. The genus does not 
occur south of Mexico, and has not been discovered in the West India 
Islands. 



NOTES ON AN INTERESTING SPECIMEN OF PAMPHILA, 
ZABULON, BoiSD & Leg. 

BY H. K. MORRISON, OLD CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

The identity of Pamphila pocahontas and quadaqidna with the typical 
species zabulon has been universally acknowledged, although there exists 
no more positive proof than the fact that no males of these forms have 
ever been discovered. I have in my collection an intermediate specimen 
exhibiting plainly the characters of the original species and of the variety 
and sub-variety, and apparently a link between them. 

- The primaries above are like pocahontas, except that the spots are a 
little larger and of a deeper yellow. The secondaries above are exactly 
the same as in zabulon, dark at the base, disk yellow, with a broad black 
border. Beneath the spots on the primaries are united together, forming 
a band almost as wide, and of as deep a color as in zabulon. Secondaries 
beneath like quadaquina, except that the central light band is hardly as 
narrow. 

As will be seen from the description, the primaries beneath the 
secondaries above resemble zabulon, the primaries above pocahontas, and 
the secondaries beneath quadaqinna, making the specimen a curious com- 
j)ound of all three. 

It is a female, and was taken near Springfield, Mass. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 165 



MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 1873. 



FROM P. R. UHLER, BALTIMORE, MD. 



The late meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, held at Portland, Me., was largely attended by the Entomologists 
of the United States. Thirteen were present, and among them were 
some of the most eminent in this country. Indeed, Section B. was 
chiefly officered by Entomologists, Dr. LeConte being Chairman and Mr. 
•Scudder Secretary • while, dming the last three days of the session, Rev. 
Dr. Morris presided over the sub-section Biology, and Mr. Grote acted 
as Secretary. 

On three of the evenings (August 21, 22, 23) the Entomologists held 
meetings in one of the smaller rooms of the City Hall ; Dr. LeConte 
being chosen to preside, and Mr. Uhler to act as Secretary. As steps 
had been taken at a previous meeting of the Association to enable the 
Entomologists to form a sub-section, this subject v/as reconsidered, but 
the number of Entomological papers offered being so small, it was not 
then deemed advisable to go into sub-section. 

The following petition was unanimously adopted and signed by all 
present, to be presented to the American Entomological Society and to 
the Canadian Entomological Society : — 

" We, the undersigned, Entomologists assembled at the 22nd meeting 
"of the Amer. Assoc, for the Advance, of Science, held at Portland, 
"hereby respectfully petition the American Entomological Society of 
" Philadelphia, and the Entomological Society of Canada, to appoint 
" yearly meetings to be held at the same times and places with the annual 
" meetings of the American Association. The undersigned are moved to 
" this memorial from the considerations that such prospective action of 
" the Societies would ensure the annual assemblage of a large number of 
" Entomologists resident over a wide extent of territory, and also prac- 
" tically enlarge the sphere and increase the usefulness of these 
"Societies." 



166 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The following resolution in reference to the above was also recom- 
mended by the Standing Committee of the American Association, and 
adopted : — 

" Resolved, That the American Association for the Advancement of 
" Science hereby endorses the accompanying memorial, and invites the 
" Entomological Societies to call yearly meetings of their members, in 
" accordance with the request therein contained." 

Mr. Riley, from the Committee appointed a year ago on Nomen- 
clature, requested that in view of the absence of some of its members, the 
Comm.ittee be dismissed. On motion a new Committee was a,ppointed, . 
consisting of Messrs. Edv/ards, Scudder, Riley, Bethune, and LeConte, to 
report at the next annual meeting of the American Association, a code oF 
rules, to be discussed and adopted at said meeting, regarding a uniform: 
nomenclature for the guidance of American Entomologists. 

Several Entomological papers Avere read before Section B. of the 
American Association; one being by Mr. Grote, entitled " Remarks on 
the Origin of Insects, and on the Antennal Characters in the Butterflies 
and Moths ; " another by Dr. J. L. LeConte, " Hints for the Promotion 
of Economic Entomology in the United States ; " a third by P. R. Uhler^ 
" On a P.emarkable Group of Wasps' Nests Found in a Hollow Stump in 
'Maryland ; " a fourth by Cyrus Thomas, " On the Identity of the Locust 
of the Prophet Joel with the Oedipoda inlgraio/'ia of Europe," and a fifth 
by W. L. Coffinberry, "On Spiders.". 

The meeting was a very pleasant one to the Entomologists, and 
enabled them not only to freely exchange opinions respecting subjects of 
wide spread interest, but also to get a glance at the interesting Fauna o£ 
the regions which they visited. 



THE LAW OF PRIORITY IN NOMENCLATUPvE. 

BY H. K. MORRISON, OLD CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

In a recent article in the Entomologist it is proposed to obviate the 
confusion in Vv'hich our nomenclature is involved, by accepting the names 
most generally in use and allowing the law of priority (if it does not 
make too much trouble !) to determine all questions which may hereafter 
come up ; ignoring entirely the claims of older authors and of writers 
holding difierent opinions from the proposers of the scheme. This 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 167 

proposal, notwithstanding its arbitrary and unscientific character, and its 
injustice to other Entomologists, would perhaps be accepted by those who 
have more regard for present convenience than for the establishment of a 
solid foundation for Entomological Science. Unfortunately, however, the 
proposition, although at first view practicable, leaves the matter exactly 
where it stood before. 

Where is the authority that will be accepted by everyone v/hen that 
authority is governed, not by those fixed laws which should determine 
questions of scientific nomenclature, but by individual opinion, the con- 
venience of some particular class, or of the present generation of 
students ? Surely Mr. Mead does not intend, as would be inferred from 
his article in the June number of the Entomologist, that we should 
accept the most recent names, or those v/hich, having been published in 
this country or by some v/ell-known author, are more familiar to or more 
generally in use among American naturalists. 

There are a few species, which from the excellence of their original 
description and plates, or from their recent publication, have no 
synonymy ; these are the only species which can be properly considered 
as accepted by all (if we reject priority.) 

All that the friends of priority ask is that it should be allowed to 
decide between names already in use. Allowing that the term " in use " 
should be applied in science to any name attached to a recognizable 
description, published in a v/ork v/hich is or has been on sale ; names 
which are advanced in pamphlets printed for the private use of the 
author, and only distributed among his friends ; and in state agricultural 
reports not for sale (except at second hand) can not be considered as 
published at all. 

To determ.ine whether a description is recognizable or not is a matter 
of much more difficulty, for here the judgment of individual students 
would be likely to differ very much. We do not believe that every name 
advanced by the older authors, often with but a line or two of loose 
description, or a plate giving only a general idea of form and color, should 
be retained. We do think, however, that whenever there exists a valid 
description, the lav/ of priority should take its course. In some cases in 
which the description is not definite enough to determine the species, but 
there exist authenticated types ; and in those cases in which the species is 



168 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

not fully described by the author, but is afterward limited and restricted 
by other writers previous to the publication of synonyms, we think the 
law of priority should apply. 

The supporters of the law of priority do not so much insist upon its 
application in those few cases in which opinion as to the validity of the 
description is denied, as upon its being taken as the acknowledged guide 
in the great majority of cases in which recognizable descriptions are 
attached to both names. 

The difference between the catalogue of Mr. Kirby and that of Dr. 
Staudinger is easily explained. 

Dr. Staudinger may have adopted priority in some cases, but he 
certainly has not in all. For instance, he has not in several cases recog- 
nized the names of Fourcroy, Scopoii, Bergstrasser and others. The 
differing degree of strictness v/ith Vv^hich the law was carried out, is 
sufficient to explain the discrepancy in the catalogues. 

To be effective, priority must be rigidly enforced. The advantages to 
be gained by the universal adoption of this lav/ are so great to us, and 
more especially to the future Entomologist, that the drawbacks, formid- 
able at first, but steadily decreasing with time, can, it seems to us, offer 
but slight resistance to its entire acceptation. 



LIST OF COLEOPTERA OF ST. LOUIS COUNTY, MISSOURL 

BY S. v. SUMMERS, M. D., NEW ORLEANS, LA. 
(Continued from Page 147.) 

DYTISCID^. 

Cnemidotus, Illig. Hydroporus, Clairv. (coiiiinued.) 
i2-punctatus, Aiihe. pratruelis, Lee. 

Hydroporus, Clairv. moestus. Aube. 

hybridus, Lee. lacustris. Say. 

imbelus, Lee. notus, Lee. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



169 



Hydroporus, Clairv. (continued.) Colymbetis, Clairv. (continued.) 



undulatus, Say. 

sericeus, Lee. 

lineolatus, Lee. 

dispar, Lee. 

impressus, Lee. 

nubilus, Lee. 
Hydrocanthus, Say. 

atripennis, Say. 
I.ACCOPHiLus, Leach. 

maculosus, Say. 

fasciatus, Aube. 
CoPTOTOiMUS, Aube. 

interrogatus, Fabr. 
Matus, Aube. 

bicarinatus, Say. 
Colymbetis, Clairv. 

biguttulus, Germ. 



Gyrinus, Linn. 

affinis, Aube. 
analis, Say. 
pernitidus, Lee. 



binotatus, LLarr. 
Agabtts, Leach. 

punctatus, Aube. 

taeniolatus, Lee. 

semivittatus, Lee. 

ambiguus, Lee. 
Hydaticus, Leach. 

basillaris, Lee. 

ornaticollis, Lee. 

fascicollis, Harr. 
AciLius, Leach. 

fraternus, Lee. 
Dytiscus, Linn. 

fasciventris, Say. 
Cybister, Linn. 

fimbriolatus, Mels. 



GYRINID^. 



DiNEUTUS, McLeay. 

americanus, Say. 
discolor, Aube. 



HYDROPHILID^. 



Helophorus, Fabr. 

lineatus, Say. 

s caber, Lee. 
Hydrochus, Germ. 

scabratus, Muls. 

simplex, Lee. 

impressus, Zimm. 
Hydrophilus, Geoffr. 

ovalis, Ziegl. 

triangularis, Say. 

nimbatus, Say. 

striolatus, Lee. 

sublaevis, Lee. 



Hydrophilus, Geoffr. (continued.) 

glaber, Hbst. 
Hydrocharis, Latr. 

obtusatus, Lee. 
Berosus, Leach. 

miles, Lee. 

pantherinus, Lee. 

infuscatus, Lee. 

exiguus, Lee. 

bimaculatus, Lee. 

penguia, Lee. 

tomentarius, Lee. 



170 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Philhydrus, Sol. 

cinctus, Lee. 

perplexus, Lee. 

macLilicoUis, Muls. 

ochraceus, Afels. 

pygmasus, Fab. 
Hydrobius, Leaeh. 

regularis, Lee. 



Necrophorus, Fab. 

marginatus, Fab. 

americanus, Oliv. 

pustulatus, Hersch. 

velutinus, Fab. 
SiLPHA, Li7in. 

surinamensis, Fab. 

marginalis, Fab. 

insequalis, Fab. 



MiCROSTEMMA, MotseJi. 
lecontei, Motseh. 



Cyclonotum, Er. 

estriatum, Er. 
Cercyon, Leaeh. 

flavipes, Er. 

limbatuin, Mann. 

centrimaculatum (var.) Er. 



SILPHIDrE. 



SiLPHA, Linn, (eontinned.) 

peltata, Lee. 

var. terminatum, Kirby. 

var. affine, Khby. 
Catops, Fab. 

opacus, Say. 
Sericoderus. 

flavidus. 



SCYDM^NID^. 



SCYDMiENUS. 

capillosulus, Lee. 



PSELAPHID^. 



Ceophyllus, Lee. 

monilis, Lee. 
Ctenistes, Reiehe. 

piceus, Lee. 

zimmermanii, Lee. 
Tychus, Leaeh. 

longipalpus, Lee. 
Bryaxis, Leaeh. 

conjuncta, Lee. 

dentata, Say. 

abdominalis, Aube. 



Bryaxis, Leaeh. (eontmued.) 

puncticollis, Lee. 

rubicunda, Anbe. 
Decarthron, Brend. 

formiceti, Lee. 
Batrisus, Aube. 

globosus, Lee. 

nigricans, Lee. 
Rhexius, Ljee. 

insculptus, Lee. 



(To be Continued.) 



THE CANADIAN" ENTOMOLOGIST. 



171 



ON SOME OF OUR COMMON INSECTS. 



8. THE BACON BEETLE—Dermcstes lardarins, Linn. 



BY W. SAUNDERS, LONDON, ONTARIO. 




This interesting little beetle, of which we give an enlarged drawing, as 
well as a representation of its larva, in fig. i8, is a very destructive 
^'a- IS. creature, dreaded by every Entomologist who 

has had any experience of its ravages. Its 
larva is very destructive also in some carelessly 
kept provision and household stores, afiecting 
hams, bacon, old cheese and other substances. 
It is a European insect, which has long been 
naturalized in this country, where it seems to be 
quite as much at home as in its native land. If 
this beetle can find its way into the dravi^ers or 
boxes where the Entomologist has his specimens 
stored, it deposits its eggs on the bodies of the 
dried insects, where, as soon as the young 
larvae are hatched, they begin at once to work their way tov/ards the 
interior, and here they live and gradually fatten on the dried up viscera 
of the dead moth or butterfly, skilfully hiding themselves within the body 
they are consuming, and leaving, when their work is completed, only the 
bare shell which frequently falls to pieces v/hen disturbed. Where the 
beetle cannot get at the bodies of the insects to deposit its eggs upon, it 
will often lay them by the side of small openings or crevices in such 
boxes, through which the young larvœ enter and at once begin their v/ork 
of destruction. Besides the substances already mentioned, these larv» 
feed on feathers, skins, cat-gut, hair and have even been reared on bees- 
wax, so that their appetite is by no means a dainty one, and their digestive 
powers may be considered good. 

The larva is an ugly, brown, hairy creature, its body tapering from 
head to tail, and furnished with a pair of short, curved, horny spines on 
the top of the last joint ; it is quite active in its movements, crawling 
about with a VvTiggling motion. The beetle is about three-tenths of aa 



172 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



inch long, of an oblong oval form, black, with a wide band across the 
wings at their base, of a dull, pale buff colour, dotted with black. Its 
legs are short, and it is rather timid and slow in its movements, feigning 
death for a time when disturbed. 

Collections of insects and birds need to have a constant watch kept 
on them to keep out these intruders. Camphor, which seems to be 
offensive to these beetles, is frequently used to deter them from entering ; 
but where they have entered and begun their devastating work, they can- 
not be disposesssed by such mild measures ; in such instances purified 
benzine applied freely to the saturation of the bodies of the insects 
occupied will destroy the dermestes larvag without injuring the collector's 
specimens. 



NOTES ON APHIDES. 

BY FRANCIS WALKER, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

The following notes were suggested by " Observations," &c., on 
Aphides in The Canadian Entomologist for July, 1873. The species 
noticed on Rumex crispus seems to have very much resemblance to A, 
rnmicis in Europe ; some other species of N. America do not differ from 
those of Europe, but have been probably introduced by means of ship- 
ping. With regard to European Aphides it is well known that the winged 
female of many species appears in the spring, that the wingless female is 
more fertile than the v/inged one, that the winged state is, partly at least, 
by means of the diminution of quantity or alteration of quality in the 
food, and that the winged state enables the species to have a change of 
habitation and thus to continue its race till the autumn. It is also well 
known that the male and the oviparous female do not appe